410 relations: Adela of Champagne, Adolf of Altena, Agen, Alan, 1st Earl of Richmond, Albi, Alexander II of Scotland, Alfonso II of Aragon, Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Alnwick, Alternate history, Alys of France, Countess of Vexin, Amboise, Amiens, Ancient Diocese of Dol, Angers, Angevin kings of England, Anglo-French War (1213–1214), Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Saxons, Angoulême, Anjou, Annulment, Aquitaine, Archbishop of Canterbury, Argentan, Arques-la-Bataille, Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, Auvergne, Avranches, Aymer of Angoulême, Évreux, Bailiff (France), Baldwin I, Latin Emperor, Baron, Basilica of St Denis, Basque language, Battle of Alnwick (1174), Battle of Bouvines, Battle of Crogen, Battle of Damme, Battle of Lincoln (1141), Battle of Tinchebray, Battle of Toulouse (721), Baugé, Bayonne, Beaufort-en-Vallée, Beaugency, Berengaria of Navarre, ..., Berry, France, Bertha, Duchess of Brittany, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bonsmoulins, 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Adela of Champagne (Adèle; c. 1140 – 4 June 1206), also known as Adelaide and Alix, was Queen of France as the third wife of Louis VII.
Adolf of Altena, Adolf of Berg or Adolf of Cologne, (c. 1157 – 15 April 1220 in Neuss) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1193 to 1205.
The commune of Agen is the prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Alan of Penthièvre of Brittany, 1st Earl of Richmond, 1st Earl of Cornwall (before 1100 – 15 September 1146), Breton Alan Penteur, also known as "Alan the Black", was a Breton noble who fought for Stephen, King of England.
Albi (Albi) is a commune in southern France.
Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim; 24 August 11986 July 1249) was King of Scots from 1214 until his death in 1249.
Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995),, p. 630-631; in Hidalguía. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hijo de Petronila y Ramón Berenguer IV, nació en Huesca en 1157;". Cfr. Josefina Mateu Ibars, María Dolores Mateu Ibars (1980).. Universitat Barcelona, p. 546.,.Antonio Ubieto Arteta (1987).. Zaragoza: Anúbar, § "El nacimiento y nombre de Alfonso II de Aragón".. – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death.
Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
Alnwick is a market town in north Northumberland, England, of which it is the traditional county town.
Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.
Alys of France, Countess of Vexin (4 October 1160 – c. 1220) was the daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile.
Amboise is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
The Breton and French Catholic diocese of Dol existed from 848 to the French Revolution.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
The Angevins ("from Anjou") were a royal house that ruled England in the 12th and early 13th centuries; its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John.
The Anglo-French War was a war between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Angoulême (Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Argentan is a commune and the seat of two cantons and of an arrondissement in the Orne department in northwestern France.
Arques-la-Bataille is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.
Arthur I (Arzhur Iañ; Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203.
Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Aymer (also Aymar, Adhemar, Ademar, or Adomar; c. 1160 – 16 June 1202) was the last Count of Angoulême of the House of Taillefer.
Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy.
A bailiff (bailli) was the king’s administrative representative during the ancien régime in northern France, where the bailiff was responsible for the application of justice and control of the administration and local finances in his bailiwick (baillage).
Baldwin I (Boudewijn; Baudouin; July 1172 –) was the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Battle of Alnwick (1174) is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland, England.
The Battle of Bouvines, was a medieval battle fought on 27 July 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders.
The Battle of Crogen took place in the Ceiriog Valley, Wales in 1165, between the vanguard of the forces of Henry II of England and an alliance of Welsh princes led by Owain Gwynedd.
The Battle of Damme was fought on 30 May and 31 May 1213.
The Battle of Lincoln, or the First Battle of Lincoln, occurred on 2 February 1141 between King Stephen of England and forces loyal to Empress Matilda.
The Battle of Tinchebray (alternate spellings Tinchebrai or Tenchebrai) was fought 28 September 1106, in Tinchebray (today in Orne département of France), Normandy, between an invading force led by King Henry I of England, and his elder brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy.
The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani.
Baugé is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire département in western France.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Beaufort-en-Vallée is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Beaugency is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Berengaria of Navarre (Berengela, Berenguela, Bérengère; 1165–1170 – 23 December 1230) was Queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England.
Berry is a region located in the center of France.
Bertha of Cornouaille (fl. 1125-55), also known as Bertha of Brittany (Berthe Breizh), was hereditary Duchess of Brittany between 1148 until her death and Dowager Countess of Richmond.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Bonsmoulins is a commune in the Orne department in northwestern France.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brissac-Quincé is a former commune of the Maine-et-Loire département, in France.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brut y Tywysogion (Chronicle of the Princes), also known as Brut y Tywysogyon, is one of the most important primary sources for Welsh history.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Cahors (Caors) is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet.
