325 relations: Academy of Gondishapur, Achaemenid Empire, Acharya, Adoption of Chinese literary culture, Aenesidemus, Agriculturalism, Agrippa the Skeptic, Alcinous (philosopher), Alcmaeon of Croton, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ammonius Saccas, Amos (prophet), Anacharsis, Anaxagoras, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Ancient philosophy, Angiras (sage), Antiochus of Ascalon, Antiphon (orator), Antisthenes, Arcesilaus, Archimedes, Archytas, Aristippus, Aristotle, Arthashastra, Aruni, Asanga, Ashtavakra, Ashtavakra Gita, Atharvaveda, Atomism, Augustine of Hippo, Avesta, Avestan, Axial Age, Śramaṇa, Badarayana, Bardaisan, Ben Sira, Bhartṛhari, Bodhidharma, Boethius, Book of Han, Book of Isaiah, Borzuya, Brahma Sutras, Buddhism, Bukhtishu, ..., Burning of books and burying of scholars, Caliphate, Callicles, Carneades, Chan Buddhism, Chanakya, Chandogya Upanishad, Charvaka, Chinese philosophy, Christian philosophy, Christianity, Chrysippus, Cicero, Cleanthes, Clement of Alexandria, Clitomachus (philosopher), Communalism, Compassion, Confucianism, Confucius, Critias, Cynicism (philosophy), Cyrus Cylinder, Cyrus the Great, Damascius, Daosheng, Definition, Democritus, Deng Xi, Denkard, Dialectician, Dignāga, Diogenes, Diogenes of Apollonia, Diplomacy, Dong Zhongshu, Dualistic cosmology, Early Islamic philosophy, East Asian cultural sphere, Eastern philosophy, Ecclesiastes, Eclecticism, Egalitarianism, Eleatics, Empedocles, Empiricism, Epictetus, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Euclid of Megara, Ezekiel, Gaius Musonius Rufus, Gathas, Gautama Buddha, Ge Hong, Gongsun Long, Gorgias, Government, Guiguzi, Guo Xiang, Guru, Habakkuk, Haggai, Han dynasty, Han Fei, Health, Hellenistic philosophy, Heraclitus, Hillel the Elder, Hinayana, Hindu philosophy, Hippias, Historical Vedic religion, History of Iran, Hosea, Hui Shi, Human rights, Humility, Iamblichus, Index of ancient philosophy articles, Indian logic, Indian philosophy, Intellectual, Jaimini, Jain philosophy, Jainism, Jamasp, Jeremiah, Jewish philosophy, Joel (prophet), John Philoponus, Kanada (philosopher), Kapila, Karl Jaspers, Khosrow I, Korea, Kundakunda, Laozi, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Letter of Tansar, Leucippus, Li Kui (legalist), Li Si, Li Yiji, Lifestyle (sociology), Logic, Longevity, Lucretius, Lycophron, Madhyamaka, Mahabharata, Mahajanapada, Mahavira, Mahayana, Malachi, Mani (prophet), Mar Ammo, Marcus Aurelius, Mazdak, Mīmāṃsā, Medieval philosophy, Melissus of Samos, Mencius, Menippus, Metrodorus of Chios, Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger), Metrodorus of Stratonicea, Micah, Middle Persian, Middle Persian literature, Middle Platonism, Milesian school, Mind–body dualism, Moderation, Mohism, Mozi, Mundaka Upanishad, Nagarjuna, Nahum, Nasadiya Sukta, Nature, Neoplatonism, Neopythagoreanism, Niccolò Machiavelli, Northern and Southern dynasties, Nyaya, Nyāya Sūtras, Obadiah, Ostanes, Pancastikayasara, Parashara, Parmenides, Patanjali, Paul the Persian, Pāṇini, Peripatetic school, Pherecydes of Syros, Philo, Philo of Larissa, Philolaus, Philosophy of war, Pingala, Plato, Plotinus, Pluralist school, Plutarch, Porphyry (philosopher), Posidonius, Proclus, Prodicus, Protagoras, Purva Mimamsa Sutras, Pyrrho, Pyrrhonism, Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, Qin dynasty, Rabbi Akiva, Rajas, Rāja yoga, Ren (Confucianism), Rigveda, Rishabhanatha, Rishi, Roman Empire, Samayasāra, Samkhya, Saptarishi, Sattva, School of Diplomacy, School of Names, School of Naturalists, School of the Sextii, Secular ethics, Seneca the Younger, Sengzhao, Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, Sextus Empiricus, Shaivism, Shang Yang, Shen Buhai, Shen Dao, Shennong, Shikand-gumanig Vizar, Shvetashvatara Upanishad, Siddhasena, Simplicius of Cilicia, Social consciousness, Socrates, Sophist, Speusippus, Spread of Islam, Spring and Autumn period, Stilpo, Stoicism, Su