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Absolution is a traditional theological term for the forgiveness experienced in the Sacrament of Penance.
The Act of Uniformity 1662 (14 Car 2 c 4) is an Act of the Parliament of England.
The Acts of Supremacy are two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559 which established King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the Church of England.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Alpha course is an evangelistic course which seeks to introduce the basics of the Christian faith through a series of talks and discussions.
In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Methodism and Anglicanism, an altar or sanctus bell is typically a small hand-held bell or set of bells.
An ambry (or almery, aumbry; from the medieval form almarium, cf. Lat. armārium, "a place for keeping tools"; cf. O. Fr. aumoire and mod. armoire) is a recessed cabinet in the wall of a Christian church for storing sacred vessels and vestments.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Angelus (Latin for "angel") is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation.
The Anglican Breviary is the Anglican edition of the Divine Office translated into English, used especially by Anglicans of Anglo-Catholic churchmanship.
Anglican chant, also known as English chant, is a way to sing unmetrical texts, including psalms and canticles from the Bible, by matching the natural speech-rhythm of the words to the notes of a simple harmonized melody.
The Anglican Church of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
The Anglican Communion Primates' Meetings are regular meetings of the primates in the Anglican Communion, i.e. the principal archbishops or bishops of each (often national) ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion.
The Anglican Consultative Council or ACC is one of the four "Instruments of Communion" of the Anglican Communion.
The Diocese of Sydney is a diocese within the Province of New South Wales of the Anglican Church of Australia.
The Anglican Missal is a liturgical book used liturgically by Anglo-Catholics and other High Church Anglicans as a supplement to the Book of Common Prayer.
The Anglican Pacifist Fellowship (APF) is a body of people within the Anglican Communion who reject war as a means of solving international disputes, and believe that peace and justice should be sought through non-violent means.
Anglican prayer beads, also known as the Anglican rosary or Anglican chaplet, are a loop of strung beads used chiefly by Anglicans in the Anglican Communion, as well as by communicants in the Anglican Continuum, and by members of the Anglican Ordinariates within the Roman Catholic Church.
The term Anglican realignment refers to a movement among some Anglicans to align themselves under new or alternative oversight within or outside the Anglican Communion.
Anglican religious orders are communities of men or women (or in some cases mixed communities of both sexes) in the Anglican Communion who live under a common rule of life.
In keeping with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the Catholic tradition and a church of the Reformation.
The Anglican Use refers to the form of liturgy found in the Book of Divine Worship and its successor, Divine Worship: The Missal, used by the parishes of the Pastoral Provision in the United States and the personal ordinariates founded by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain some features of Anglican tradition.
The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
Anglo-Saxon paganism, sometimes termed Anglo-Saxon heathenism, Anglo-Saxon pre-Christian religion, or Anglo-Saxon traditional religion, refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Anglo-Saxons between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, during the initial period of Early Medieval England.
Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person.
In book publishing, an anthology is a collection of literary works chosen by the compiler.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".
An apostolic constitution (constitutio apostolica) is the highest level of decree issued by the Pope.
The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
Apostolicae curae is the title of a papal bull, issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII, declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void".
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The post of Archbishop of Wales was created in 1920 when the Church in Wales was separated from the Church of England (of which the four Welsh dioceses had previously been part), and disestablished.
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian composer of classical and religious music.
The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Æthelberht (also Æthelbert, Aethelberht, Aethelbert or Ethelbert, Old English Æðelberht,; 550 – 24 February 616) was King of Kent from about 589 until his death.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Baptist World Alliance is a worldwide alliance of Baptist churches and organisations formed in 1905 at Exeter Hall in London during the first Baptist World Congress.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Radio is an operational business division and service of the British Broadcasting Corporation (which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927).
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, also callled Benediction with the Blessed Sacrament or the Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, is a devotional ceremony, celebrated especially in the Roman Catholic Church, but also in some other Christian traditions such as Anglo-Catholicism, whereby a bishop, priest, or a deacon blesses the congregation with the Eucharist at the end of a period of adoration.
Benfleet Urban District was an urban district in the county of Essex, England.
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten of Aldeburgh (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
In religion, a blessing (also used to refer to bestowing of such) is the infusion of something with holiness, spiritual redemption, or divine will.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The Book of Concord or Concordia (often, Lutheran Confessions is appended to or substituted for the title) (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century.
