208 relations: Abetalipoproteinemia, Acer rubrum, Adverse drug reaction, Alcoholism, Allium, American Society of Nephrology, Amoebiasis, Anemia of chronic disease, Anemia of prematurity, Angina, Angiodysplasia, Angular cheilitis, Antibody, Aplastic anemia, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Automated analyser, Bleeding, Blood, Blood cell, Blood film, Blood product, Blood transfusion, Bone marrow, Bone marrow examination, Cardiac output, Cardiac surgery, Cat, Choosing Wisely, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Claudication, Coeliac disease, Cold agglutinin disease, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, Conjunctiva, Coronary artery disease, Creatinine, Cyanocobalamin, Dietary supplement, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, DNA replication, Dog, Endocrine disease, Epoetin alfa, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Erythropoiesis, Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, ..., Erythropoietin, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Fanconi anemia, Fatigue, Fecal occult blood, Femtolitre, Ferritin, Fibroma, Flow cytometry, Folate, Folate deficiency, Functional murmur, Gastric bypass surgery, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic disorder, George Minot, George Whipple, Globin, Glossitis, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Glutathione synthetase, Glycolysis, Heart, Heart failure, Heavy metals, Heinz body, Helicobacter pylori, Hematocrit, Hematology, Heme, Hemodialysis, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin electrophoresis, Hemoglobinopathy, Hemolysis, Hemolytic anemia, Hemolytic disease of the newborn, Hepcidin, Hereditary elliptocytosis, Hereditary spherocytosis, Hexokinase, Hookworm infection, Horse, Human iron metabolism, Hyperbaric medicine, Hyperdynamic circulation, Hypervolemia, Hypothyroidism, Idiopathic disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Injury, Intelligence quotient, Intrinsic factor, Iron, Iron deficiency, Iron supplement, Iron(II) fumarate, Iron(II) gluconate, Iron(II) sulfate, Iron-deficiency anemia, Ischemia, Jaundice, Jehovah's Witnesses and blood transfusions, Kidney failure, Koilonychia, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lead poisoning, Leg, Liver disease, Macrocytic anemia, Macrocytosis, Malabsorption, Malaria, Mean, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, Mean corpuscular volume, Medicine, Megaloblastic anemia, Menorrhagia, Menstruation, Mentzer index, Methotrexate, Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, Microcytic anemia, Microscope, Mucous membrane, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myelophthisic anemia, Nail (anatomy), Nematode, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Normocytic anemia, Nucleated red blood cell, Onion, Operational definition, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Pallor, Palpitations, Paracetamol, Parietal cell, Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Penny (United States coin), Peptic ulcer disease, Perfusion, Peripheral neuropathy, Pica (disorder), Polyp (medicine), Presyncope, Pure red cell aplasia, Pyruvate kinase, Recombinant DNA, Red blood cell, Red blood cell distribution width, Religion, Renal function, Restless legs syndrome, Reticulocyte, Reticulocyte production index, Review article, Rh disease, Schistosomiasis, Serum iron, Shortness of breath, Sickle cell disease, Sideroblastic anemia, Skin, Spleen, Standard deviation, Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, Surgery, Systemic inflammation, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tachycardia, Thalassemia, Therapy, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Transferrin, Transmission (medicine), Trichuris trichiura, Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, Ulcer, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Ventricular hypertrophy, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Vitamin C, Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Watson's water hammer pulse, Weakness, White blood cell, William P. Murphy, Zidovudine, Zinc. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
Abetalipoproteinemia is a disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food.
Acer rubrum, the red maple, also known as swamp, water or soft maple, is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern and central North America.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives.
Founded in 1966, the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is the world’s largest professional society devoted to the study of kidney disease.
Amoebiasis, also known amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any of the amoebae of the Entamoeba group.
Anemia of chronic disease, or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.
Anemia of prematurity refers to a form of anemia affecting preterm infants with decreased hematocrit.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut.
Angular cheilitis (AC) is inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Claudication is a medical term usually referring to impairment in walking, or pain, discomfort, numbness, or tiredness in the legs that occurs during walking or standing and is relieved by rest.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cold agglutinin disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of high concentrations of circulating antibodies, usually IgM, directed against red blood cells.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) is a rare blood disorder, similar to the thalassemias.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
Epoetin alfa (rINN) is a human erythropoietin produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are medications which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, (EGD) also called by various other names, is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract down to the duodenum.
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease resulting in impaired response to DNA damage.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fecal occult blood (FOB) refers to blood in the feces that is not visibly apparent (unlike other types of blood in stool such as melena or hematochezia).
The femtolitre (US femtoliter) is the metric unit of volume equal to 10−15 litres, or one thousand trillionth (European) or one quadrillionth (American) litre.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
Fibromas (or fibroid tumors or fibroids) are benign tumors that are composed of fibrous or connective tissue.
In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
A functional murmur (innocent murmur, physiologic murmur) is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself.
