94 relations: Acetylcholine receptor, Adjuvant, Alcuronium chloride, Alfentanil, Amide, Amobarbital, Analgesic, Anesthesia awareness, Atracurium besilate, Barbiturate, Benzocaine, Benzodiazepine, Blood–gas partition coefficient, Bradycardia, Bupivacaine, Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Catalepsy, Cinchocaine, Cisatracurium besilate, Cocaine, Decamethonium, Desflurane, Diazepam, Doxacurium chloride, Dream, Enflurane, Ester, Etidocaine, Etomidate, Fentanyl, Flumazenil, Gallamine triethiodide, General anaesthetic, Halothane, Heroin, Hydromorphone, Illusion, Inhalational anaesthetic, Intensive care unit, Intrathecal administration, Intubation, Isoflurane, Ketamine, Levobupivacaine, Levorphanol, Lidocaine, Local anesthetic, Lorazepam, Malignant hyperthermia, ..., Mepivacaine, Methadone, Methohexital, Methoxyflurane, Metocurine, Midazolam, Minimum alveolar concentration, Mivacurium chloride, Morphine, Nalbuphine, Naloxone, Neostigmine, Neurodegeneration, Nitrous oxide, Organ (anatomy), Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Pancuronium bromide, Pentazocine, Pethidine, Pipecuronium bromide, Preservative, Prilocaine, Procaine, Propofol, Racemic mixture, Rapacuronium bromide, Remifentanil, Rocuronium bromide, Ropivacaine, Sedation, Sevoflurane, Sleep, Sodium channel, Sodium thiopental, Sufentanil, Sugammadex, Suxamethonium chloride, Tetracaine, Thiamylal, Trade name, Tubocurarine chloride, Vecuronium bromide, Xenon. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
An adjuvant is a pharmacological or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents.
Alcuronium chloride is a neuromuscular blocking (NMB) agent, alternatively referred to as a skeletal muscle relaxant.
Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone or sodium amytal) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anesthesia awareness, also referred to as accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) or unintended intra-operative awareness, is a potential complication occurring during general anesthesia where the intended state of complete unconsciousness is not maintained throughout the whole procedure.
Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Blood–gas partition coefficient, also known as Ostwald coefficient for blood–gas, is a term used in pharmacology to describe the solubility of inhaled general anesthetics in blood.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Bupivacaine, marketed under the brand name Marcaine among others, is a medication used to decrease feeling in a specific area.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Butorphanol (BC 2627) is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers.
Catalepsy (from Greek κατάληψις "seizing, grasping") is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain.
Cinchocaine (INN/BAN) or dibucaine (USAN) is an amide local anesthetic.
Cisatracurium besilate (INN; cisatracurium besylate (USAN); formerly recognized as 51W89; trade name Nimbex) is a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinolinium that has effect as a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Decamethonium (Syncurine) is a depolarizing muscle relaxant or neuromuscular blocking agent, and is used in anesthesia to induce paralysis.
Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Doxacurium chloride (formerly recognized as BW938U80 or BW A938U) is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Etidocaine, marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery.
Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.
Gallamine triethiodide (Flaxedil) is a non-depolarising muscle relaxant.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Levobupivacaine (rINN) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group.
Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
Mepivacaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methohexital or methohexitone (marketed under the brand names Brevital and Brietal) is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative.
Methoxyflurane, formerly marketed as Penthrane, is a halogenated ether that was in clinical use as a volatile inhalational anesthetic from its introduction in 1960 until the late 1970s.
Metocurine is a muscle relaxant through neuromuscular blockade.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.
Mivacurium chloride (formerly recognized as BW1090U81, BW B1090U or BW1090U) is a short-duration non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Nalbuphine, sold under the brand names Nubain and Nalpain among others, is a opioid analgesic which is used in the treatment of pain.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Neostigmine, sold under the brand name Prostigmin among others, is a medication used to treat myasthenia gravis, Ogilvie syndrome, and urinary retention without the presence of a blockage.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Pancuronium (trademarked as Pavulon) is an aminosteroid muscle relaxant with various medical uses.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Pipecuronium (Arduan) is a bisquaternary aminosteroid muscle relaxant which blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren.
Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Rapacuronium bromide (brand name Raplon) is a rapidly acting, non-depolarizing aminosteroid neuromuscular blocker formerly used in modern anaesthesia, to aid and enable endotracheal intubation, which is often necessary to assist in the controlled ventilation of unconscious patients during surgery and sometimes in intensive care.
Remifentanil is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
Rocuronium bromide (brand names Zemuron, Esmeron) is an aminosteroid non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker or muscle relaxant used in modern anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation by providing skeletal muscle relaxation, most commonly required for surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Ropivacaine (rINN) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.
Sufentanil (R30730, brand name Sufenta) is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately 5 to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl, and 500 times as potent as morphine.
Sugammadex (Org 25969, tradename Bridion) is an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockade by the agent rocuronium in general anaesthesia.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is a local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat.
Thiamylal (Surital) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1950s.
A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.
Tubocurarine (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison.
Vecuronium bromide, sold under the brand name Norcuron among others, is a medication used as part of general anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.