Qin, Sui dynasty, Sun Bin, Sun Tzu, Tamas (philosophy), Tang dynasty, Taoism, Tattvartha Sutra, Taxila, Thales of Miletus, Themistius, Theophrastus, Thiruvalluvar, Thrasymachus, Three Treasures (Taoism), Timon of Phlius, Tirthankara, Tirukkuṛaḷ, Umaswati, Universe, Upanishads, Utopia, Vaisheshika, Vasubandhu, Vedanta, Vedas, Vietnam, Vishnu Purana, Wang Bi, War, Warring States period, Western philosophy, Wu wei, Wu Xing, Xenocrates, Xenophanes, Xiang Xiu, Xuanxue, Xun Kuang, Yajnavalkya, Yi (Confucianism), Yin and yang, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Yogachara, Yue Yi, Zechariah (Hebrew prophet), Zen, Zeno of Citium, Zeno of Elea, Zephaniah, Zhang Daoling, Zhang Jue, Zhang Yi (Warring States period), Zhuangzi (book), Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, Zou Yan, Zurvanism. Expand index (275 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy of Gondishapur (فرهنگستان گندیشاپور, Farhangestân-e Gondišâpur), also known as The Jondishapur University (دانشگاه جندیشاپور Dânešgâh-e Jondišapur), was one of the three Sasanian centers of education (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) and academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur, Iran during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sasanian Empire.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
In Indian religions and society, an acharya (IAST) is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters; founder, or leader of a sect; or a highly learned person or a title affixed to the names of learned people.
Chinese writing, culture and institutions were imported as a whole by Vietnam, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyus over an extended period.
Aenesidemus (Αἰνησίδημος or Αἰνεσίδημος) was a Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher, born in Knossos on the island of Crete.
Agriculturalism, also known as the School of Agrarianism, the School of Agronomists, the School of Tillers, and in Chinese as the Nongjia (農家/农家), was an early agrarian Chinese philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism, and was arguably the world's first Communist and Socialist movement that believed in a Classless society.
Agrippa (Ἀγρίππας) was a Pyrrhonist philosopher who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century CE.
Alcinous (Greek: Ἀλκίνοος Alkinoos) was a Middle Platonist philosopher.
Alcmaeon of Croton (in Magna Graecia) (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.
Ammonius Saccas (Ἀμμώνιος Σακκᾶς; fl. 3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism.
Amos was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
Anacharsis (Ἀνάχαρσις) was a Scythian philosopher who travelled from his homeland on the northern shores of the Black Sea to Athens in the early 6th century BC and made a great impression as a forthright, outspoken "barbarian".
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced) is a Vedic rishi (sage) of Hinduism.
Antiochus of Ascalon (Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος; c. 125 – c. 68 BC) was an Academic philosopher.
Antiphon of Rhamnus (Ἀντιφῶν ὁ Ῥαμνούσιος) (480–411 BC) was the earliest of the ten Attic orators, and an important figure in fifth-century Athenian political and intellectual life.
Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.
Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος; 316/5–241/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy—the phase of Academic skepticism.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Archytas (Ἀρχύτας; 428–347 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist.
Aristippus of Cyrene (Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Aruni (c. 8th century BCE), also referred to as Uddalaka or Uddalaka Aruni, is a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
Asaṅga (Romaji: Mujaku) (fl. 4th century C.E.) was a major exponent of the Yogacara tradition in India, also called Vijñānavāda.