Branch theory is a Protestant ecclesiological proposition that the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church includes various Christian denominations whether in formal communion or not.
The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Broad church is latitudinarian churchmanship in the Church of England in particular and Anglicanism in general.
Brooke Foss Westcott (12 January 1825 – 27 July 1901) was a British bishop, biblical scholar and theologian, serving as Bishop of Durham from 1890 until his death.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Cambridge Platonists were a group of theologians and philosophers at the University of Cambridge in the middle of the 17th century.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals.
A canticle (from the Latin canticulum, a diminutive of canticum, "song") is a hymn, psalm or other song of praise taken from biblical or holy texts other than the Psalms.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people.
In both the United Kingdom and Canada, a Chapel Royal refers not to a building but to a distinct body of priests and singers who explicitly serve the spiritual needs of the sovereign.
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of historically mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism.
Charles Henry Brent (April 9, 1862 – March 27, 1929) was the Episcopal Church's first Missionary Bishop of the Philippine Islands (1902–1918); Chaplain General of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I (1917–1918); and Bishop of the Episcopal Church's Diocese of Western New York (1918–1929).
Charles Gore (1853–1932) was the Bishop of Oxford.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Thomas Longley (28 July 1794 – 27 October 1868) was a bishop in the Church of England.
Charles Simeon (24 September 1759 – 13 November 1836), was an English evangelical clergyman.
Antony Charles Thomas, CBE, FSA (26 April 1928 – 7 April 2016)Who's Who was a British historian and archaeologist who was Professor of Cornish Studies at Exeter University, and the first Director of the Institute of Cornish Studies, from 1971 until his retirement in 1991.
Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (30 September 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer, music teacher, and conductor.
The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Anglican Communion's doctrine and as a reference point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations.
Chichester Psalms is a choral work by Leonard Bernstein for boy treble or countertenor, solo quartet, choir and orchestra (3 trumpets in B, 3 trombones, timpani, percussion, 2 harps, and strings).
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
Choir dress is the traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist.
A Christian martyr is a person who is killed because of their testimony for Jesus.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
Christian tradition is a collection of traditions consisting of practices or beliefs associated with Christianity.
Marriage is the legally or formally recognized intimate and complementing union of two people as spousal partners in a personal relationship (historically and in most jurisdictions specifically a union between a man and a woman).
The Church Army is an evangelistic organisation founded in the Church of England and now operating in many parts of the Anglican Communion.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly in Britain and currently in Australia and New Zealand known as the Church Missionary Society, is a mission society working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
The Church Pastoral Aid Society (CPAS) is an Anglican evangelical mission agency.
Churchmanship (or churchpersonship; or tradition in most official contexts) is a way of talking about and labelling different tendencies, parties, or schools of thought within the Church of England and the sister churches of the Anglican Communion.
A churchwarden is a lay official in a parish or congregation of the Anglican Communion, usually working as a part-time volunteer.
Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.
The collect is a short general prayer of a particular structure used in Christian liturgy.
Common Worship is the name given to the series of services authorised by the General Synod of the Church of England and launched on the first Sunday of Advent in 2000.
The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus is described as communion.
The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, more usually called The Sisters of Melanesia, is the third order for women to be established in the Church of Melanesia, which is the Anglican Church of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
The Community of the Sisters of the Church is a religious order of women in various Anglican provinces who live the vowed life of poverty, chastity and obedience.
Compline, also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours.
Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope.
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".
The 1977 Congress of St.
The Continuing Anglican movement, also known as the Anglican Continuum, encompasses a number of Christian churches that are from the Anglican tradition but that are not part of the Anglican Communion.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The Cathedral Church of St Michael, commonly known as Coventry Cathedral, is the seat of the Bishop of Coventry and the Diocese of Coventry, in Coventry, West Midlands, England.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
A curate is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
Hugh Richard Lawrie "Dick" Sheppard (2 September 1880 – 31 October 1937) was an English Anglican priest, Dean of Canterbury and Christian pacifist.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Diocese of Canterbury is a Church of England diocese covering eastern Kent which was founded by St. Augustine of Canterbury in 597.
The Diocese of Chelmsford is a Church of England diocese, part of the Province of Canterbury.
The Diocese of Natal is in the region of Natal, South Africa, the diocese has its northern boundary at the Tugela River.
The Diocese of Oxford is a Church of England diocese that forms part of the Province of Canterbury.
A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
Frederick Donald Coggan, Baron Coggan, (9 October 1909 – 17 May 2000) was the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecclesiastical Commissioners were, in England and Wales, a body corporate, whose full title was Ecclesiastical and Church Estates Commissioners for England.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.
Edward Bouverie Pusey (22 August 1800 – 16 September 1882) was an English churchman, for more than fifty years Regius Professor of Hebrew at Christ Church, Oxford.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which was made during the reign of Elizabeth I, was a response to the religious divisions in England during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as "The Revolution of 1559", was set out in two Acts.
Emily Ayckbowm (1836–1900) was the founder and first mother superior of the Community of the Sisters of the Church.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
The English Missal is a translation of the Roman Missal used by some Anglo-Catholic parish churches.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Ernest William Barnes FRS (1 April 1874 – 29 November 1953) was an English mathematician and scientist who later became a liberal theologian and bishop.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Catholic, Anglo-Catholic and some Lutheran traditions, in which the Blessed Sacrament is adored by the faithful.
Eucharistic Minister, or more properly "Lay Eucharistic Minister LEM", is used to denote a lay person who assists the priest in administering the sacraments of holy communion, the consecrated bread and wine.
The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Evelyn Underhill (6 December 1875 – 15 June 1941) was an English Anglo-Catholic writer and pacifist known for her numerous works on religion and spiritual practice, in particular Christian mysticism.
Evening Prayer is a liturgy in use in the Anglican tradition celebrated in the late afternoon or evening.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Faithful is a term used as a noun in Roman Catholicism to refer to baptised Catholics.
Fenton John Anthony Hort (23 April 1828 – 30 November 1892) was an Irish-born theologian and editor, with Brooke Foss Westcott of a critical edition of The New Testament in the Original Greek.
Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (commonly known as the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity.
The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
John Frederick Denison Maurice (29 August 1805 – 1 April 1872), often known as F. D. Maurice, was an English Anglican theologian, a prolific author, and one of the founders of Christian socialism.
The Free Church of England (FCE) is an episcopal church based in England.
A fresh expression of church is one of over a thousandChurch Army Research Unit; "Encounters on the Edge" Resubscription Letter, 2012 new Christian churches or congregations that have developed within one or more Christian denominations and organisations in the United Kingdom and abroad, including the Church of England, Methodist Church, United Reformed Church, Church of Scotland, The Salvation Army, Church Mission Society, 24/7 Prayer, Ground Level Network, Congregational Federation, Christian Witness Ministries Europe and Anglican Church Planting Initiatives.
Frobisher Bay is a relatively large inlet of the Labrador Sea in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.
In theology, general revelation, or natural revelation, refers to knowledge about God and spiritual matters, discovered through natural means, such as observation of nature (the physical universe), philosophy and reasoning.
Georg Calixtus, Kallisøn/Kallisön, or Callisen (14 December 1586 – 19 March 1656) was a German Lutheran theologian who looked to reconcile all Christendom by removing all unimportant differences.
George Lansbury (22 February 1859 – 7 May 1940) was a British politician and social reformer who led the Labour Party from 1932 to 1935. Apart from a brief period of ministerial office during the Labour government of 1929–31, he spent his political life campaigning against established authority and vested interests, his main causes being the promotion of social justice, women's rights and world disarmament. Originally a radical Liberal, Lansbury became a socialist in the early-1890s, and thereafter served his local community in the East End of London in numerous elective offices. His activities were underpinned by his Christian beliefs which, except for a short period of doubt, sustained him through his life. Elected to Parliament in 1910, he resigned his seat in 1912 to campaign for women's suffrage, and was briefly imprisoned after publicly supporting militant action. In 1912, Lansbury helped to establish the Daily Herald newspaper, and became its editor. Throughout the First World War the paper maintained a strongly pacifist stance, and supported the October 1917 Russian Revolution. These positions contributed to Lansbury's failure to be elected to parliament in 1918. He devoted himself to local politics in his home borough of Poplar, and went to prison with 30 fellow-councillors for his part in the Poplar "rates revolt" of 1921. After his return to Parliament in 1922, Lansbury was denied office in the brief Labour government of 1924, although he served as First Commissioner of Works in the Labour government of 1929–31. After the political and economic crisis of August 1931, Lansbury did not follow his leader, Ramsay MacDonald, into the National Government, but remained with the Labour Party. As the most senior of the small contingent of Labour MPs that survived the 1931 general election, Lansbury became the Leader of the Labour Party. His pacifism and his opposition to rearmament in the face of rising European fascism put him at odds with his party, and when his position was rejected at the 1935 Labour Party conference, he resigned the leadership. He spent his final years travelling through the United States and Europe in the cause of peace and disarmament.
