121 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acute coronary syndrome, Amlodipine, Analgesic, Anemia, Angiography, Angioplasty, Antacid, Anxiety, Arthritis, Asphyxia, Aspirin, Asthma, Atenolol, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Autonomic nervous system, Beta blocker, Blood, Body mass index, Bradycardia, Calcium channel blocker, Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac stress test, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Carvedilol, Catheter, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chest pain, China, Claudication, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary catheterization, Coronary circulation, Dermatome (anatomy), Diabetes mellitus, Diseases of affluence, Dyslipidemia, Echocardiography, Electrocardiography, Embolism, Epigastrium, Esophageal motility disorder, Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, Family history (medicine), Fibrous cap, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, ..., Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypervolemia, Hypothermia, Hypovolemia, Hypoxemia, Ischemia, Isosorbide mononitrate, Ivabradine, Kidney disease, Latin, Lumen (anatomy), Medication, Microalbuminuria, Microvascular angina, Myocardial infarction, Nausea, Nicorandil, Nifedipine, Nitroglycerin, Nitroglycerin (drug), Obesity, Pain, Pallor, Perfusion, Peripheral artery disease, Platelet, Polycythemia, Precordial catch syndrome, Propranolol, Psychological stress, Psychosocial, Referred pain, Renal function, Sedentary lifestyle, Sexual intercourse, Sildenafil, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Spasm, Statin, Stenosis, Stent, Stroke, Sublingual administration, Sushruta, Sympathetic nervous system, Tachycardia, Tadalafil, Third World, Thrombus, Thyroid hormones, Tobacco smoking, Traditional Chinese medicine, Troponin, Unstable angina, UpToDate, Valvular heart disease, Vardenafil, Variant angina, Vascular occlusion, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasospasm, Vomiting, Weight loss, Wolters Kluwer. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.
Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris (sometimes referred to as the CCS Angina Grading Scale or the CCS Functional Classification of Angina) is a classification system used to grade the severity of exertional angina.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carvedilol, sold under the brand name Coreg among others, is a medication used for treating mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Claudication is a medical term usually referring to impairment in walking, or pain, discomfort, numbness, or tiredness in the legs that occurs during walking or standing and is relieved by rest.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
In anatomy, the epigastrium (or epigastric region) is the upper central region of the abdomen.
An esophageal motility disorder (EMD) is any medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain which can be brought on by an allergic reaction to certain foods.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of cardiology.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
The fibrous cap is a layer of fibrous connective tissue, which is thicker and less cellular than the normal intima, found in atherosclerotic plaques.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.
Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Isosorbide mononitrate is a drug used principally in the treatment of angina pectoris and acts by dilating the blood vessels so as to reduce the blood pressure.
Ivabradine, marketed under the trade name Corlanor among others, is a medication used for the symptomatic management of stable heart-related chest pain and heart failure not fully managed by beta blockers.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin.
Cardiac syndrome X is a historic term for microvascular angina, angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nicorandil is a vasodilatory drug used to treat angina.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Precordial catch syndrome (PCS) is a non-serious condition in which there are sharp stabbing pains in the chest.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Referred pain, also called reflective pain, is pain perceived at a location other than the site of the painful stimulus.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the name Cialis, and under the name Adcirca for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Unstable angina (UA) is a type of angina pectoris that is irregular.
UpToDate, Inc. (bip) is a company in the Wolters Kluwer Health division of Wolters Kluwer whose main product is UpToDate, a software system that is a point-of-care medical resource.
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).
Vardenafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor used for treating erectile dysfunction that is sold under the trade names Levitra (Bayer AG, GSK, and SP), Staxyn in India, and Vivanza in Italy.
Variant angina, often termed Prinzmetal's angina, Prinzmetal angina, and less commonly vasospastic angina, angina inversa, coronary vessel spasm, or coronary artery vasospasm, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) that unlike classical angina, which is triggered by exertion or exercise, commonly occurs in individuals at rest or even asleep.
Vascular occlusion is a blockage of a blood vessel, usually with a clot.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
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