443 relations: Aaron Burr, Abolitionism, Adams–Onís Treaty, Admission to practice law, Alabama, Albert Gallatin, Alcée Louis la Branche, Alex Timbers, Alexander Cochrane, Alexander I of Russia, Alexandria, Virginia, Alexis de Tocqueville, American frontier, American Presidents: Life Portraits, American Revolutionary War, Amos Ellmaker, Amos Kendall, Andrew Jackson (National Statuary Hall Collection), Andrew Jackson Donelson, Andrew Johnson, Andrew Stevenson, Antarctica, Anti-Masonic Party, Appalachian Mountains, Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident, Archibald Roane, Architect of the Capitol, Arkansas, Arrest of Dominic Hall and Louis Louaillier, Arthur M. 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Davis, Washington District, North Carolina, Washington Irving, Waxhaws, Wesley Addy, Whig Party (United States), Whigs (British political party), White House, William Berkeley Lewis, William Blount, William C. C. Claiborne, William Cabell Rives, William Carroll (Tennessee politician), William Cocke, William H. Crawford, William Henry Harrison, William J. Duane, William Morgan (anti-Mason), William Pope Duval, William Richardson Davie, William T. Barry, William Weatherford, William Wirt (Attorney General), Worcester v. Georgia, Yamasee, Yorkshire, 1840 Democratic National Convention, 1844 Democratic National Convention. Expand index (393 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty,Weeks, p.168.
An admission to practice law is acquired when a lawyer receives a license to practice law.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist.
Alcée Louis la Branche (1806 – August 17, 1861) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of Louisiana.
Alex Timbers (born August 7, 1978) is an American two-time Tony-nominated writer and director and the recipient of Golden Globe, Drama Desk, Outer Critics Circle, and London Evening Standard Awards, as well as two OBIE and Lucile Lortel Awards.
Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane GCB RN (23 April 1758 – 26 January 1832, born Alexander Forrester Cochrane) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars and achieved the rank of Admiral.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amos Ellmaker (February 2, 1787 - November 28, 1851) was a U.S. politician, attorney, and judge from Pennsylvania.
Amos Kendall (August 16, 1789 – November 12, 1869) was an American lawyer, journalist and politician.
Andrew Jackson is a 1928 bronze sculpture of Andrew Jackson by Belle Kinney Scholz and Leopold Scholz, installed in the United States Capitol, in Washington D.C., as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.
Andrew Jackson Donelson (August 25, 1799 – June 26, 1871) was an American diplomat.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Andrew Stevenson (January 21, 1784 – January 25, 1857) was a Democratic politician in the United States.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Anti-Masonic Party, also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement, was the first third party in the United States.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident occurred in 1818 during the First Seminole War.
Archibald Roane (1759/1760January 18, 1819) was the second Governor of Tennessee, serving from 1801 to 1803.
The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, and also the head of that agency.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Dominic A. Hall and Louis Louaillier were American political figures who were ordered detained during the War of 1812 under the order of Major General Andrew Jackson in 1815.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
The Bank War refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829–1837).
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Basil Ruysdael (July 24, 1878 – October 10, 1960) was an American actor and opera singer.
The Battle of Hanging Rock (August 6, 1780) was a battle in the American Revolutionary War that occurred between the American Patriots and the British.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee, or The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in the Mississippi Territory, now central Alabama.
The Battle of New Orleans was a series of engagements fought between December 14, 1814 and January 18, 1815, constituting the last major battle of the War of 1812.
The Battle of Pensacola was a battle in the War of 1812 in which American forces fought against forces from the kingdoms of Britain and Spain, along with Creek Native Americans and African-American slaves allied with the British.
The Battle of Stono Ferry was an American Revolutionary War battle, fought on June 20, 1779, near Charleston, South Carolina.
The Battle of Talladega was a battle fought between the Tennessee Militia and the Red Stick Creek Indians during the Creek War, in the vicinity of the present-day county and city of Talladega, Alabama, in the United States.
The Battle of Tallasseehatchee was a battle fought during the War of 1812 and Creek War on November 3, 1813, in Alabama between Native American Red Stick Creeks and United States dragoons.
The Battle of Waxhaws (also known as the Waxhaws or Waxhaw massacre, and Buford's massacre) took place during the American Revolutionary War on May 29, 1780, near Lancaster, South Carolina, between a Continental Army force led by Abraham Buford and a mainly Loyalist force led by British officer Banastre Tarleton.
The battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek (or Enotachopco Creek) were part of Andrew Jackson's campaign in the Creek War.
Belle Marshall Kinney Scholz (1890–1959) was an American sculptor, born in Tennessee who worked and died in New York state.
Benjamin Franklin Butler (December 17, 1795 – November 8, 1858) was a prominent lawyer from the state of New York.
The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader.
Black Jack or Blackjack was the 2-Cent denomination United States postage stamp issued from July 1, 1863 to 1869, is generally referred to as the "Black Jack" due to the large portraiture of the United States President, Andrew Jackson on its face printed in pitch black.
Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson is a rock musical with music and lyrics written by Michael Friedman and a book written by its director Alex Timbers.
Boneybefore is an area of Carrickfergus in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
Bray Hammond (November 20, 1886 in Springfield, Missouri – July 20, 1968) was an American financial historian and assistant secretary to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1944-1950.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is a government agency within the United States Department of the Treasury that designs and produces a variety of security products for the United States government, most notable of which is Federal Reserve Notes (paper money) for the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank.
The Burr conspiracy was a suspected treasonous cabal of planters, politicians, and army officers in the early 19th century.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Canada was under British rule beginning with the Treaty of Paris (1763), when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire.
Carrickfergus, colloquially known as "Carrick", is a large town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.
Charles Dickinson (1780 – May 30, 1806) was an American attorney, and a famous duelist.
Charles Grier Sellers (born September 9, 1923 in Charlotte, North Carolina) is an American historian.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter or Charlton John Carter; October 4, 1923 – April 5, 2008) was an American actor and political activist.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Clark Mills (December 13, 1810 – January 12, 1883) was an American sculptor, best known for four versions of an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, located in Washington, D.C. with replicas in Nashville, Tennessee, Jacksonville, Florida, and New Orleans, Louisiana.
Coahoma County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
The Coffin Handbills were a series of pamphlets attacking Andrew Jackson during the 1828 United States presidential election.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress; the Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States.
The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution.
In the United States, a contingent election is the procedure used in presidential elections in the case where no candidate wins an absolute majority of votes in the Electoral College, the constitutional mechanism for electing the President and the Vice President of the United States.
The term corrupt bargain refers to three historic incidents in American history in which political agreement was determined by congressional or presidential actions that many viewed to be corrupt from different standpoints.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.
The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in today's Alabama and along the Gulf Coast.
The Creek "War" of 1836, also known as the Second Creek War or Creek Alabama Uprising, was a conflict in Alabama at the time of Indian Removal between the Muscogee Creek people and non-native land speculators and squatters.
Daniel Smith (October 29, 1748June 16, 1818) was a surveyor, an American Revolutionary War patriot, and twice a United States Senator from Tennessee.
Daniel Smith Donelson (June 23, 1801 – April 17, 1863) was a Tennessee politician and soldier.
Daniel Walker Howe (born January 10, 1937 in Ogden, Utah) is an American historian who specializes in the early national period of U.S. history, with a particular interest in its intellectual and religious dimensions.
Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782October 24, 1852) was an American politician who represented New Hampshire (1813–1817) and Massachusetts (1823–1827) in the United States House of Representatives; served as a Senator from Massachusetts (1827–1841, 1845–1850); and was the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841–1843), and Millard Fillmore (1850–1852).
Davidson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Davy Crockett is a five-part serial which aired on ABC from 1954–1955 in one-hour episodes, on the Disneyland series.
A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another.
De La Démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
Dominic Augustin Hall (January 1, 1765 – December 19, 1820) was a United States federal judge, appointed by two different presidents to four federal judicial positions.
The Downtown Presbyterian Church in Nashville, Tennessee, a part of the Presbyterian Church (USA), was formerly known as First Presbyterian Church.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
Duff Green (August 15, 1791June 10, 1875) was an American teacher, military leader, Democratic Party politician, journalist, author, diplomat, industrialist, and businessman.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
East Florida (Florida Oriental) was a colony of Great Britain from 1763 to 1783 and a province of Spanish Florida from 1783 to 1821.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Edward Livingston (May 28, 1764 – May 23, 1836) was an American jurist and statesman.
The Honourable Sir Edward Michael Pakenham GCB (pro. pack-en-um) (19 March 1778 – 8 January 1815), was an Anglo-Irish army officer and politician.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
Emily Donelson (June 1, 1807 – December 19, 1836) was the niece of Rachel Donelson Jackson, the wife of U.S. President Andrew Jackson.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the War of 1812.