The Capetian–Plantagenet rivalry is a series of conflicts and disputes that covers a period of 100 years (1159-1259), during which the House of Capet, rulers of the Kingdom of France, fought against the House of Plantagenet also known as the House of Anjou, rulers of the Kingdom of England in order to suppress the growing power of the Plantagenet-controlled Angevin Empire.
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
Châlus is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
The Château d'Aguilar is a 12th-century castle, one of the so-called Cathar castles, located in the commune of Tuchan in the Aude département of France.
The Château de Falaise is a castle located in the south of the commune of Falaise ("cliff" in French) in the Calvados département of Calvados, in the region of Normandy, France.
The Château de Gisors is a castle in the town of Gisors in the départment of Eure, France.
The Château de Loches (also called Le Logis Royal de Loches) is a castle located in the département of Indre-et-Loire in the Loire valley in France; it was constructed in the 9th century.
The Château de Quéribus (in Occitan Castèl de Queribús) is a ruined castle in the commune of Cucugnan in the Aude département of France.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
Chinon is a commune located in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Region Centre, France.
Colchester is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
Conan III, also known as Conan of Cornouaille and Conan the Fat (Konan III a Vreizh, and Konan Kerne; c. 1093–1096 – September 17, 1148) was duke of Brittany, from 1112 to his death.
Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 – February 20, 1171), (Breton: Konan IV Penteur, and Konan Breizh) called "the Young", was duke of Brittany, from 1156 to 1166.
ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade.
Conrad of Wittelsbach (ca. 1120/1125 – 25 October 1200) was the Archbishop of Mainz (as Conrad I) and Archchancellor of Germany from 20 June 1161 to 1165 and again from 1183 to his death.
Constance of Castile (1136 or 1140 - 4 October 1160) was Queen of France as the second wife of Louis VII, who married her following the annulment of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Constance of France (1124–1176) was a French princess of the House of Capet, the only daughter of Louis VI of France and his second wife Adélaide de Maurienne.
Constance (Breton: Konstanza; 1161 – c. 5 September 1201) was Duchess of Brittany from 1166 to her death in 1201Judith Everard, Michael Jones, The Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany and her Family (1171-1221), The Boydell Press, 1999, p. 38 and Countess of Richmond from 1171 to 1201.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Cotswolds is an area in south central England containing the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills which rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
The Count of Boulogne is a historical title in the kingdom of France.
The Count of Champagne was the ruler of the region of Champagne from 950 to 1316.
The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.
The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
The County of Aumale, later elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy.
This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, with their capital at Le Mans.
The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France.
County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.
The County of Artois was an historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Marche (la Marcha) was a medieval French county, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse.
The county of Meulan, in Normandy, France, appeared as an entity within the region of the Vexin when the otherwise unknown Count Waleran established an independent power base on a fortified island in the River Seine, around the year 1020.
The Counts of Nantes were originally the Frankish rulers of the Nantais under the Carolingians and eventually a capital city of the Duchy of Brittany.
The County of Toulouse was a territory in southern France consisting of the city of Toulouse and its environs, ruled by the Count of Toulouse from the late 9th century until the late 13th century.
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
David Bruce Crouch, (born 31 October 1953) is a Welsh historian and academic.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
Dax (Dacs in Occitan) is a commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, sub-prefecture of the Landes department.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Dean of St Paul's is a member of, and chairman of the Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral in London in the Church of England.
Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia).
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.
Dirk VII of Holland (died November 4, 1203, Dordrecht), also known as Dietrich in German, Thierry in French, and Theodoric in English, was Count of Holland from 1190 to 1203.
Dol-de-Bretagne (Gallo: Dóu), cited in most historical records under its Breton name of Dol, is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany in northwestern France.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The now-extinct title of Earl of Richmond was created many times in the Peerage of England.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eleanor of England (Leonor; 13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214), or Eleanor Plantaganet, was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
English Gothic is an architectural style originating in France, before then flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520.
Entre-Deux-Mers is a wine region in Bordeaux, in France.
Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126.
Eu is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Eustace IV (c. 1127–1135 – 17 August 1153), Count of Boulogne, was the eldest son of King Stephen of England and Countess Matilda I of Boulogne.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England.
The Royal Abbey of Our Lady of Fontevraud or Fontevrault (in French: abbaye de Fontevraud) was a monastery in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in Anjou, France.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Normandy Campaigns were wars in Normandy from 1202 to 1204.
The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.