George Whitefield (30 September 1770), also spelled Whitfield, was an English Anglican cleric who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement.
The Girls' Friendly Society (also known by their program name GFS Platform, or just GFS) is a philanthropic society that empowers girls and young women, encouraging them to develop their full potential through programs that provide training, confidence building, and other educational opportunities.
Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England.
Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands, located in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia.
Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.
Heinrich Friedrich Zimmer (11 December 1851 – 29 July 1910) was a German Celticist and Indologist.
Henry Robert McAdoo (10 January 1916 – 10 December 1998) was a Church of Ireland clergyman.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, dates from 1079.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
The historical episcopate comprises all episcopate, that is the collective body of all the bishops of a church, who are in valid apostolic succession.
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Holy Trinity Brompton with St Paul's, Onslow Square and St Augustine's, South Kensington, often referred to simply as HTB, is an Anglican church in London, England.
A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.
Since the 1990s, the Anglican Communion has struggled with controversy regarding homosexuality in the church.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
Independent Catholicism is a movement comprising clergy and laity who self-identify as Catholic and who form "micro-churches claiming apostolic succession and valid sacraments," despite a lack of affiliation with the main Catholic Church itself.
Intercession or intercessory prayer is the act of praying to a deity on behalf of others.
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration.
The Iona Community, founded in 1938 by the Rev George MacLeod, is an ecumenical Christian community of men and women from different walks of life and different traditions within Christianity.
John Charles Ryle (10 May 1816 – 10 June 1900) was an English Evangelical Anglican bishop.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jeremy Taylor (1613–1667) was a cleric in the Church of England who achieved fame as an author during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Carey is an American, who trained in Celtic studies, specialising in subjects of early Irish and Welsh literature, religion, and mythology.
John William Colenso (24 January 1814 – 20 June 1883) was a British mathematician, theologian, Biblical scholar and social activist, who was the first Church of England Bishop of Natal.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Henry Hobart (September 14, 1775 – September 12, 1830) was the third Episcopal bishop of New York (1816–1830).
John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
John Jewel (alias Jewell) (24 May 1522 – 23 September 1571) of Devon, England was Bishop of Salisbury from 1559 to 1571.
John Keble (25 April 1792 – 29 March 1866) was an English churchman and poet, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement.
John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.
Joseph Barber Lightfoot (13 April 1828 – 21 December 1889), also known as J. B. Lightfoot, was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham.
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Christian Gospels, the man who assumed responsibility for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
In Christian theology, justification is God's act of removing the guilt and penalty of sin while at the same time making a sinner righteous through Christ's atoning sacrifice.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
A Lady chapel or lady chapel is a traditional British term for a chapel dedicated to "Our Lady", the Blessed Virgin Mary, particularly those inside a cathedral or other large church.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
The Lambeth Conference is a decennial assembly of bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Lancelot Andrewes (155525 September 1626) was an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. During the latter's reign, Andrewes served successively as Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, and of Winchester and oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible (or Authorized Version).
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latitudinarians, or latitude men were initially a group of 17th-century English theologiansclerics and academicsfrom the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, who were moderate Anglicans (members of the Church of England, which was Protestant).
Lauds is a divine office that takes place in the early morning hours.
A lay clerk, also known as a lay vicar, song man or a vicar choral, is a professional adult singer in an Anglican cathedral and often Roman Catholic Cathedrals in the UK, or (occasionally) collegiate choir in Britain and Ireland.
A lay reader (in some jurisdictions simply reader) or licensed lay minister (LLM) is a layperson authorized by a bishop in the Anglican Communion to lead certain services of worship or lead certain parts of a service.
A lectionary (Lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion.
Leeds Minster, or the Minster and Parish Church of Saint Peter-at-Leeds, (formerly Leeds Parish Church), in Leeds, West Yorkshire is a large Church of England foundation of major architectural and liturgical significance.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
Lex orandi, lex credendi (Latin loosely translated as "the law of praying the law of believing") is a motto in Christian tradition, which means that it is prayer which leads to belief, or that it is liturgy which leads to theology.
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
The Church of England uses a liturgical year that is in most respects identical to that of the Roman Catholic Church.
