111 relations: Adam's apple, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenergic receptor, Aggression, American coot, Anabolic steroid, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Androgen receptor, Androgen replacement therapy, Andrology, Androphilia and gynephilia, Androstenediol, Androstenedione, Androsterone, Antiandrogen, Biosynthesis, Blood plasma, Body hair, Bodybuilding, Bodybuilding supplement, Brain, British Institute of Organ Studies, Bromodeoxyuridine, Cholesterol, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Dihydrotestosterone, Endocrine system, Epididymis, Epithelium, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrone, Exercise and androgen levels, Fertility, Flutamide, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Function (biology), Genetic disorder, Germ cell, Gonad, Gonadotropin, GPRC6A, Hippocampal formation, Hippocampus, Hoarse voice, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, ..., Human penis, Hypogonadism, Infant, Intermediate mesoderm, International Olympic Committee, Intersex, Karyotype, Libido, List of androgens/anabolic steroids, List of androgens/anabolic steroids available in the United States, List of steroid abbreviations, Liver, Luteinizing hormone, Major depressive disorder, Male contraceptive, Medication, Membrane androgen receptor, Mesonephric duct, Mesonephros, Metabolism, Metabolite, Muscle, Myocyte, Myometrium, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Neurogenesis, Neuron, Orchiectomy, Ovary, Paracrine signalling, Performance-enhancing substance, Preadolescence, Progesterone, Prostate, Puberty, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Seminal vesicle, Sex chromosome, Sex cords, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual arousal, Sexual dimorphism, Sinauer Associates, Skeletal muscle, Social isolation, Spermatogenesis, Steroid hormone, Sunderland, Massachusetts, Testicle, Testis-determining factor, Testosterone, Testosterone and the cardiovascular system, Trans man, Urine, Uterine contraction, Vas deferens, Vertebrate, Y chromosome, Zona reticularis. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
The American coot (Fulica americana), also known as a mud hen, is a bird of the family Rallidae.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition in which there is a partial or complete inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), is a class of hormone replacement therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are replaced.
Andrology (from ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization.
Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
s are s commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The British Institute of Organ Studies, more commonly known by its acronym BIOS, is a British organisation and registered charity which aims to promote study and appreciation of all aspects of the pipe organ.
Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, BUdR, BrdUrd, broxuridine) is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analog of thymidine.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Physical exercise has been found to be associated with changes in androgen levels.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Flutamide, sold under the brand name Eulexin among others, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) which is used primarily to treat prostate cancer.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC6A gene.
The hippocampal formation is a compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Intermediate mesenchyme or intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm (an embryological tissue) that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
This is a list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) or testosterone derivatives.
This is a complete list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) and formulations that are approved by the and available in the United States.
The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which bind and are activated by testosterone and/or other androgens.
The mesonephric duct (also known as the Wolffian duct, archinephric duct, Leydig's duct or nephric duct) is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis.
The mesonephros (middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
In embryogenesis, the sex cords, (primitive sex cords or gonadal cords) are structures that develop from the gonadal ridges.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sinauer Associates, Inc. is a publisher of college-level textbooks.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Sunderland is a town in Franklin County, Massachusetts, United States, part of the Pioneer Valley.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The predominant androgen in men, testosterone, has shown to substantially decline throughout the aging process.
A trans man (sometimes trans-man or transman) is a man who was assigned female at birth (AFAB).
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla.