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Index Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south. [1]

328 relations: Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport, Air Andorra, Airline hub, Al-Andalus, Albigensian Crusade, Alpine climate, Alpine skiing at the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, Alpine skiing at the 2015 Winter Universiade, Alt Urgell, Amateur radio, Ancient Carthage, Andorra, Andorra Airlines, Andorra la Vella, Andorra national football team, Andorra national rugby union team, Andorra Telecom, Andorra–European Union relations, Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport, Andorran constitutional referendum, 1993, Andorran diner, Andorran Football Federation, Andorran parliamentary election, 1993, Andorran Supercup, Anglican Communion, Antoni Martí, Aquitanian language, Arabic, Archaeology, Ariadna Tudel Cuberes, Ariège (river), Arinsal, Association football, Australian rules football, Òscar Ribas Reig, Bahá'í Faith in Andorra, Barcelona, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, Basketball, Basque language, BBC News, BC Andorra, Belligerent, Bible, Bibliography of Andorra, Bondia (newspaper), Boreal Kingdom, Boris Skossyreff, Borrell II, Count of Barcelona, Brigandage, ..., Bronze Age, Canillo, Cannan, Casa de la Vall, Casa Rossell, Castell, Catalan constitutions, Catalan Countries, Catalan language, Catalan mythology about witches, Catalans, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Cerdanya, CERH European Roller Hockey Championship, Charlemagne, Church of Santa Coloma d'Andorra, Circumboreal Region, Co-Princes of Andorra, Coma Pedrosa, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Constitution of Andorra, Continental climate, Copa Constitució, Coregency, Corporal, Council of Europe, Count of Foix, Counter-Reformation, Counter-terrorism, Counts of Urgell, County of Cerdanya, Cricket, Crisis negotiation, Crown of Aragon, Cultural Heritage of Andorra, Cycling, De jure, Democrats for Andorra, Departments of France, Diarchy, Diari d'Andorra, Dieter Nohlen, Duty-free shop, Eastern Question, Ecoregion, El Gran Carlemany, El Pas de la Casa, El Periòdic d'Andorra, Elective monarchy, Emmanuel Macron, Encamp, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endor (village), Enlisted rank, Escaldes-Engordany, Església de Sant Esteve, Església de Sant Martí de la Cortinada, Església de Sant Miquel d'Engolasters, Euro, European debt crisis, European Economic Community, European microstates, European Union, Executive (government), Fair, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, FC Andorra, Federación Anarquista Ibérica, FIFA, First French Empire, Flag of Andorra, Folk etymology, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, François Hollande, France, Francia, Francoist Spain, French franc, French language, French people, Fromental Halévy, Futsal, Games of the Small States of Europe, General Council (Andorra), German Empire, Global Burden of Disease Study, Gothic Christianity, Governor-general, Gran Valira, Guild, Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit, Handball, Head of government, Hectare, Henry IV of France, Hinduism, History of the Jews in Andorra, Huguenot rebellions, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian-gauge railways, Iberians, Income tax, Index of Andorra-related articles, Inheritance, Islam in Andorra, Jacint Verdaguer, Jehovah's Witnesses, Joan