Eske is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
The Fair Deal was an ambitious set of proposals put forward by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address.
Fayette is a city in Howard County, Missouri, United States.
Felix Grundy (September 11, 1777 – December 19, 1840) was a congressman and senator from Tennessee and served as the 13th Attorney General of the United States.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Territory of Florida was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 30, 1822, until March 3, 1845, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida.
Floride Bonneau Calhoun (February 15, 1792 – July 25, 1866) was the wife of prominent U.S. politician John C. Calhoun.
The United States Force Bill, formally titled "An Act further to provide for the collection of duties on imports", (1833), refers to legislation enacted by the 22nd U.S. Congress on March 2, 1833, during the Nullification Crisis.
The Battle at Fort Mims occurred on August 30, 1813 during the Creek War, when a force of Creek Indians belonging to the "Red Sticks" faction, under the command of head warriors Peter McQueen and William Weatherford (also known as Lamochattee or Red Eagle), stormed the fort and defeated the militia garrison.
Fort Strother was a stockade fort at Ten Islands in the Mississippi Territory, in what is today St. Clair County, Alabama.
Francis Paul Prucha (January 4, 1921 – July 30, 2015) was an American Jesuit, historian, and professor emeritus of history at Marquette University.
Francis Preston Blair Sr. (April 12, 1791 – October 18, 1876) was an American journalist, newspaper editor, and influential figure in national politics advising several U.S. presidents across the party lines.
Fredericksburg is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
Gallatin is a city in and the county seat of Sumner County, Tennessee.
George Mifflin Dallas (July 10, 1792December 31, 1864) was an American politician and diplomat who served as Mayor of Philadelphia from 1828 to 1829 and as the 11th Vice President of the United States from 1845 to 1849.
George Nixon Briggs (April 12, 1796 – September 12, 1861) was an American lawyer and politician from Massachusetts.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
Gulian Crommelin Verplanck (August 6, 1786 – March 18, 1870) was an American attorney, politician, and writer.
Henry William Brands Jr. (born August 7, 1953 in Portland, Oregon) is an American educator, author and historian.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Hard money policies (as opposed to fiat currency policies) support a specie standard, usually gold or silver, typically implemented with representative money.
Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist and political activist.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Henry Baldwin (January 14, 1780 – April 21, 1844) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 6, 1830, to April 21, 1844.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.
Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author, statesman, founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time.
Howard Zinn (August 24, 1922January 27, 2010) was an American historian, playwright, and social activist.
Hugh Lawson White (October 30, 1773April 10, 1840) was a prominent American politician during the first third of the 19th century. After filling in several posts particularly in Tennessee's judiciary and state legislature since 1801, thereunder as a Tennessee Supreme Court justice, he was chosen to succeed former presidential candidate Andrew Jackson in the United States Senate in 1825 and became a member of the new Democratic Party, supporting Jackson's policies and his future presidential administration. However, he left the Democrats in 1836 and was a Whig candidate in that year's presidential election.Mary Rothrock, The French Broad-Holston Country: A History of Knox County, Tennessee (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, 1972), pp. 501-502. An ardent strict constructionist and lifelong states' rights advocate, White was one of President Jackson's most trusted allies in Congress in the late 1820s and early 1830s.Nancy Scott, (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Company, 1856). White fought against the national bank, tariffs, and the use of federal funds for internal improvements, and led efforts in the Senate to pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830. In 1833, at the height of the Nullification Crisis, White, as the Senate's president pro tempore, coordinated negotiations over the Tariff of 1833. Suspicious of the growing power of the presidency, White began to distance himself from Jackson in the mid-1830s, and realigned himself with Henry Clay and the burgeoning Whig Party. He was eventually forced out of the Senate when Jackson's allies, led by James K. Polk, gained control of the Tennessee state legislature and demanded his resignation.
The Independent Treasury was the system for managing the money supply of the United States federal government through the U.S. Treasury and its sub-treasuries, independently of the national banking and financial systems.
The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Irving Stone (born Tennenbaum, July 14, 1903, San Francisco, California – August 26, 1989, Los Angeles) was an American writer, chiefly known for his biographical novels of noted artists, politicians and intellectuals; among the best known are Lust for Life (1934), about the life of Vincent van Gogh, and The Agony and the Ecstasy (1961), about Michelangelo.