Fulk IV (in French Foulques IV) (1043–14 April 1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death.
Fulk (Fulco, Foulque or Foulques; c. 1089/92 – 13 November 1143), also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Geoffrey I of Anjou (– 21 July 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Grey Gown" or "Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.
Geoffrey II (Jafrez;, Anglo-Norman: Geoffroy; 23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
Geoffrey VI (1 June 1134 – 27 July 1158) was Count of Nantes from 1156 to 1158.
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
Gisors is a commune of Normandy, France.
The gold penny was a medieval English coin with a value of twenty pence.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry I (December 1127 – March 16, 1181), known as the Liberal, was count of Champagne from 1152 to 1181.
Henry I of Brabant (Henri I de Brabant, Hendrik I van Brabant; 1165 – 5 September 1235), named "The Courageous", was a member of the House of Reginar and first Duke of Brabant from 1183/84 until his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry III (– 21 June 1221) was the Duke of Limburg and Count of Arlon from 1165 to his death.
Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183), was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France.
The history of Limousin (Lemosin), one of the traditional provinces of France, reaches back to Celtic and Roman times.
This is the history of the English penny from the years 1154 to 1485.
Hoèl of Cornwall (died 1156) was count of Nantes, from 1148 to his death.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Ingelger (French: Ingelgeriens) was the first dynasty in Anjou.
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent (c. 1170 – before 5 May 1243) was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of King John (1199–1216) and of his infant son and successor King Henry III (1216–1272).
Hubert Walter (– 13 July 1205) was an influential royal adviser in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries in the positions of Chief Justiciar of England, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor.
Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
Hugh III (1142 – August 25, 1192) was duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192.
Hugh IX "le Brun" of Lusignan (1163/1168 – 5 November 1219) was the grandson of Hugh VIII.
Umberto III (1136, Avigliana, Piedmont – 4 March 1188, Chambéry, Savoy), surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1188.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England.
Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning "Emperor of all Spain".
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
Isabella of Angoulême (Isabelle d'Angoulême,; c. 1186/1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216.
Isabella, Countess of Gloucester (c. 1173 – 14 October 1217), was an English noblewoman who was married to King John prior to his accession.
Jedburgh (Deadard; Jeddart or Jethart) is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and the traditional county town of the historic county of Roxburghshire.
John Bennett Gillingham (born 3 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
John of Salisbury (c. 1120 – 25 October 1180), who described himself as Johannes Parvus ("John the Little"), was an English author, philosopher, educationalist, diplomat and bishop of Chartres, and was born at Salisbury.
In 1185, Henry II of England's son John, then Lord of Ireland and future King of England, travelled from England to Ireland to consolidate the Anglo-Norman colonisation of Ireland.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
In Medieval England and Scotland the Chief Justiciar (later known simply as the Justiciar) was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister as the monarch's chief minister.
Kate Norgate (1853–1935) was a British historian.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is a seaport and market town in Norfolk, England, about north of London, north-east of Peterborough, north north-east of Cambridge and west of Norwich.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Langeais is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Le Neubourg is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.
Le Vaudreuil is a commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.
Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
The leopard in heraldry is traditionally depicted the same as a lion, but in a walking position with its head turned to full face, thus it is also known as a lion passant guardant in some texts, though leopards more naturally depicted make some appearances in modern heraldry.
Leopold V (1157 – 31 December 1194), known as the Virtuous (der Tugendhafte), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.
This is a list of the bishops and prince-bishops of Liège.
Count of Vendôme, and, later, Duke of Vendôme, were French titles of nobility.
The County of Mortain was a medieval county in France centered on the town of Mortain.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Medieval Irish historical tradition held that Ireland had been ruled by an Ard Rí or High King since ancient times, and compilations like the 11th-century Lebor Gabála Érenn, followed by early modern works like the Annals of the Four Masters and Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, purported to trace the line of High Kings.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre.
This is a list of rulers of the Duchy of Brittany.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The first viscounts of Thouars appeared at the end of the 9th century, somewhat earlier than those of Châtellerault, Lusignan, etc.
Loches is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
The county of Perche was a medieval county lying between Normandy and Maine.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Loudun is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Louis I of Blois (1172 – 14 April 1205) was Count of Blois from 1191 to 1205.
Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young; Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death.
Louis VIII the Lion (Louis VIII le Lion; 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) was King of France from 1223 to 1226.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
Malcolm IV (Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig), nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 11419 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria (died 1152) and Ada de Warenne.
Mantes-la-Jolie (often informally called Mantes) is a commune based in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Margaret of France (Marguerite, Margit; 1157 – 18 September 1197) was queen of England by marriage to Henry the Young King, and queen of Hungary and Croatia by marriage to Béla III of Hungary.