Ashtavakra (अष्टावक्रः, IAST Aṣṭāvakra) is a revered Vedic sage in Hinduism.
The Ashtavakra Gita (Sanskrit in Devanagari: अष्टावक्रगीता; IAST: aṣṭāvakragītā) or the Song of Ashtavakra is a classical Advaita Vedanta scripture.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
Badarayana (IAST Bādarāyaṇa; Devanāgari बादरायण) was an Indian philosopher about whom almost no personal details are reliably known.
Bardaisan (ܒܪ ܕܝܨܢ, Bardaiṣān), also known in Arabic as ابن ديصان (Ibn Daisan), also Latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syriac or ParthianProds Oktor Skjaervo.
Ben Sira, or Ben Sirach, also known as Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira or Jesus Ben Sirach, (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem.
Bhartṛhari (Devanagari: भर्तृहरि; also romanised as Bhartrihari; fl. c. 5th century CE) is a Sanskrit writer to whom are normally ascribed two influential Sanskrit texts.
Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
Borzuya (or Burzōē or Burzōy) was a Persian physician in the late Sassanid era, at the time of Khosrau I. He translated the Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into Pahlavi (Middle Persian).
The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu and Bukht-Yishu in literature) were Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries, spanning 6 generations and 250 years.
The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Callicles (Καλλικλῆς; c. 484 – late 5th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian political philosopher best remembered for his role in Plato’s dialogue Gorgias, where he "presents himself as a no-holds-barred, bare-knuckled, clear-headed advocate of Realpolitik.
Carneades (Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
The Chandogya Upanishad (Sanskrit: छांदोग्योपनिषद्, IAST: Chāndogyopaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text embedded in the Chandogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda of Hinduism.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chrysippus of Soli (Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
Clitomachus (also Cleitomachus; Κλειτόμαχος, Kleitomachos; 187/6–110/9 BC), originally named Hasdrubal (Greek: Ἀσδρούβας), was a Carthaginian who came to Athens in 163/2 BC and studied philosophy under Carneades.
Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Critias (Κριτίας, Kritias; c. 460 – 403 BCE) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
The Cyrus Cylinder (Ostovane-ye Kūrosh) or Cyrus Charter (منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several pieces, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Damascius (Δαμάσκιος, 458 – after 538), known as "the last of the Neoplatonists," was the last scholarch of the School of Athens.
Daosheng (ca. 360–434), or Zhu Daosheng, was an eminent Six Dynasties era Chinese Buddhist scholar.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Deng Xi (also written as 祁奚; c. 546 – 501 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher and rhetorician who has been called the founding father of the Chinese logical tradition, or School of Names (Xingmingjia).
The Dēnkard (Middle Persian pronunciation) or Dēnkart (Middle Persian: "Acts of Religion") is a 10th-century compendium of the Mazdaen Zoroastrian beliefs and customs.
A dialectician is a philosopher who views the world in terms of complementary opposites and the interactions thereof.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
Diogenes (Διογένης, Diogenēs), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy.
Diogenes of Apollonia (Διογένης ὁ Ἀπολλωνιάτης; fl. 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, and was a native of the Milesian colony Apollonia in Thrace.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The Eleatics were a pre-Socratic school of philosophy founded by Parmenides in the early fifth century BC in the ancient town of Elea.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Euclid of Megara (also Euclides, Eucleides; Εὐκλείδης ὁ Μεγαρεύς; c. 435 – c. 365 BC) was a Greek Socratic philosopher who founded the Megarian school of philosophy.
Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
Gaius Musonius Rufus (Μουσώνιος Ῥοῦφος) was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD.
The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Ge Hong (葛洪; b. 283 - d. 343 or 363) was an Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar, and the author of Essays on Chinese Characters.
Gongsun Long (BC) was a member of the School of Names (Logicians) of ancient Chinese philosophy.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Guiguzi (鬼谷子) is the Chinese title given to a group of writings thought to have been compiled between the late Warring States period and the end of the Han Dynasty.