Jacob Joseph "Jack" Lew (born August 29, 1955) is an American attorney who was the 76th United States Secretary of the Treasury, serving from 2013 to 2017.
Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida, on its northern border with Georgia.
Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois with a population of 60,218 at the 2010 census.
Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
Jackson County is a county located in the western portion of the U.S. state of Missouri.
Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Ohio.
Jackson County is a county in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Jackson Parish (French: Paroisse de Jackson) is a parish located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Louisiana.
The Jackson Purchase is a region of western Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky, bounded by the Tennessee River on the east, the Ohio River on the north, and the Mississippi River on the west, that was ceded to the United States by the Chickasaw Peoples in 1818.
Jackson Square is a historic park in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana.
Jackson is a town in East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Jackson is a city in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan, about west of Ann Arbor and south of Lansing.
Jackson, officially the City of Jackson, is the capital city and largest urban center of the U.S. state of Mississippi.
Jackson is a city in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, United States.
Jackson is a city in and the county seat of Madison County, Tennessee.
Jacksonian democracy is a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man as that term was then defined.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849).
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
James Moore Wayne (1790 – July 5, 1867) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and was a United States Representative from Georgia.
James Parton (February 9, 1822 – October 17, 1891) was an English-born American biographer who wrote books on the lives of Horace Greeley, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Voltaire.
James Wilkinson (March 24, 1757 – December 28, 1825) was an American soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies.
James Winchester (February 26, 1752 – July 26, 1826) was an officer in the American Revolutionary War and a brigadier general during the War of 1812.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Jean Lafitte (–) was a French pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century.
Jefferson–Jackson Day is the annual fundraising celebration (dinner) held by Democratic Party organizations in the United States.
Joan Crawford (born Lucille Fay LeSueur; March 23, c. 1904 – May 10, 1977) was an American film and television actress who began her career as a dancer and stage showgirl. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Crawford tenth on its list of the greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Beginning her career as a dancer in traveling theatrical companies, before debuting as a chorus girl on Broadway, Crawford signed a motion picture contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925. In the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled, and later outlasted, MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo. Crawford often played hard-working young women who find romance and success. These stories were well received by Depression-era audiences, and were popular with women. Crawford became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars, and one of the highest-paid women in the United States, but her films began losing money, and, by the end of the 1930s, she was labelled "box office poison". But her career gradually improved in the early 1940s, and she made a major comeback in 1945 by starring in Mildred Pierce, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. She would go on to receive Best Actress nominations for Possessed (1947) and Sudden Fear (1952). She continued to act in film and television throughout the 1950s and 1960s; she achieved box office success with the highly successful horror film Whatever Happened To Baby Jane? (1962), in which she starred alongside Bette Davis, her long-time rival. In 1955, Crawford became involved with the Pepsi-Cola Company through her marriage to company Chairman Alfred Steele. After his death in 1959, Crawford was elected to fill his vacancy on the board of directors, serving until she was forcibly retired in 1973. After the release of the British horror film Trog in 1970, Crawford retired from the screen. Following a public appearance in 1974, after which unflattering photographs were published, Crawford withdrew from public life and became increasingly reclusive until her death in 1977. Crawford married four times. Her first three marriages ended in divorce; the last ended with the death of husband Alfred Steele. She adopted five children, one of whom was reclaimed by his birth mother. Crawford's relationships with her two elder children, Christina and Christopher, were acrimonious. Crawford disinherited the two, and, after Crawford's death, Christina wrote a well-known "tell-all" memoir titled Mommie Dearest (1978).
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Armstrong Jr. (November 25, 1758April 1, 1843) was an American soldier and statesman who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, U.S. Senator from New York, and Secretary of War.
John Bell (February 18, 1796September 10, 1869) was an American politician, attorney, and planter.
John Branch Jr. (November 4, 1782January 3, 1863) was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, the 19th Governor of the state of North Carolina, and was the sixth and last territorial governor of Florida.
John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782March 31, 1850) was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832.
John Catron (January 7, 1786 – May 30, 1865) was an American jurist who served as a US Supreme Court justice from 1837 to 1865.
John R. Coffee (June 2, 1772 – July 7, 1833) was an American planter and state militia general in Tennessee.
John Donelson (1718–1785) was an American frontiersman, ironmaster, politician, city planner and explorer, who, along with James Robertson, co-founded the frontier settlement of Fort Nashborough, in Middle Tennessee, which would later become the city of Nashville, Tennessee.