Enric Vives Sicília, Joan Verdu Sanchez, John I, Count of Foix, Josep Maria Mauri, Judo, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Navarre, L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre, La Margineda, La Massana, La Seu d'Urgell, Landlocked country, Languages of Iberia, Latour-de-Carol, Le val d'Andorre, Les Escaldes, Library of Congress, Liga ACB, Ligne de Cerdagne, List of Andorrans, List of Co-Princes of Andorra, List of countries by life expectancy, List of heads of government of Andorra, List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, Lleida–Alguaire Airport, Lord of Caboet, Louis the Pious, Madonna (art), Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley, Malvina Reynolds, Manor house, Marc Forné Molné, Marc Oliveras, Marca Hispanica, Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, Metallurgy, Metres above sea level, Microstate, Midian, Moors, Motorsport, Municipal charter, Mural, Music of Catalonia, National Gendarmerie, Navarro-Aragonese, Navy, Neolithic, New Apostolic Church, Non-commissioned officer, Nueva Planta decrees, Occitania, Officer (armed forces), Official language, Olympic Games, Ordino, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Our Lady of Meritxell, Outline of Andorra, Palma de Mallorca Airport, Paréage of Andorra 1278, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Parishes of Andorra, Parliamentary system, Patrick Strzoda, Peninsular War, Perpignan, Perpignan–Rivesaltes Airport, Pete Seeger, Peter III of Aragon, Phytogeography, Police Corps of Andorra, Polybius, Pont de la Margineda, Pont dels Escalls, Porté-Puymorens, Portugal, Portuguese language, Portuguese people, President of France, Primera Divisió, Principality, Pubilla, Puigcerdà, Punic Wars, Pyrenees, Radio Andorra, Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra, Reapers' War, Reformation, Renaixença, Renfe Operadora, Representative democracy, Roger-Bernard II, Count of Foix, Roger-Bernard III, Count of Foix, Roller hockey (quad), Roller Hockey World Cup, Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Roman Empire, Roman roads, Romance languages, Romanesque architecture, Romantic nationalism, Romanticism, Rugby sevens, Rugby union, Sales tax, Sanctuary, Sant Joan de Caselles, Sant Julià de Lòria, Santa Coloma d'Andorra, Sardana, Sègre (department), Segre (river), Segudet, Service economy, SNCF, Sophie Dusautoir Bertrand, Sovereignty, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish Civil War, Spanish football league system, Spanish Inquisition, Spanish language, Spanish peseta, Standard-gauge railway, Syndic, Tax haven, Telephone numbers in Andorra, TGV, The Histories (Polybius), The New York Times, Tobacco, Toponymy, Toulouse, Toulouse–Blagnac Airport, Tourism in Andorra, Trade union, Treaty of Versailles, UEFA, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Unification Church, Unitary state, United Nations, Universal suffrage, Universitat d'Andorra, Urgellet, Urnfield culture, Vespolina, Vichy France, Villefranche-de-Conflent, Visigothic Kingdom, VPC Andorra XV, War of the Spanish Succession, Winter Olympic Games, Winter sport, Wolfram Alpha, World Heritage site, World War I, World Wide Fund for Nature, .ad, .cat, 1976 Winter Olympics, 1991 Games of the Small States of Europe, 2005 Games of the Small States of Europe, 2009 European Championship of Ski Mountaineering, 2010–11 CERH European League. Expand index (278 more) »

Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport

Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport (Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas), commonly known as Madrid–Barajas Airport, is the main international airport serving Madrid in Spain.

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Air Andorra

Air Andorra is a Spanish airline.

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Airline hub

Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.

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Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Alpine skiing at the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics

Alpine Skiing at the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics was held at the Olympia Run Patscherkofel in Igls, Innsbruck, Austria from 14 January to 22 January.

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Alpine skiing at the 2015 Winter Universiade

Alpine skiing at the 2015 Winter Universiade was held at the Universiade Slope in the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, Granada, from February 6 to February 14, 2015.

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Alt Urgell

Alt Urgell is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, a modern representation of part of the historic County of Urgell (ca 789 - 1413), seat of the Counts of Urgell and the historic region of Urgellet.

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Amateur radio

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.

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Ancient Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.

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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

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Andorra Airlines

Andorra Airlines is a Spanish commercial airline based at Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport.

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Andorra la Vella

Andorra la Vella (Andorra la Vieja, Andorre-la-Vieille) is the capital of the Principality of Andorra.

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Andorra national football team

The Andorra national football team (Selecció de futbol d'Andorra) represents Andorra in association football and is controlled by the Andorran Football Federation, the governing body for football in Andorra.

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Andorra national rugby union team

The Andorra national rugby union team, nicknamed Els Isards (which is a Pyrenean Chamois) represent Andorra in international rugby union competitions.

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Andorra Telecom

Andorra Telecom (commercially Som and legally Servei de Telecomunicacions d'Andorra) is the national telecom company from the Principality of Andorra.

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Andorra–European Union relations

Andorra–European Union relations comprise various bilateral affairs between the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra) and the European Union (EU).

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Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport

Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport (Catalan: Aeroport Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell, Spanish: Aeropuerto Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell) is a public airport owned by the Government of Catalonia and hosts general aviation and commercial flights.

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Andorran constitutional referendum, 1993

A constitutional referendum was held in Andorra on 14 March 1993.

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Andorran diner

The Andorran diner (ADD) is a commemorative currency issued in form of coins intended for collectors and without a legal tender value.

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Andorran Football Federation

The Andorran Football Federation (Federació Andorrana de Futbol) is the governing body of football in Andorra.

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Andorran parliamentary election, 1993

Parliamentary elections were held in Andorra on 12 December 1993.

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Andorran Supercup

The Andorran Supercup (Supercopa Andorrana de Futbol) is the football Supercup of Andorra.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.

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Antoni Martí

Antoni Martí Petit (born 30 July 1963) is an Andorran architect and politician who has been the Prime Minister of Andorra since May 2011, when he was elected on the ticket of the Democrats for Andorra.

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Aquitanian language

The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Ariadna Tudel Cuberes

Ariadna Tudel Cuberes (born November 17, 1978) from Escaldes-Engordany is an Andorran road cyclist and ski mountaineer.

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Ariège (river)

The Ariège (Arièja, Arieja) is a 164 km long river in southern France, right tributary of the Garonne.

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Arinsal is a village in Andorra, set at an altitude of between 1550 and 2560 metres, close to the border with Spain at Tor, Pallars.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Australian rules football

Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field, often a modified cricket ground.

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Òscar Ribas Reig

Oscar Ribas Reig (born 26 October 1936 in Sant Julià de Lòria) was the first prime minister of Andorra in 1982.

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Bahá'í Faith in Andorra

The Bahá'í Faith in Andorra begins with the first mention of Andorra in Bahá'í literature when `Abdu'l-Bahá listed it as a place to take the religion to in 1916.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Barcelona–El Prat Airport

Barcelona–El Prat Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Barcelona – el Prat, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Barcelona-El Prat), also known as El Prat Airport, is an international airport located southwest.

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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BC Andorra

Bàsquet Club Andorra S.A., also known as MoraBanc Andorra for sponsorship reasons, is a professional basketball team that is based in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.

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A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bibliography of Andorra

The following are English language books relating to the subject of Andorra.

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Bondia (newspaper)

Bondia is a newspaper published in Catalan.

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Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.

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Boris Skossyreff

Boris Mikhailovich Skossyreff (Boris Mikhailovich Skosyrev; Borís Mikhàilovitx Skóssirev; born January 12, 1896) was a White Russian adventurer who attempted to seize power in the European state of Andorra during the early 1930s.

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Borrell II, Count of Barcelona

Borrell II (died 993) was Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 945 and Count of Urgell from 948.

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Brigandage is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Canillo is one of the parishes of Andorra.

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Cannan is a surname, and may refer to.

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Casa de la Vall

Casa de la Vall is a historical house in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.

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Casa Rossell

Casa Rossell is a manor house located in Ordino, Andorra.

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A castell is a human tower built traditionally at festivals in Catalonia and the Valencian Community, both in Spain.

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Catalan constitutions

The Catalan constitutions (Constitucions catalanes) were the laws of the Principality of Catalonia promulgated by the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona and approved by the Catalan Courts.

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Catalan Countries

The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalan mythology about witches

In Catalan popular culture, there are a large number of legends about witches (bruixes;, or). In the popular imagination, a witch is a woman who, by means of a pact with the Devil, has acquired supernatural power, which she uses for her own benefit and for evil purposes.