Litany, in Christian worship and some forms of Judaic worship, is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
The Little Hours or minor hours are the canonical hours other than the three major hours.
The Liturgical Movement began as a 19th-century movement of scholarship for the reform of worship within the Roman Catholic Church.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The Liturgy of the Hours (Latin: Liturgia Horarum) or Divine Office (Latin: Officium Divinum) or Work of God (Latin: Opus Dei) or canonical hours, often referred to as the Breviary, is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer".
The term "low church" refers to churches which give relatively little emphasis to ritual, sacraments and the authority of clergy.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lydia Sellon or Priscilla Lydia Sellon (1821 – 20 November 1876) was a British founder of an Anglican women's order.
The magisterium of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings.
Sir Martin Frobisher (c. 1535 – 22 November 1594) was an English seaman and privateer who made three voyages to the New World looking for the North-west Passage.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Martin William Wallace (born 16 November 1948) is a retired Church of England bishop.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.
Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.
Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
The Melanesian Brotherhood is an Anglican religious community of men in simple vows based primarily in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, (14 November 1904 – 23 April 1988) was an English Anglican bishop and life peer.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Morning Prayer (also Matins or Mattins), is one of the two main Daily Offices in Anglican churches, prescribed in the various editions of the Book of Common Prayer and other Anglican liturgical texts.
Mothers’ Union is an international Christian charity that seeks to support families worldwide.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
The Neocatechumenal Way, also known as the Neocatechumenate, NCW or, colloquially, The Way, is a charism within the Catholic Church dedicated to Christian formation.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a service of Christian worship celebrating the birth of Jesus that is traditionally followed at Christmas.
Nones, also known as None (Nona, "Ninth"), the Ninth Hour, or the Midafternoon Prayer, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
The Nunc dimittis (also Song of Simeon or Canticle of Simeon) is a canticle from the opening words from the Vulgate translation of the New Testament in the second chapter of Luke named after its incipit in Latin, meaning "Now you dismiss".
The term Old Catholic Church was used from the 1850s, by groups which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had already existed long before the term.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of the Holy Cross is an international Anglican monastic order that follows the Rule of St. Benedict.
An ordinary (from Latin ordinarius) is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws.
The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
The "Ornaments Rubric" is found just before the beginning of Morning Prayer in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.
Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.
The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Peace Pledge Union (PPU) is a British pacifist non-governmental organisation.
A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms.
A pew is a long bench seat or enclosed box, used for seating members of a congregation or choir in a church or sometimes a courtroom.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phillips Brooks (December 13, 1835January 23, 1893) was an American Episcopal clergyman and author, long the Rector of Boston's Trinity Church and briefly Bishop of Massachusetts, and particularly remembered as lyricist of the Christmas hymn, "O Little Town of Bethlehem".
Plainsong (also plainchant; cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
Prime, or the First Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office (Canonical Hours), said at the first hour of daylight (approximately 6:00 a.m.), between the morning Hour of Lauds and the 9 a.m. Hour of Terce.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical provinces which constitute the Church of England.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Queen's Chapel is a chapel in central London, England, that was designed by Inigo Jones and built between 1623 and 1625 as an external adjunct to St. James's Palace for the Roman Catholic queen Henrietta Maria.
Ragged schools were charitable organisations dedicated to the free education of destitute children in nineteenth-century Britain.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is a term used in Christian theology to express the doctrine that Jesus is really or substantially present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations.
Reform is a conservative evangelical organisation within Evangelical Anglicanism, active in the Church of England and the Church of Ireland.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reformed Episcopal Church (REC) is an Anglican Christian church of evangelical Episcopalian heritage.
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Remarriage is a marriage that takes place after a previous marital union has ended, as through divorce or widowhood.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Hooker (March 25, 1554 – 3 November 1600) was an English priest in the Church of England and an influential theologian.
Robert Leighton (1611 – 25 June 1684) was a Scottish prelate and scholar, best known as a church minister, Bishop of Dunblane, Archbishop of Glasgow, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh from 1653 to 1662.
Robert Wolfall was an Anglican priest who served as chaplain to Martin Frobisher's third expedition to the Arctic.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.
The Holy Rosary (rosarium, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers.
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth (born 14 June 1950) is a Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet.
A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a Church of England parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese and the archdiocese in which it lies and subject to the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.
Saint Alban (Albanus) is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr, and he is considered to be the British protomartyr.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Sanctification is the act or process of acquiring sanctity, of being made or becoming holy.
The Queen's Chapel of St John the Baptist in the Precinct of the Savoy, or the The Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, is a church dedicated to St John the Baptist, located just south of the Strand, London, next to the Savoy Hotel.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6, and 7).
Sext, or Sixth Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies.
A sexton is an officer of a church, congregation, or synagogue charged with the maintenance of its buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard.
A skatepark, or skate park, is a purpose-built recreational environment made for skateboarding, BMX, scooter, wheelchair, and aggressive inline skating.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation, and the leading publisher of Christian books in the United Kingdom.
The Society of Saint Francis (SSF) is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion.
Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also known as justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish many Protestant churches from the Catholic Church, as well as the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches.
Solemn Mass (missa solemnis) is the full ceremonial form of the Tridentine Mass, celebrated by a priest with a deacon and a subdeacon,"The essence of high Mass is not the music but the deacon and subdeacon." (requiring most of the parts of the Mass to be sung, and the use of incense.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.
Stephen Whitefield Sykes (1 August 1939 – 24 September 2014) was a Church of England bishop and academic specialising in divinity.
Subdeacon (or sub-deacon) is a title used in various branches of Christianity.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England, who was responsible for the foundation of the English Protestant church that broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1533 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Arles (ancient Arelate) in the south of Roman Gaul (modern France) hosted several councils or synods referred to as Concilium Arelatense in the history of the early Christian church.
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
Tabalia is the name of the Mother House of the Melanesian Brotherhood (MBH) on northeastern Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian monastic community in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France.
Edward Walter "Ted" Scott (April 30, 1916 – June 21, 2004) was a Canadian Anglican bishop.
Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian liturgies.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The Mission to Seafarers (formerly The Missions to Seamen) is a Christian welfare charity serving merchant crews around the world.
The New English Hymnal is a hymn book and liturgical source, aimed towards the Church of England, first published in 1986.
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.
Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See.
Worcester cathedral Gloucester cathedral The Three Choirs Festival is a music festival held annually at the end of July, rotating among the cathedrals of the Three Counties (Hereford, Gloucester and Worcester) and originally featuring their three choirs, which remain central to the week-long programme.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
The Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC) is an international communion of churches in the continuing Anglican movement independent of the Anglican Communion and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
The Tridentine Mass, the 1962 version of which has been officially declared the (authorized) extraordinary form of the Roman Rite of Mass (Extraordinary Form for short), is the Roman Rite Mass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962.
The Trisagion (Τρισάγιον "Thrice Holy"), sometimes called by its opening line Agios O Theos, is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in most of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches.
United Society Partners in the Gospel (USPG) is a United Kingdom-based charitable organization (registered no. 234518).
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The Use of Sarum, also known as the Sarum Rite or Use of Salisbury, was a variant ("use") of the Roman Rite widely used for the ordering of Christian public worship, including the Mass and the Divine Office.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Vera Mary Brittain (29 December 1893 – 29 March 1970) was an English Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) nurse, writer, feminist, and pacifist.
A verger (or virger, so called after the staff of the office) is a person, usually a layperson, who assists in the ordering of religious services, particularly in Anglican churches.
Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
Via media is a Latin phrase meaning "the middle road" and is a philosophical maxim for life which advocates moderation in all thoughts and actions.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
A vow (Lat. votum, vow, promise; see vote) is a promise or oath.
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.
West gallery music, also known as "Georgian psalmody", refers to the sacred music (metrical psalms, with a few hymns and anthems) sung and played in English parish churches, as well as nonconformist chapels, from 1700 to around 1850.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Meade (November 11, 1789 – March 14, 1862) was a United States Episcopal bishop, the third Bishop of Virginia.
William Porcher DuBose (April 11, 1836 – August 18, 1918) was an American priest and theologian in the Episcopal Church in the United States.
William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944) was a bishop in the Church of England.
Worcester Cathedral, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, England, situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn.
The Words of Institution (also called the Words of Consecration) are words echoing those of Jesus himself at his Last Supper that, when consecrating bread and wine, Christian Eucharistic liturgies include in a narrative of that event.
The Working Men's College (or WMC), is among the earliest adult education institutions established in the United Kingdom, and Europe's oldest extant centre for adult education.
The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) was a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation, and particularly in the theology of John Calvin.
The World Methodist Council (WMC), founded in 1881, is a consultative body and association of churches in the Methodist tradition.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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