John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790November 17, 1856) was an American politician and diplomat from Tennessee who served as U.S. Senator and as Secretary of War in the administration of Andrew Jackson.
John Forsyth Sr. (October 22, 1780October 21, 1841) was a 19th-century American politician from Georgia.
John Macpherson Berrien (August 23, 1781January 1, 1856) of Georgia was a United States senator and Andrew Jackson's Attorney General.
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John McLean (March 11, 1785 – April 4, 1861) was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice of the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Courts.
John Overton (April 9, 1766 – April 12, 1833) was an American planter, advisor of Andrew Jackson, a judge at the Superior Court of Tennessee, a banker and political leader.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Ridge, born Skah-tle-loh-skee (Yellow Bird) (c. 1802 – June 22, 1839), was from a prominent family of the Cherokee Nation, then located in present-day Georgia.
John Ross (October 3, 1790 – August 1, 1866), also known as Koo-wi-s-gu-wi (meaning in Cherokee: "Mysterious Little White Bird"), was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828–1866, serving longer in this position than any other person.
John Sergeant (December 5, 1779 – November 23, 1852) was an American politician who represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives.
John Sevier (September 23, 1745 September 24, 1815) was an American soldier, frontiersman and politician, and one of the founding fathers of the State of Tennessee.
John Williams (January 29, 1778 – August 10, 1837) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman, operating primarily out of Knoxville, Tennessee, in the first part of the 19th century.
José Coppinger (April 5, 1773 – August 15, 1844) was a prominent Spanish soldier of Cuban origin who served in the infantry of the Royal Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra) and governed East Florida (1816 - 1821) and several areas in Cuba including (Pinar Del Rio, Bayamo, the Cuatro Villas (the towns of Trinidad, Santo Espiritu, Villa Clara, San Juan de los Remedios) and Trinidad Province; at different times between 1801 and 1834).
Joseph Inslee Anderson (November 5, 1757 – April 17, 1837) was an American soldier, judge, and politician, who served as a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1799 to 1815, and later as the first Comptroller of the United States Treasury.
Joshua Lewis (1772–1833) was a judge of the Superior Court of the Territory of Orleans and, after Louisiana became a state, the 1st Judicial District Court of that state.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Kitchen Cabinet was a term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe his ginger group, the collection of unofficial advisors he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet (the "parlor cabinet") following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831.
The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s.
Lafayette Square is a seven-acre (30,000 m²) public park located within President's Park, Washington, D.C. directly north of the White House on H Street, bounded by Jackson Place on the west, Madison Place on the east, and Pennsylvania Avenue.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina.
Leopold Scholz (1877–1946) Austrian born American sculptor best known for his works in the National Statuary Hall Collection housed in the US Capitol in Washington D.C. In 1921 Scholz married sculptor Belle Kinney Scholz and much of his best known work was executed with her.
Levi Woodbury (December 22, 1789September 4, 1851) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a U.S. Senator, the 9th Governor of New Hampshire, and cabinet member in three administrations.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782June 17, 1866) was an American military officer, politician, and statesman.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lionel Barrymore (born Lionel Herbert Blythe; April 28, 1878 – November 15, 1954) was an American actor of stage, screen and radio as well as a film director.
The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
Following is a list of Justices of the Tennessee Supreme Court.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
This is a list of presidents of the United States by age.
Several presidents of the United States have appeared on currency.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the modern Democratic Party of the United States.
The following is an alphabetical list of members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Tennessee.
Tennessee was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796.
The following are historical lists of the youngest members of the United States Congress, in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Louis McLane (May 28, 1786 – October 7, 1857) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware, and Baltimore, Maryland.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
Lyncoya Jackson (c. 1811 – July 1, 1828) was a Creek Indian child sent by American President Andrew Jackson to be raised by his wife Rachel Jackson.
The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.
Mahlon Dickerson (April 17, 1770October 5, 1853) was an American judge and politician.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America.
The Marshall Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1801 to 1835, when John Marshall served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Maarten "Martin" Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was an American statesman who served as the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
Mary Ball Washington, born Mary Ball (November 30, 1708 – August 26, 1789), was the second wife of Augustine Washington, a planter in Virginia, and the mother of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and five other children.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
John Michael Friedman (September 24, 1975 – September 9, 2017) was an American composer and lyricist.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
A miniseries (or mini-series, also known as a serial in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Mississippi and the eastern half became the Alabama Territory until its admittance to the Union as the State of Alabama on December 14, 1819.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Narragansett tribe are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
The National Republican Party, also known as the Anti-Jacksonian Party and sometimes the Adams Party, was a political party in the United States, which evolved from a faction of the Democratic-Republican Party.