Margaret of Huntingdon (1145–1201) was a Scottish princess and Duchess of Brittany.
Marie I or Mary (1136 – 25 July 1182 in St Austrebert, Montreuil, France) was the suo jure Countess of Boulogne from 1159 to 1170.
Marie of France (1145 – March 11, 1198) was a French princess and Countess consort of Champagne.
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.
Matilda of Anjou, also known as Mahaut (c. 1106 – 1154) was married in 1119 to William Adelin, son and heir of Henry I of England.
Matthew, Count of Boulogne, also known as Matthew of Alsace (–1173) was the second son of Thierry, Count of Flanders and Sibylla of Anjou.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
Mirebeau is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Montbazon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Mortain is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Moulins-la-Marche is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neuf-Marché is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Nottingham Castle is a castle in Nottingham, England.
Odo the Great (also called Eudes or Eudo) (died 735), was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700.
Eudes/Odo II, Count of Porhoet (died after 1180) was the son of Geoffroy, Vicomte de Porhoët, and his wife Hawise (possibly Fergant).
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
Owain ap Gruffudd (23 or 28 November 1170) was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Périgord (Occitan: Peiregòrd / Perigòrd) is a natural region and former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région.
Perche (French: le Perche) is a former province or county of northwestern France, best known for its forests and its Percheron work horse.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peyrepertuse is a ruined fortress and one of the so-called Cathar castles located high in the French Pyrénées in the commune of Duilhac-sous-Peyrepertuse, in the Aude département, and has been associated with the Counts of Narbonne and Barcelona.
Philip of Alsace (1143 – 1 August 1191) was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Policraticus was the first book of political science to be produced during the Middle Ages.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Puylaurens (Puèglaurenç) is a commune in the Tarn department in southern France.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Quercy (Carcin, locally) is a former province of France located in the country's southwest, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and on the east by Rouergue and Auvergne.
Ralph de Diceto (d. c. 1202) was archdeacon of Middlesex, dean of St Paul's Cathedral (from c. 1180), and author of two chronicles, the Abbreviationes chronicorum and the Ymagines historiarum.
The Ramnulfids, or the House of Poitiers, were a French dynasty ruling the County of Poitou and Duchy of Aquitaine in the 9th through 12th centuries.
Ramon Berenguer IV (c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.
Raymond V (Ramon; c. 1134 – c. 1194) was Count of Toulouse from 1148 until his death in 1194.
Raymond VI (Ramon; October 27, 1156 – August 2, 1222) was Count of Toulouse and Marquis of Provence from 1194 to 1222.
Renaud de Dammartin (Reginald of Boulogne) (c. 1165 – 1227) was Count of Boulogne from 1190, Count of Dammartin from 1200 to 1214 and Count of Aumale from 1204 to 1214.
The Revolt of 1173–74 was a rebellion against King Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their rebel supporters.
Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd (often anglicised to "Griffith") (1132 – 28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Robert Curthose (3 February 1134), sometimes called Robert II or Robert III, was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England.
Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great (– 11 October 1188), was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne.
Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious (le Pieux) or the Wise (le Sage), was King of the Franks from 996 until his death.
Robert II (c. 1065 – 5 October 1111) was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111.
Robert of Gloucester (fl. c. 1260 – c. 1300) wrote a chronicle of British, English, and Norman history sometime in the mid- or late-thirteenth century.
Robert FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 1147David Crouch, ‘Robert, first earl of Gloucester (b. before 1100, d. 1147)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006) (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England.
Rochester is a town and was a historic city in the unitary authority of Medway in Kent, England.
Roger of Hoveden or Howden (fl. 1174–1201) was a 12th-century English chronicler.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bordeaux (–Bazas) (Latin: Archidioecesis Burdigalensis (–Bazensis); French: Archidiocèse de Bordeaux (–Bazas); Occitan: Archidiocèsi de Bordèu (–Vasats)) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin: Archidioecesis Turonensis; French: Archidiocèse de Tours) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Roxburgh, also known as Rosbroch, is a civil parish and now-destroyed royal burgh, in its eponymous historic county of Roxburghshire in the Scottish Borders.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193.
Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over west of central London.
Sablé-sur-Sarthe, commonly referred to as Sablé, is a commune in the Sarthe department, in the Pays de la Loire region, in western France.
Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) is a commune in France.
Saintonge, historically spelled Xaintonge and Xainctonge, is a former province of France located on the west central Atlantic coast.
Sancho Garcés VI (Antso VI.a; 21 April 1132 - 27 June 1194), called the Wise (Jakituna, el Sabio) was King of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194.