Gastric bypass surgery refers to a surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch and then the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both.
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 – February 25, 1950) was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia.
George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, pathologist, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator.
The globins are a superfamily of heme-containing globular proteins, involved in binding and/or transporting oxygen.
Glossitis can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis).
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD) is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.
Glutathione synthetase (GSS) (EC 220.127.116.11) is the second enzyme in the glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis pathway.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Heinz bodies (also referred to as "Heinz-Ehrlich bodies") are inclusions within red blood cells composed of denatured hemoglobin.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a blood test that can detect different types of hemoglobin.
Hemoglobinopathy is a kind of genetic defect that results in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a peripartum fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta.
Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene.
Hereditary elliptocytosis, also known as ovalocytosis, is an inherited blood disorder in which an abnormally large number of the patient's erythrocytes (i.e. red blood cells) are elliptical rather than the typical biconcave disc shape.
Hereditary spherocytosis (also known as Minkowski–Chauffard syndrome) is an abnormality of red blood cells, or erythrocytes.
A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.
Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at the systemic and cellular level.
Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.
Hyperdynamic circulation is abnormally increased circulatory volume.
Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.
Iron(II) fumarate, also known as ferrous fumarate, is the iron(II) salt of fumaric acid, occurring as a reddish-orange powder, used to supplement iron intake.
Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate, is a black compound often used as an iron supplement.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible prohibits ingesting blood and that Christians should not accept blood transfusions or donate or store their own blood for transfusion.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Koilonychia (from the Greek: koilos-, hollow, onikh-, nail), also known as spoon nails,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
The term macrocytic is from Greek words meaning "large cell".
Macrocytosis is the enlargement of red blood cells with near-constant hemoglobin concentration, and is defined by a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of greater than 100 femtolitres (the precise criterion varies between laboratories).
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), or "mean cell hemoglobin" (MCH), is the average mass of hemoglobin per red blood cell in a sample of blood.
The Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, a measure of the concentration of haemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells.
The mean corpuscular volume, or mean cell volume (MCV), is a measure of the average volume of a red blood corpuscle (or red blood cell).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
The Mentzer index, described in 1973 by Mentzer, is said to be helpful in differentiating iron deficiency anemia from beta thalassemia.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
In medicine (hematology), microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a microangiopathic subgroup of hemolytic anemia (loss of red blood cells through destruction) caused by factors in the small blood vessels.
Microcytic anaemia is any of several types of anaemia characterized by small red blood cells (called microcytes).
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.
Myelophthisic anemia (or myelophthisis) is a severe type of anemia found in some people with diseases that affect the bone marrow.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Normocytic anemia is a type of anemia and is a common issue that occurs for men and women typically over 85 years old.
With the exception of mammals, all vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin-containing cells in their blood and all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood characterized by destruction of red blood cells by the complement system, a part of the body's innate immune system.
The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia); drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); or feces (coprophagia); and chalk.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
Presyncope is a state of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint (as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting).
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) or erythroblastopenia refers to a type of anemia affecting the precursors to red blood cells but not to white blood cells.
X-ray Crystallography Derived --> Pyruvate kinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW or RDW-CV or RCDW and RDW-SD) is a measure of the range of variation of red blood cell (RBC) volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red blood cells in the human body.
The reticulocyte production index (RPI), also called a corrected reticulocyte count (CRC), is a calculated value used in the diagnosis of anemia.
A review article is an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic.
Rh disease (also known as rhesus isoimmunisation, Rh (D) disease, rhesus incompatibility, rhesus disease, RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn, rhesus D hemolytic disease of the newborn or RhD HDN) is a type of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
Serum iron is a medical laboratory test that measures the amount of circulating iron that is bound to transferrin.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheim's disease, refers to degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), vitamin E deficiency, and copper deficiency.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Chronic systemic inflammation (SI) is the result of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from immune-related cells and the chronic activation of the innate immune system.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive microscopic clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body, resulting in low platelet counts.
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura or Trichocephalus trichiuris) is a round worm (a type of helminth) that causes trichuriasis (a type of helminthiasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases) when it infects a human large intestine.
Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues or haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system.
An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.
The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is an organization based in the US which supports research on matters of hyperbaric medicine and physiology, and provides a certificate of added qualification for physicians with an unrestricted license to practice medicine and for limited licensed practitioners, at the completion of the Program for Advanced Training in Hyperbaric Medicine.
Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is the most common form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
Watson's water hammer pulse, also known as Corrigan's pulse or collapsing pulse, is the medical sign which describes a pulse that is bounding and forceful, rapidly increasing and subsequently collapsing, as if it were the sound of a waterhammer that was causing the pulse.
Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
William Parry Murphy (Stoughton, Wisconsin, February 6, 1892 – October 9, 1987) was an American physician who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and George Hoyt Whipple for their combined work in devising and treating macrocytic anemia (specifically, pernicious anemia).
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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