Guo Xiang (died 312 AD) is credited with the first and most important revision of the text known as the Zhuangzi which, along with the Tao Te Ching, forms the textual and philosophical basis of the Taoist school of thought.
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Habakkuk was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible, described in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets.
Haggai (חַגַּי, Ḥaggay or Hag-i, Koine Greek: Ἀγγαῖος; Aggaeus) was a Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, and one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the author of the Book of Haggai.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Fei (233 BC), also known as Han Fei Zi, was a Chinese philosopher of the Warring States period "Chinese Legalist" school.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hippias of Elis (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος; late 5th century BC) was a Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea (or;; Greek Ὠσηέ, Ōsēe), son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name.
Hui Shi (370–310 BCE), or Huizi ("Master Hui"), was a Chinese philosopher during the Warring States period.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Humility is the quality of being humble.
Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.
This page is a list of topics in ancient philosophy.
The development of Indian logic dates back to the anviksiki of Medhatithi Gautama (c. 6th century BCE) the Sanskrit grammar rules of Pāṇini (c. 5th century BCE); the Vaisheshika school's analysis of atomism (c. 6th century BCE to 2nd century BCE); the analysis of inference by Gotama (c. 6th century BC to 2nd century CE), founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy; and the tetralemma of Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century CE).
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Jaimini was an ancient Indian scholar who founded the Mimansa school of Hindu philosophy.
Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness) completely.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jamasp (also transcribed as Zamasp or Djamasp; جاماسپ Jāmāsp) was a Sasanian king who ruled from 496 to 498.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
Joel (יוֹאֵל Yōw’êl; ܝܘܐܝܠ Yu'il) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Joel.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद, IAST: 'Kaṇāda), also known as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda and Kanabhuk, was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy.
Kapila (कपिल) is a given name of different individuals in ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most well-known is the founder of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Acharya Kundakunda is a revered Digambara Jain monk and philosopher.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
The Letter of Tansar (نامه تنسر) was a 6th-century Sassanid propaganda instrument that portrayed the preceding Arsacid period as morally corrupt and heretical (to Zoroastrianism), and presented the first Sassanid dynast Ardashir I as having "restored" the faith to a "firm foundation." The letter was simultaneously a declaration of the unity of Zoroastrian church and Iranian state, "for church and state were born of the one womb, joined together and never to be sundered." The document seems to have been based on a genuine 3rd-century letter written by Tansar, the Zoroastrian high priest under Ardashir I, to a certain Gushnasp of Parishwar/Tabaristan, one of vassal kings of the Arsacid Ardavan IV.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
Li Kui (455–395 BC) was an ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen (r. 403–387 BC) in the state of Wei.
Li Si (280 BCSeptember or October 208 BC) was a Chinese politician of the Qin dynasty, well known Legalist writer and politician, and notable calligrapher.
Li Yiji (268–204 BC) was an adviser to Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Lycophron (Λυκόφρων ὁ Χαλκιδεύς) was a Hellenistic Greek tragic poet, grammarian, and commentator on comedy, to whom the poem Alexandra is attributed (perhaps falsely).
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Hebrew Bible.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Mar Ammo was a 3rd-century Manichean disciple of the prophet Mani.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Mazdak (مزدک, Middle Persian:, also Mazdak the Younger; died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian mobad (priest), Iranian reformer, prophet and religious activist who gained influence during the reign of the Sasanian emperor Kavadh I. He claimed to be a prophet of Ahura Mazda and instituted communal possessions and social welfare programs.
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Melissus of Samos (Μέλισσος ὁ Σάμιος; fl. 5th century BC) was the third and last member of the ancient school of Eleatic philosophy, whose other members included Zeno and Parmenides.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Menippus of Gadara (Μένιππος ὁ Γαδαρεύς; fl. 3rd century BC) was a Cynic satirist.
Metrodorus of Chios (Μητρόδωρος ὁ Χῖος; fl. 4th century BC) was a Greek philosopher, belonging to the school of Democritus, and an important forerunner of Epicurus.
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (Μητρόδωρος Λαμψακηνός, Mētrodōros Lampsakēnos; 331/0–278/7 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Epicurean school.
Metrodorus of Stratonikeia (Caria) (Μητρόδωρος τῆς Στρατονικείας) was at first a disciple of the Epicurean school, but afterwards attached himself to Carneades.
Micah is a given name.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Middle Persian literature is the corpus of written works composed in Middle Persian, that is, the Middle Iranian dialect of Persia proper, the region in the south-western corner of the Iranian plateau.
Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.
The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
The Mundaka Upanishad (मुण्डक उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit Vedic text, embedded inside Atharva Veda.
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
Nahum (or; נַחוּם Naḥūm) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit, or "not the non-existent"), also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Neopythagoreanism (or Neo-Pythagoreanism) was a school of Hellenistic philosophy which revived Pythagorean doctrines.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by, and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.
Obadiah (pronounced, עובדיה ʿOvadyah or ʿOvadyahu, or in Modern Hebrew Ovadyah; "slave of God") is a Biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant of God" or "worshiper of Yahweh".
Ostanes (from Greek Ὀστάνης), also spelled Hostanes and Osthanes, was the pen-name used by several pseudo-anonymous authors of Greek and Latin works from Hellenistic period onwards.
Pañcastikayasara (en: the essence of reality), is an ancient Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda.
Parashara (IAST) was a maharishi and the author of many ancient Indian texts.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
Paul the Persian or Paulus Persa was a 6th-century East Syrian theologian and philosopher who worked at the court of the Sassanid king Khosrau I. He wrote several treatises and commentaries on Aristotle, which had some influence on medieval Islamic philosophy.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Pherecydes of Syros (Φερεκύδης ὁ Σύριος; fl. 6th century BC) was a Greek thinker from the island of Syros.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Philo of Larissa (Φίλων ὁ Λαρισσαῖος Philon ho Larissaios; 154/3–84/3 BC) was a Greek philosopher.
Philolaus (Φιλόλαος, Philólaos) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher.
The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war.
Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) (c. 3rd/2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian mathematician who authored the (also called Pingala-sutras), the earliest known treatise on Sanskrit prosody.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
The Pluralist school was a school of pre-Socratic philosophers who attempted to reconcile Parmenides' rejection of change with the apparently changing world of sense experience.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
The Mimamsa Sutra (मीमांसा सूत्र) or the Purva Mimamsa Sutras (ca. 300–200 BCE), written by Rishi Jaimini is one of the most important ancient Hindu philosophical texts.
Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrron ho Eleios) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher.
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Akiba ben Yosef (עקיבא בן יוסף, c. 50–135 CE) also known as Rabbi Akiva, was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation).
Rajas (Sanskrit: रजस्) is one of the three Guṇas (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
In Sanskrit texts, Rāja yoga refers to the goal of yoga (which is usually samadhi) and not a method of attaining it.
Ren is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha (also, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara (ford maker) in Jainism.
Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Samayasāra (The Nature of the Self) is a famous Jain text composed by Acharya Kundakunda in 439 verses.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Saptarishi (from Sanskrit: सप्तर्षि, a Sanskrit dvigu meaning "seven sages") are the seven rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Hindu literature.
Sattva (Sanskrit: सत्त्व) is one of the three Guṇas or "modes of existence" (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
The School of Diplomacy, or the School of Vertical and Horizontal Alliances was a political and diplomatic clique during the Warring States period of Chinese history (476-220 BCE).
The Logicians or School of Names was a school of Chinese philosophy that grew out of Mohism during the Warring States period in 479–221 BCE.
The School of Naturalists or the School of Yin-yang (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a Warring States era philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements.
The School of the Sextii was the first Roman school of philosophy.
Secular ethics is a branch of moral philosophy in which ethics is based solely on human faculties such as logic, empathy, reason or moral intuition, and not derived from supernatural revelation or guidance—the source of ethics in many religions.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Sengzhao (or Seng-Chao) (僧肇, Sōjō; 384–414) was a Chinese Buddhist philosopher from Later Qin around 384-417 at Chang'an.
The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (also known as the Seven Worthies of the Bamboo Grove) were a group of Chinese scholars, writers, and musicians of the 3rd century CE.
Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shang Yang, or Wei YangAntonio S. Cua (ed.), 2003, p. 362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (born with the surname Gongsun in Wey, Zhou Kingdom; c. 390 – 338 BCE), was a statesman and reformer of the State of Qin during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Chinese statesman Shen Buhai (c. 400c. 337) was Chancellor of the Han state under Marquis Zhao of Han for fifteen years, from 354 BC to 337 BC.
Shen Dao (c. 350c. 275BC) was a "Chinese Legalist" theoretician most remembered for his influence on Han Fei with regards to the concept of shi 勢 (circumstantial advantage, power, or authority), though most of his book concerns the concept of fa 法 (administrative methods & standards) more commonly shared among "Legalists".
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Shikand-gumanig Vizar (also called Shikand-gumanik Vichar) is a Zoroastrian theology book of 9th century Iran, written by Mardan-Farrukh.
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (Sanskrit:श्वेताश्वतरोपनिशद or श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्, IAST: or) is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda.
Siddhasēna Divākara (सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology.
Simplicius of Cilicia (Σιμπλίκιος ὁ Κίλιξ; c. 490 – c. 560) was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.
Social consciousness is consciousness shared by individuals within a society.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.
Early Muslim conquests in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities, particularly those of Imams, who intermingled with local populations to propagate the religious teachings.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Stilpo (or Stilpon; Στίλπων, gen.: Στίλπωνος; c. 360 – c. 280 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Megarian school.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Su Qin (380–284 BCE), was an influential political strategist during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun Bin (died 316 BC) was a military strategist who lived during the Warring States period of Chinese history.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Tamas (Sanskrit: तमस् tamas "darkness") is one of the three Gunas (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thiruvalluvar, also known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher.
Thrasymachus (Θρασύμαχος Thrasýmachos; c. 459 – c. 400 BC) was a sophist of ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato's Republic.
The Three Treasures or Three Jewels are basic virtues in Taoism.
Timon of Phlius (Τίμων ὁ Φλιάσιος, gen.: Τίμωνος; c. 320 BC – c. 235 BC) was a Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher, a pupil of Pyrrho, and a celebrated writer of satirical poems called Silloi (Σίλλοι).
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
The Tirukkural or Thirukkural (திருக்குறள், literally Sacred Verses), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual.
Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
Vasubandhu (Sanskrit) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was a very influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The 'Vishnu Purana' (IAST: Viṣṇu Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism.
Wang Bi (226–249), courtesy name Fusi, was a Chinese neo-Daoist philosopher.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xenocrates (Ξενοκράτης; c. 396/5314/3 BC) of Chalcedon was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and leader (scholarch) of the Platonic Academy from 339/8 to 314/3 BC.
Xenophanes of Colophon (Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος; c. 570 – c. 475 BC) was a Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and social and religious critic.
Xiang Xiu is one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.
Xuanxue, Neo-Taoism, or Neo-Daoism was the focal school of thought in Chinese philosophy from the third to sixth century CE.
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) was a Hindu Vedic sage.
Yi,, literally "justice, righteousness; meaning," is an important concept in Confucianism.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
Yogachara (IAST:; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices.
Yue Yi, enfeoffed as Lord of Changguo, was a prominent military leader of the State of Yan during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Zechariah was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh.
Zhang Ling (34–156), courtesy name Fuhan, was an Eastern Han Dynasty Taoist figure credited with founding the Way of the Celestial Masters sect of Taoism, which is also known as the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice.
Zhang Jue (died 184) was the leader of the Yellow Turban Rebellion during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Zhang Yi (before 329 BC – 309 BC) was born in the Wei state during the Warring States period of Chinese history.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zou Yan (305240 BC) was an ancient Chinese philosopher best known as the representative thinker of the Yin and Yang School (or School of Naturalists) during the Hundred Schools of Thought era in Chinese philosophy.
Zurvanism is an extinct branch of Zoroastrianism in which the divinity Zurvan is a First Principle (primordial creator deity) who engendered equal-but-opposite twins, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu.