35 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Adrenal cortex, Anabolic steroid, Androgen, Androstane, Androstenedione, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Biological activity, Biosynthesis, Clinical trial, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Endogeny (biology), Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Immune system, In vivo, Ionizing radiation, Ligand (biochemistry), Metabolite, Natural product, Oral administration, Placebo, Platelet, Rat, Reaction intermediate, Rhesus macaque, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Testosterone, United States Department of Health and Human Services, White blood cell, 3β-Androstanediol, 4-Androstenediol.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a triservice laboratory in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and was chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
4-Androstenediol, also known as androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an androstenediol that is converted to testosterone.