The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Negro Fort was a fort built by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812, on the Apalachicola River, in a remote part of Spanish Florida.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The term New Frontier was used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Nicholas Biddle (January 8, 1786 – February 27, 1844) was an American financier who served as the third and last president of the Second Bank of the United States (chartered 1816–1836).
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
The "Old Southwest" is an informal name for the southwestern frontier territories of the United States from the Revolutionary War era through the early 19th century, at the point when the territorial lands were organized into states.
The War of 1812, a war between the United States, Great Britain, and Britain's Indian allies, lasted from 1812 to 1815.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821.
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Margaret O'Neill (or O'Neale) Eaton (December 3, 1799 – November 8, 1879), better known as Peggy Eaton, was the daughter of Rhoda Howell and William O'Neale, the owner of Franklin House, a popular Washington, D.C. hotel.
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle, approximately from the border with Alabama, and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida.
The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or the Populists, was an agrarian-populist political party in the United States.
Pet banks is a derogatory term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus Treasury funds in 1833.
Peter McQueen (c. 1780 – 1820) was a Creek Indian chief, prophet, trader and warrior from Talisi (Tallassee, among the Upper Towns in present-day Alabama.) He was one of the young men known as Red Sticks, who became a prophet for expulsion of the European Americans from Creek territory and a revival of traditional practices.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip Pendleton Barbour (May 25, 1783 – February 25, 1841) was the 10th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The planter class, known alternatively in the United States as the Southern aristocracy, was a socio-economic caste of pan-American society that dominated seventeenth- and eighteenth-century agricultural markets through the forced labor of enslaved Africans.
The Plaza Ferdinand VII is an outdoor garden and park in the Historic Pensacola Village area of downtown Pensacola, Florida.
Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The postage stamps and postal system of the Confederate States of America carried the mail of the Confederacy for a brief period in American history.
ThePottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Presidents of the United States have frequently appeared on U.S. postage stamps since the mid–1800s.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Prospect Bluff Historic Sites (until 2016 Fort Gadsden Historic Site, and sometimes given as Fort Gadsden Historic Memorial) is located in Franklin County, Florida, on the Apalachicola River, SW of Sumatra, Florida.
For history prior to 1712, see Province of Carolina. King Charles II of England granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for land south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida.
The Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony) was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
Rachel Jackson (née Donelson; June 15, 1767 – December 22, 1828) was the wife of Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the United States.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl (born 1785-88; died Nashville, Tennessee September 16, 1838), also known as Ralph E. W. Earl or Ralph Eleazer Whiteside Earl, was an American painter known as the "court painter" to President Andrew Jackson.
Ray Greene (February 2, 1765January 11, 1849) was a United States Senator and Attorney General from Rhode Island during the early days of statehood.
Reading law is the method by which persons in common law countries, particularly the United States, entered the legal profession before the advent of law schools.
The Red River (Rivière rouge or Rivière Rouge du Nord, American English: Red River of the North) is a North American river.
Red Sticks (also Redsticks or Red Clubs), the name deriving from the red-painted war clubs of some Native American Creeks—refers to an early 19th-century traditionalist faction of these people in the American Southeast.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard Lawrence (c. 1800 – June 13, 1861) was an American house painter who was the first known person to attempt to assassinate a sitting President of the United States.
Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
Sir Richard Pakenham PC (19 May 1797 – 28 October 1868) was a British diplomat.
Richard Stockton (April 17, 1764March 7, 1828) was a lawyer who represented New Jersey in the United States Senate and later served in the United States House of Representatives.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Rip Raps is a small 15 acre (60,000 m²) artificial island at the mouth of the harbor area known as Hampton Roads in the independent city of Hampton in southeastern Virginia in the United States.
Robert Armstrong (September 28, 1792 – February 23, 1854) was an officer in the United States Army, a candidate for the position of Governor of Tennessee, and a United States consul to Liverpool.
Robert John Walker (July 19, 1801November 11, 1869) was an American lawyer, economist and politician.
Robert Vincent Remini (July 17, 1921 – March 28, 2013) was an American historian and a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Robert Young Hayne (November 10, 1791 – September 24, 1839) was an American political leader who served in the United States Senate from 1823 to 1832, was Governor of South Carolina 1832–1834, and as Mayor of Charleston 1836–1837.
Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Salisbury is a city in North Carolina and the county seat of Rowan County, North Carolina, United States.
Sam Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American soldier and politician.
Samuel Delucenna Ingham (September 16, 1779 – June 5, 1860) was a US Representative and then, under President Andrew Jackson, US Treasury Secretary.
Sarah Yorke Jackson (July 16, 1803 – August 23, 1887) was the daughter-in-law of U.S. President Andrew Jackson.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
In the context of the United States, secession primarily refers to the withdrawal of one or more States from the Union that constitutes the United States; but may loosely refer to leaving a State or territory to form a separate territory or new State, or to the severing of an area from a city or county within a State.
The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.
The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars.
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole, a Native American tribe that formed in Florida in the early 18th century, and the United States Army.
The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhoun's Exposition, was written in December 1828 by John C. Calhoun, then Vice President of the United States under John Quincy Adams and later under Andrew Jackson.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Specie Circular is a United States presidential executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 pursuant to the Coinage Act and carried out by his successor, President Martin Van Buren.
In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system) is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity.
Stephen Harriman Long (December 30, 1784 – September 4, 1864) was a U.S. army explorer, topographical engineer, and railway engineer.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan Hayward (born Edythe Marrenner; June 30, 1917 – March 14, 1975) was an American actress and singer.
The Tallapoosa River runs U.S. Geological Survey.
The Taney Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1836 to 1864, when Roger Taney served as the fifth Chief Justice of the United States.
The Tariff of 1824 (Sectional Tariff of 1824, ch. 4,, enacted May 22, 1824) was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry from cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods.
The Tariff of 1832 (22nd Congress, session 1, ch. 227,, enacted July 14, 1832) was a protectionist tariff in the United States.
The Tariff of 1833 (also known as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, ch. 55), enacted on March 2, 1833, was proposed by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as a resolution to the Nullification Crisis.
The "Tariff of Abominations" was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
Tecumseh's War or Tecumseh's Rebellion was a conflict between the United States and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Tennessee Army National Guard is a component of the United States Army and the United States National Guard.
The Tennessee State Capitol, located in Nashville, Tennessee, is the home of the General Assembly of Tennessee (state legislature), the location of the governor's office, and a National Historic Landmark.
Tennessee State Museum is currently closed and will reopen at a new location, 1000 Rosa L. Parks Blvd., in October 2018.
The Tennessee Supreme Court is the ultimate judicial tribunal of the state of Tennessee.
Tennessee began with one seat in 1796.
The Tenure of Office Act of 1820, also known as the Four Years' Law, was passed on May 15, 1820 by the Congress of the United States, and purported to be "An Act to limit the term of office of certain officers therein named, and for other purposes"Tenure in Office Act, 16th Congress, session I, chapter 102, (1820).
Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, and date back to the American Revolution.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas Annexation was the 1845 incorporation of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845.
The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos (Texas Mexicans) in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Thanks of Congress is a series of formal resolutions passed by the United States Congress originally to extend the government's formal thanks for significant victories or impressive actions by American military commanders and their troops.
The Adams Chronicles is a thirteen-episode miniseries by PBS that aired in 1976 to commemorate the American Bicentennial.
The Buccaneer is a 1938 American adventure film made by Paramount Pictures based on Jean Lafitte and the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812.
The Buccaneer is a 1958 pirate film made by Paramount Pictures starring Yul Brynner as Jean Lafitte, Charles Boyer and Claire Bloom.
The Gorgeous Hussy is a 1936 American period film directed by Clarence Brown, and starring Joan Crawford and Robert Taylor.
The Hermitage is a historical plantation and museum located in Davidson County, Tennessee, United States, east of downtown Nashville.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The President's Lady is a 1953 biographical film of the life of American president, Andrew Jackson, and his marriage to Rachel Donelson Robards.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thomas Hart Benton (March 14, 1782April 10, 1858), nicknamed "Old Bullion", was a United States Senator from Missouri.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
The Treaty of Cusseta was a treaty between the government of the United States and the Creek Nation signed March 24, 1832.
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830, and proclaimed on February 24, 1831, between the Choctaw American Indian tribe and the United States Government.
The Treaty of Fort Jackson (also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814) was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick (Upper Creek) resistance by United States allied forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Treaty of New Echota (7 Stat. 488) was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority Cherokee political faction, the Treaty Party.
The Treaty of Payne's Landing (Treaty with the Seminole, 1832) was an agreement signed on 9 May 1832 between the government of the United States and several chiefs of the Seminole Indians in the Territory of Florida, before it acquired statehood.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States from 1838 to 1842.
The Committee on Ways and Means is the chief tax-writing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1808 was the sixth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808.
The United States presidential election of 1824 was the tenth quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824.
The United States presidential election of 1828 was the 11th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 31, to Tuesday, December 2, 1828.
The United States presidential election of 1832 was the 12th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1832.
The United States presidential election of 1840 was the 14th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 30, to Wednesday, December 2, 1840.
The United States presidential election of 1844 was the 15th quadrennial presidential election, held from November 1, to December 4, 1844.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Committee on Armed Services (sometimes abbreviated SASC for Senate Armed Services Committee on its Web site) is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nation’s military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other matters related to defense policy.
United States Volunteers also known as U.S. Volunteers, U. S. Vol., or U.S.V. were military volunteers enlisted in the United States Army who were separate from the Regular Army.
Waightstill Avery (10 May 1741 in Groton, Connecticut – 15 March 1821 in Morganton, North Carolina) was an early American lawyer and soldier.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Warren Ransom Davis (May 8, 1793 – January 29, 1835) was an American attorney and Representative from South Carolina's 6th congressional district from 1827-35.
The Washington District of North Carolina was in a remote area west of the Appalachian Mountains, officially existing for only a short period (November 1776 – November 1777), although it had been self-proclaimed and functioning as an independent governing entity since the spring of 1775.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
Waxhaws is a geographical area on the border of North and South Carolina.
Robert Wesley Addy (August 4, 1913 – December 31, 1996) was an American actor.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
William Berkeley Lewis (1784 – November 12, 1866) was an influential friend and advisor to Andrew Jackson.
William Blount (March 26, 1749March 21, 1800) was an American statesman and land speculator, and a signer of the United States Constitution.
William Charles Cole Claiborne (c.1773-75 – 23 November 1817) was an American politician, best known as the first non-colonial Governor of Louisiana.
William Cabell Rives (May 4, 1793April 25, 1868) was an American lawyer, politician and diplomat from Albemarle County, Virginia.
William Carroll (March 3, 1788March 22, 1844) was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee twice, from 1821 to 1827 and again from 1829 to 1835.
William Cocke (1748August 22, 1828) was an American lawyer, pioneer, and statesman.
William Harris Crawford (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an American politician and judge during the early 19th century.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
William John Duane (May 9, 1780 – September 27, 1865) was an Irish born American politician and lawyer from Pennsylvania.
William Morgan (1774 – c. 1826) was a resident of Batavia, New York, whose disappearance and presumed murder in 1826 ignited a powerful movement against the Freemasons, a fraternal society that had become influential in the United States.
William Pope Duval (September 4, 1784 – March 19, 1854) was the first civilian governor of Florida Territory, succeeding Andrew Jackson, who had been military governor.
William Richardson Davie (June 20, 1756 – November 29, 1820) was a military officer and the tenth Governor of North Carolina from 1798 to 1799, as well as one of the most important men involved in the founding of the University of North Carolina.
William Taylor Barry (February 5, 1784 – August 30, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist.
William Weatherford, known as Red Eagle (ca. 1781–March 24, 1824), was a Creek chief of the Upper Creek towns who led many of the Red Sticks actions in the Creek War (1813–1814) against Lower Creek towns and against allied forces of the United States.
William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence.
Worcester v. Georgia,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
The Yamasee were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans who lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
The 1840 Democratic National Convention was held in Baltimore.
The 1844 Democratic National Convention was held in Baltimore.
7th President of the United States, Andrew Jackson Sr., Andrew Jackson assassination attempts, Andrew Jackson, Sr., Andrew Jackson/First Inaugural Address, Andrew Jackson/Second Inaugural Address, Andrew jackson, Death of Andrew Jackson, Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, General Andrew Jackson, Hero of New Orleans, Jackson, Andrew, Jacksoninan Party (United States), Major General Andrew Jackson, President Andrew Jackson, President Andrew Jackson’s, President Jackson, President Old Hickory, Robert B. Randolph, Seventh President of the United States, Sharp Knife.