Sancho VII (Antso VII.a; 1157 - 7 April 1234) called the Strong (Azkarra, el Fuerte) was King of Navarre from 1194 until his death in 1234.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
Saumur is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
A seneschal was a senior court appointment within a royal, ducal, or noble household during the Middle Ages and early Modern period, historically a steward or majordomo of a medieval great house, such as a royal household.
A seneschal (siniscallus, Vulgar or old Frankish Latin, also dapifer) was an officer of an aristocratic household assigned to manage the domestic affairs of the lord.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Sibylla (French: "Sibylle", c. 1160–1190) was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190.
The Siege of Acre was the first significant counter attack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Stephen II Henry (in French, Étienne Henri, in Medieval French, Estienne Henri; – 19 May 1102), Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Gersent of Le Mans.
Stephen (Étienne; – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy from 1135 until 1144.
Suger (Sugerius; 1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, statesman, and historian.
Termes is a commune in the Aude department in southern France.
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order.
Theobald the Great (French: Thibaut de Blois) (1090–1152) was Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV from 1102 and was Count of Champagne and of Brie as Theobald II from 1125.
Theobald V of Blois (1130 – 20 January 1191), also known as Theobald the Good (Thibaut le Bon), was Count of Blois from 1151 to 1191.
Theoderic (Diederik, Thierry, Dietrich; – January 17, 1168), commonly known as Thierry of Alsace, was the fifteenth count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
The Throne of England is the English term used to identify the throne of the Monarch of England.
Tickhill Castle was a castle in Tickhill, on the Nottingham/Yorkshire West Riding border, England and a prominent stronghold during the reign of King John.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Falaise was an agreement made in December 1174 between the captive William I, King of Scots, and Henry II, King of England.
The Treaty of Lambeth of 1217, also known as the Treaty of Kingston to distinguish it from the Treaty of Lambeth of 1212, was a peace treaty signed by Prince Louis of France in September 1217 ending the campaign known as the First Barons' War to uphold the claim by Louis to the throne of England.
The Treaty of Le Goulet was signed by the kings John of England and Philip II of France in May 1200 and aimed to ultimately settle the claims the Angevin kings of England had on French lands.
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
The Treaty of Wallingford, also known as the Treaty of Winchester or the Treaty of Westminster, was an agreement reached in England in the summer of 1153.
The Trencavel were an important noble family in Languedoc during the 10th through 13th centuries.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Urraca (April 1079 – 8 March 1126) called the Reckless (la Temeraria), was Queen of León, Castile, and Galicia from 1109 until her death in childbirth.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vendôme is a town in central France and is a subprefecture of the department of Loir-et-Cher.
Vernon is a commune in the department of Eure in the Normandy region in northern France.
Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the region that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland;R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England.
The White Ship (real name: la Blanche-Nef, Latin documents Candida navis) was a vessel that sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on 25 November 1120.
William Ætheling (5 August 1103 – 25 November 1120), commonly called Adelin, sometimes Adelinus, Adelingus, A(u)delin or other Latinised Norman-French variants of Ætheling, was the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir apparent to the throne.
William Clito (25 October 1102 – 28 July 1128) reigned as Count of Flanders and claimed the Duchy of Normandy.
William des Roches (died 1222) (in French Guillaume des Roches) was a French knight and crusader who acted as Seneschal of Anjou, of Maine and of Touraine.
William FitzEmpress (22 July 1136 at Argentan, Normandy, – 30 January 1164 at Rouen, Normandy) was the youngest of the three sons of Empress Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
William FitzRalph was the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests from 1169 to 1177.
William Fitzstephen (also William fitz Stephen), (died c. 1191) was a cleric and administrator in the service of Thomas Becket.
William I of Blois (c. 1137 – 11 October 1159) was Count of Boulogne (1153–1159) and Earl of Surrey jure uxoris (1153–1159).
William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 – 7 March 1226) ("Long Sword", Latinised to de Longa Spatha) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to his half-brother, King John.
William of Newburgh or Newbury (Guilelmus Neubrigensis, Wilhelmus Neubrigensis, or Willelmus de Novoburgo. 1136?–1198?), also known as William Parvus, was a 12th-century English historian and Augustinian canon of Anglo-Saxon descent from Bridlington, Yorkshire.
William the Breton (c. 1165 – c. 1225), French chronicler and poet, was a contemporary and dependent of French king Philip Augustus for whom he served in diplomatic missions and for whom he wrote a Latin prose chronicle and a Latin epic poem.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
William X (Guillém X in Occitan) (1099 – 9 April 1137), called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII) from 1126 to 1137.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.