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The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya (Latin: Ceretani or Ceritania, Cerdagne, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain.

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CERH European Roller Hockey Championship

The CERH European Roller Hockey Championship is a European roller hockey competition organised by the Comité Européen de Rink-Hockey (CERH) and contested by the best men's national teams.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Church of Santa Coloma d'Andorra

The Church of Santa Coloma d'Andorra is a church in Santa Coloma, Andorra la Vella Parish, Andorra, and is Andorra's oldest church.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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Co-Princes of Andorra

The Co-Princes of Andorra or Co-Monarchs of Andorra are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality of Andorra, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.

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Coma Pedrosa

Coma Pedrosa is the highest mountain in the principality of Andorra.

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Confederación Nacional del Trabajo

The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).

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Constitution of Andorra

The Constitution of Andorra (Constitució d'Andorra) is the supreme law of the Principality of Andorra.

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Continental climate

Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.

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Copa Constitució

The Copa Constitució or Andorran Cup is the national football cup competition in Andorra organized by the Andorran Football Federation.

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A coregency or co-principality is the situation where a monarchical position (such as king, queen, emperor or empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two or more.

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Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Count of Foix

The Count of Foix ruled the independent County of Foix, in what is now southern France, during the Middle Ages.

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The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.

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Counts of Urgell

This is a list of the counts of Urgell, a county of the Principality of Catalonia in the 10th through 13th centuries.

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County of Cerdanya

The County of Cerdanya (Comtat de Cerdanya,; Comitatus Ceritaniae; Condado de Cerdaña, Comté de Cerdagne) was one of the Catalan counties formed in the last decades of the 8th century by the Franks in the Marca Hispanica.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

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Crisis negotiation

Crisis negotiation is a law enforcement technique used to communicate with people who are threatening violenceStrentz, Thomas (2006).

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Cultural Heritage of Andorra

The Cultural Heritage of Andorra is an organization in Andorra which protects national buildings and monuments considered of cultural and historical value.

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Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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Democrats for Andorra

Democrats for Andorra (Demòcrates per Andorra, DA) is the governing centre-right political party in Andorra.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").

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Diari d'Andorra

Diari d'Andorra is a newspaper of the Principality of Andorra.

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Dieter Nohlen

Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.

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Duty-free shop

Duty-free shops (or stores) are retail outlets that are exempt from the payment of certain local or national taxes and duties, on the requirement that the goods sold will be sold to travelers who will take them out of the country.

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Eastern Question

In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.

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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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El Gran Carlemany

"El Gran Carlemany" ("The Great Charlemagne") is the national anthem of the Principality of Andorra.

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El Pas de la Casa

El Pas de la Casa (Le Pas de la Case) is a ski resort (part of the Grandvalira resort), town, and mountain pass in the Encamp parish of Andorra, lying on the border with France.

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El Periòdic d'Andorra

El Periòdic d'Andorra is a newspaper of the Principality of Andorra.

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Elective monarchy

An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.

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Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.

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Encamp is one of the parishes of Andorra, located on the Valira d'Orient river.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endor (village)

Endor (‘Êndōr, En Dor in the NKJV) was a Canaanite city which is listed in the Book of Joshua as one of the cities with its dependencies which the Israelites failed to dispossess.

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Enlisted rank

An enlisted rank (also known as an enlisted grade or enlisted rate) is, in some armed services, any rank below that of a commissioned officer.

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Escaldes-Engordany is one of the parishes of Andorra.

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Església de Sant Esteve

Església de Sant Esteve is a church located on Plaça del Príncep Benlloch in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.

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Església de Sant Martí de la Cortinada

Església de Sant Martí de la Cortinada is a church located in La Cortinada, Andorra.

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Església de Sant Miquel d'Engolasters

Església de Sant Miquel d'Engolasters is a church located in Engolasters, Escaldes-Engordany Parish, Andorra.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European microstates

The European microstates or European ministates are a set of very small sovereign states in Europe.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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FC Andorra

Futbol Club Andorra is a football club based in Andorra la Vella, Andorra, established in 1942.

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Federación Anarquista Ibérica

The Iberian Anarchist Federation (Federación Anarquista Ibérica, FAI) is a Spanish organization of anarchist (anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist-communist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) anarcho-syndicalist union.

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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Flag of Andorra

The national flag of the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Bandera d'Andorra) was adopted in 1866.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.

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François Hollande

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Fromental Halévy

Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy, usually known as Fromental Halévy (27 May 179917 March 1862), was a French composer.

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Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.

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Games of the Small States of Europe

The Games of the Small States of Europe (GSSE) is a biennial, multi-sport event, launched by the Republic of San Marino, organized by and featuring the National Olympic Committees of nine European small states since 1985.

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General Council (Andorra)

The General Council (Consell General d'Andorra) is the unicameral parliament of Andorra.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Global Burden of Disease Study

The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is a comprehensive regional and global research program of disease burden that assesses mortality and disability from major diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

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Gothic Christianity

Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may have used the translation of the Bible into the Gothic language and shared common doctrines and practices.

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Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.

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Gran Valira

The Gran Valira is the biggest river in Andorra.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit

Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit (19 February 1822 – 23 February 1876), was an Andorran nobleman and politician who led the Andorran New Reform (Nova Reforma).

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Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History of the Jews in Andorra

There are between 100 and 150.

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Huguenot rebellions

The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, were an event of the 1620s in which French Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots), mainly located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Iberian-gauge railways

Iberian-gauge railways (ancho ibérico, trocha ibérica, bitola ibérica) is the name given to the railways using track gauge of, most extensively used by the railways of Spain and Portugal.

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The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Index of Andorra-related articles

Listed below are articles about or related to Andorra, arranged alphabetically.

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Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.

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Islam in Andorra

According to the US Religious Freedom Report of 2006 there are about 2000 North Africans currently living in Andorra (out of 72,000) and they are the largest Muslim group in the country.

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Jacint Verdaguer

Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Joan Enric Vives Sicília

Joan-Enric Vives i Sicília (born 24 July 1949) is the current Bishop of Urgell, a Catholic diocese, and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra.

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Joan Verdu Sanchez

Joan Verdu Sanchez (born 23 May 1995 in Andorra la Vella) is an alpine skier from Andorra.

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John I, Count of Foix

John I, Count of Foix also known as Jean de Foix-Grailly (1382 – 4 May 1436) was Count of Foix from 1428 until his death in 1436.

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Josep Maria Mauri

Josep Maria Mauri i Prior (born 21 October 1941) is a Spanish Catholic priest from Catalonia and the current personal representative of the episcopal Co-Prince of Andorra, Archbishop Joan Enric Vives Sicília.

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was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Kingdom of Aragon

The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.

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Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

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L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre (L'Espitalet in Occitan) is a commune in the Ariège department of southwestern France.

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La Margineda

La Margineda (locally) is an Andorran village located in the parish of Andorra la Vella.

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La Massana

La Massana (originally La Maçana) is one of the seven parishes of the Principality of Andorra.

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La Seu d'Urgell

La Seu d'Urgell (Seo de Urgel, formerly in Urgell) is a town located in the Catalan Pyrenees in Spain.

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Landlocked country

A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.

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Languages of Iberia

Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Latour-de-Carol is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.

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Le val d'Andorre

Le val d'Andorre (The Valley of Andorra) is an opéra comique by Fromental Halévy with a libretto by Saint-Georges.

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Les Escaldes

Les Escaldes or briefly Escaldes is an urban area in Escaldes-Engordany parish, Andorra.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Liga ACB

The Liga ACB,; "ACB League" known as Liga Endesa; "Endesa League" for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional basketball division of the Spanish basketball league system.

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Ligne de Cerdagne

The Ligne de Cerdagne, usually referred to as the Train Jaune (Yellow Train, Tren Groc), is a gauge railway that runs from Villefranche-de-Conflent to Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg in the French Pyrenees.

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List of Andorrans

Andorrans who are notable include.

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List of Co-Princes of Andorra

This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra.

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List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.

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List of heads of government of Andorra

The Head of Government of the Principality of Andorra, alternatively known as the Prime Minister of Andorra, is the chief executive of the government of Andorra.

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List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula

This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra).

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Lleida–Alguaire Airport

Lleida–Alguaire Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Lleida-Alguaire) (Spanish: Aeropuerto de Lérida-Alguaire) is an airport located in Alguaire, Spain; about from the centre of Lleida and about from the centre of Barcelona.

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Lord of Caboet

The Lord of Caboet was a Catalan nobleman.

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Louis the Pious

Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.

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Madonna (art)

A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus.

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Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley

The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley (Vall del Madriu-Perafita-Claror) is a glacial valley in the southeast of Andorra.

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Malvina Reynolds

Malvina Reynolds (August 23, 1900 – March 17, 1978) was an American folk/blues singer-songwriter and political activist, best known for her songwriting, particularly the songs "Little Boxes" and "Morningtown Ride.".

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Manor house

A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor.

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Marc Forné Molné

Marc Forné i Molné (born 30 December 1946) was the Prime Minister of Andorra from 7 December 1994 to 27 May 2005.

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Marc Oliveras

Marc Oliveras (born in Barcelona on 20 December 1991) is an alpine skier who competes for Andorra.

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Marca Hispanica

The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).

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Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion

The Marching Regiment (Régiment de Marche) of the French Foreign Legion (RMLE) was a French military unit that fought in World War I and World War II.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.

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Midian (מִדְיָן), Madyan (مَـدْيَـن), or Madiam (Μαδιάμ) is a geographical place mentioned in the Torah and Qur’an.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Municipal charter

A city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (charter) establishing a municipality such as a city or town.

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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.

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Music of Catalonia

The music of Catalonia comprises one of the oldest documented musical traditions in Europe.

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National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.

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Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language once spoken in a large part of the Ebro River basin, south of the middle Pyrenees, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory.

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A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Apostolic Church

The New Apostolic Church (NAC) is a chiliastic Christian church that split from the Catholic Apostolic Church during a 1863 schism in Hamburg, Germany.

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Non-commissioned officer

A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.

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Nueva Planta decrees

The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.

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Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.

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Officer (armed forces)

An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Ordino is the most northerly parish in the Principality of Andorra.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Our Lady of Meritxell

Our Lady of Meritxell (Mare de Déu de Meritxell) is an Andorran Roman Catholic statue depicting an apparition of the Virgin Mary.

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Outline of Andorra

The location of Andorra An enlargeable map of the Principality of Andorra The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Andorra: Principality of Andorra – small landlocked sovereign country located in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains of Southern Europe and bordered by Spain and France.

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Palma de Mallorca Airport

Palma de Mallorca Airport (Aeroport de Palma de Mallorca, Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca) is an international airport located east of Palma, Majorca, Spain, adjacent to the village of Can Pastilla.

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Paréage of Andorra 1278

The first Paréage of Andorra (Tractat de pareatge) was a feudal charter signed in Lleida on 8 September 1278.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Parishes of Andorra

Andorra consists of seven communities known as parishes (parròquies, singularparròquia).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Patrick Strzoda

Patrick Strzoda (born 5 January 1952) is a French high-ranking civil servant.

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Peninsular War

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.

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Perpignan–Rivesaltes Airport

Perpignan–Rivesaltes Airport (Aéroport de Perpignan – Rivesaltes), also known as Llabanère Airport, is a small international airport near Perpignan and Rivesaltes, both communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France.

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Pete Seeger

Peter Seeger (May 3, 1919 – January 27, 2014) was an American folk singer and social activist.

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Peter III of Aragon

Peter the Great (Pere el Gran, Pero lo Gran; 1239 – 11 November 1285) was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) of Valencia (as Peter I), and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death, (this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon).

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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Police Corps of Andorra

The Police Corps of Andorra (El Cos de Policia d’Andorra) is the national police of Andorra.

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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Pont de la Margineda

Pont de la Margineda is a bridge located in Santa Coloma, Andorra la Vella Parish, Andorra.

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Pont dels Escalls

Pont dels Escalls is a bridge located in Escaldes-Engordany Parish, Andorra.

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Porté-Puymorens (Portè i Pimorent) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese people

Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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Primera Divisió

The Lliga Nacional de Fútbol, also known as Primera Divisió (First Division) or Campionat de Lliga, is the top professional football league for the country of Andorra.

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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.

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A pubilla (plural pubilles) in ancestral Catalan tradition was the female that would inherit the whole rural estate in the absence of a brother.

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Puigcerdà (informally:,; Puigcerdá) is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France (it abuts directly onto the French town of Bourg-Madame).

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Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.

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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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Radio Andorra

Radio Andorra was one of the oldest French private radio stations, which had a broadcast licence in Andorra from 1939 until 1981.

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Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra

Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra, S.A. (RTVA) (meaning "Radio and Television of Andorra, PLC" in English), is the public service television and radio broadcaster in the Principality of Andorra.

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Reapers' War

The Reapers' War (Guerra dels Segadors) affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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The Renaixença, Catalan Renaissance, ((also written Renaixensa before spelling standardisation) was an early 19th-century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture, akin to the Galician Rexurdimento or the Occitan Félibrige movements. The movement dates to the 1830s and 1840s, but lasted into the 1880s, when it branched out into other cultural movements. Even though it primarily followed a romantic impulse, it incorporated stylistic and philosophical elements of other 19th century movements such as Naturalism or Symbolism. The name does not indicate a particular style, but rather the cultural circumstances in which it bloomed.

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Renfe Operadora

Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the, the and the networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Roger-Bernard II, Count of Foix

Roger Bernard II (c. 1195 – 26 May 1241), called the Great, was the sixth count of Foix from 1223 until his death.

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Roger-Bernard III, Count of Foix

Roger-Bernard III (1243 – 3 March 1302) was the Count of Foix from 1265 to his death.

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Roller hockey (quad)

Roller hockey (in British English), rink hockey (in American English) or quad hockey is a team sport that enjoys significant popularity in a number of Latin countries.

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Roller Hockey World Cup

The World Skate Roller Hockey World Cup is the international championship for roller hockey organized by World Skate.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell

The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic diocese in Spain and Andorra in the historical County of Urgell, Catholic-Hierarchy.org.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman roads

Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rugby sevens

Rugby sevens (commonly known simply as sevens), and originally known as Seven-a-side rugby is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Sales tax

A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.

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A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.

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Sant Joan de Caselles

Església de Sant Joan de Caselles is a church located in Canillo, Andorra.

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Sant Julià de Lòria

Sant Julià de Lòria is one of the parishes of Andorra, in the far south of that country.

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Santa Coloma d'Andorra

Santa Coloma d'Andorra (Santa Coloma of Andorra) or briefly Santa Coloma is an Andorran town in the parish of Andorra la Vella, located near the Gran Valira river and 2 km away from the capital, Andorra la Vella.

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The sardana (plural sardanes) is a type of circle dance typical of Catalan culture.

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Sègre (department)

Sègre was a former department of the First French Empire in present-day Spain and Andorra, named after the river Segre.

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Segre (river)

The Segre (Sègre) is a river tributary to the Ebro (Ebre in Catalan) with a basin comprising territories across three states: France, Andorra and Spain.

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Segudet is a village in Andorra, located in the parish of Ordino.

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Service economy

Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.

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The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.

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Sophie Dusautoir Bertrand

Sophie Dusautoir Bertrand (born June 5, 1972) is an Andorran ski mountaineer.

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Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Spanish football league system

The football league system in Spain consists of several leagues bound together hierarchically by promotion and relegation.

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Spanish Inquisition

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spanish peseta

The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.

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Standard-gauge railway

A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.

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Syndic (Late Latin: syndicus; Greek: σύνδικος, sýndikos – one who helps in a court of justice, an advocate, representative) is a term applied in certain countries to an officer of government with varying powers, and secondly to a representative or delegate of a university, institution or other corporation, entrusted with special functions or powers.

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Tax haven

A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).

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Telephone numbers in Andorra

Telephone numbers in Andorra are six digits, with fixed line numbers beginning with the digits 8 and 7 and mobile telephone numbers with the digits 3, 4 and 6.

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The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.

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The Histories (Polybius)

Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.

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Toulouse–Blagnac Airport

Toulouse Blagnac Airport (French: Aéroport de Toulouse–Blagnac) is an international airport located west northwest of Toulouse, and partially in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France.

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Tourism in Andorra

Andorra has become a popular tourist destination in Europe.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.

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Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.

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Unification Church

The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and support of social and political causes.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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Universitat d'Andorra

The University of Andorra (Universitat d'Andorra) is a public institution of higher education created in 1997,, a 10 March 2006 article from Times Higher Education and the first university in Andorra.

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Urgellet is a historical territory and a natural region of Catalonia.

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Urnfield culture

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.

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Vespolina is a red Italian wine grape variety that is planted in Piedmont around Gattinara and Ghemme.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Villefranche-de-Conflent (Vilafranca de Conflent) is historically a town in the Conflent region of Catalonia, and now a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.

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Visigothic Kingdom

The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.

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VPC Andorra XV

Voluntaris de Protecció Civil Andorra Rugby XV (commonly known as VPC Andorra XV) is a rugby union team based in Andorra la Vella, Andorra.

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War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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Winter sport

A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.

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Wolfram Alpha

Wolfram Alpha (also styled WolframAlpha, and Wolfram|Alpha) is a computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Alpha LLC, a subsidiary of Wolfram Research.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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.ad is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Andorra.

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.cat is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be used to highlight the Catalan language and culture.

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1976 Winter Olympics

The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games (XIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, Olympische Winterspiele 1976), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 4–15, 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria.

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1991 Games of the Small States of Europe

The IV Games of the Small States of Europe were held in 1991 by the Principality of Andorra.

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2005 Games of the Small States of Europe

The 2005 Games of the Small States of Europe, or the XIth Games of the Small States of Europe, were held in Andorra la Vella, Andorra from May 30 to June 4, 2005.

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2009 European Championship of Ski Mountaineering

The 2009 European Championship of Ski Mountaineering (Campionati Europei di Sci alpinismo 2009) was the eighth European Championship of ski mountaineering and was held in Alpago (Tambre, Italy) from February 19, 2009 to February 24, 2009.

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2010–11 CERH European League

The 2010–11 CERH European League was the 46th edition of the CERH European League organized by CERH.

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AndorrA, Andorra/Military, Andorra/People, Andorran Demographics, Andorran Navy, Andorre, Demographics of andorra, Ethnic groups in Andorra, Fire services in Andorra, Health in Andorra, Hinduism in Andorra, ISO 3166-1:AD, Military of Andorra, Name of Andorra, Principado de Andorra, Principality of Andorra, Principat d'Andorra, Principaute d'Andorre, Principauté d'Andorre, Protestantism in Andorra, Religion in Andorra, Sport in Andorra, The Principality of Andorra, The weather in Andorra, Valles de Andorra.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andorra

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