94 relations: Algiz, Alphabet, Alu (runic), Anglo-Saxon paganism, Anglo-Saxon runic rings, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Ansuz (rune), Archaic Greek alphabets, Aurochs, Berkanan, Bewcastle Cross, Boydell & Brewer, Bracteate, Caistor-by-Norwich astragalus, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Celtic Christianity, Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England, Cipher runes, Cladium mariscus, Codex Sangallensis 878, Codex Vindobonensis 795, Cotton library, Cynewulf, Dagaz, Ear (rune), Ehwaz, Eihwaz, Elder Futhark, England, Fehu, Forfeda, Four Evangelists, Franks Casket, Frisia, Germany, Greek alphabet, Gyfu, Haglaz, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of Southampton, Interlinear gloss, International Phonetic Alphabet, Isaz, Jēran, Kaunan, Kirkdale sundial, Laguz, List of manuscripts in the Cotton library, Luke the Evangelist, ..., Mannaz, Middle English, Names of God in Old English poetry, Naudiz, North Sea Germanic, Nowell Codex, Odal (rune), Ogham, Old English, Old English Latin alphabet, Old English rune poem, Old Frisian, Old Italic script, Palatalization (phonetics), Peorð, Phoenician alphabet, R. I. Page, Raido, Robert Talbot (scribe), Rune Poems, Runes, Ruthwell Cross, Sandwich, Kent, Sceat, Seax of Beagnoth, Solidus (coin), Solomon and Saturn, Sowilō, Spong Hill, St Cuthbert's coffin, Thorn (letter), Thurisaz, Tiwaz (rune), Tremissis, Undley bracteate, Universal Coded Character Set, Ur (rune), Walafrid Strabo, West Friesland (region), West Heslerton, Westeremden yew-stick, Willoughby on the Wolds, Writing, Younger Futhark. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
Algiz (also Elhaz) is the name conventionally given to the "z-rune" of the Elder Futhark runic alphabet.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The sequence alu is found in numerous Elder Futhark runic inscriptions of Germanic Iron Age Scandinavia (and more rarely in early Anglo-Saxon England) between the 3rd and the 8th century.
Anglo-Saxon paganism, sometimes termed Anglo-Saxon heathenism, Anglo-Saxon pre-Christian religion, or Anglo-Saxon traditional religion, refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Anglo-Saxons between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, during the initial period of Early Medieval England.
There are seven known rings of the Anglo-Saxon period (9th or 10th century) bearing runic inscriptions.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Ansuz is the conventional name given to the a-rune of the Elder Futhark,.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune, meaning "birch".
The Bewcastle Cross is an Anglo-Saxon cross which is still in its original position within the churchyard of St Cuthbert's church at Bewcastle, in the English county of Cumbria.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age (including the Vendel era in Sweden).
The Caistor-by-Norwich astralagus is a roe deer astragalus found in an urn at Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk, England.
The Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt is a Roman Catholic research university in Eichstätt and Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century.
Cipher runes, or cryptic runes, are the cryptographical replacement of the letters of the runic alphabet.
Cladium mariscus is a species of flowering plant in the sedge family known by the common names swamp sawgrass, great fen-sedge, saw-sedge or sawtooth sedge.
Codex Sangallensis 878 is a manuscript kept in the library of the Abbey of St. Gall, in Switzerland.
The Codex Vindobonensis 795 (Vienna Austrian National Library Codex) is a 9th-century manuscript.
The Cotton or Cottonian library is a collection of manuscripts once owned by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP (1571–1631), an antiquarian and bibliophile.
Cynewulf is one of twelve Old English poets known by name, and one of four whose work is known to survive today.
The d rune (ᛞ) is called dæg "day" in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem.
The Ear rune of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc is a late addition to the alphabet.
*Ehwaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark e rune, meaning "horse" (cognate to Latin equus, Gaulish epos, Tocharian B yakwe, Sanskrit aśva, Avestan aspa and Old Irish ech).
Eiwaz or Eihaz (reconstructed *īhaz / *ēhaz or *īwaz / *ēwaz) was a Proto-Germanic word for "yew", and the reconstructed name of the rune.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Fe rune (Old Norse fé; Old English feoh) represents the f-sound in the Younger Futhark and Futhorc alphabets.
The Forfeda are the "additional" letters of the Ogham alphabet, beyond the basic inventory of twenty signs.
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.
The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Gyfu is the name for the g-rune in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning "gift" or "generosity": The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is 𐌲 g, called giba.
*Haglaz or *Hagalaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the h-rune, meaning "hail" (the precipitation).
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
Southampton is a city in Hampshire, England.
In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such as definitions or pronunciations) placed between lines (inter- + linear), such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
*Isaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the i-rune, meaning "ice".
Jera (also Jeran, Jeraz) is the conventional name of the j-rune of the Elder Futhark, from a reconstructed Common Germanic stem jēra-C.f. Page (2005:15).
The k-rune (Younger Futhark, Anglo-Saxon futhorc) is called Kaun in both the Norwegian and Icelandic rune poems, meaning "ulcer".
Kirkdale sundial The Saxon sundial at St Gregory's Minster, Kirkdale, near Kirkbymoorside, North Yorkshire, England is an ancient canonical sundial which dates to the mid 11th century.
*Laguz or *Laukaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the l-rune, *laguz meaning "water" or "lake" and *laukaz meaning "leek".
This is an incomplete list of some of the manuscripts from the Cotton library that today form the Cotton collection of the British Library.
Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, לוקאס, Lūqās, לוקא, Lūqā&apos) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels.
*Mannaz is the conventional name of the m-rune of the Elder Futhark.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
In Old English poetry, many descriptive epithets for God were used to satisfy alliterative requirements.
*Naudiz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the n-rune, meaning "need, distress".
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.
The Nowell Codex is the second of two manuscripts comprising the bound volume Cotton Vitellius A.xv, one of the four major Anglo-Saxon poetic manuscripts.
The Elder Futhark Odal rune, also known as the Othala rune, represents the o sound.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
The Old English rune poem, dated to the 8th or 9th century, has stanzas on 29 Anglo-Saxon runes.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
is the rune denoting the sound p (voiceless bilabial stop) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet, in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem named peorð.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Raymond Ian Page (25 September 1924 – 10 March 2012) was a British historian of Anglo-Saxon England and the Viking Age, and a renowned runologist who specialised in the study of Anglo-Saxon runes.
*Raidō "ride, journey" is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the r- rune of the Elder Futhark.
Robert Talbot (died 1558) was a scholar and scribe of Anglo-Saxon.
The Rune Poems are poems that list the letters of runic alphabets while providing an explanatory poetic stanza for each letter.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
The Ruthwell Cross is a stone Anglo-Saxon cross probably dating from the 8th century, when the village of Ruthwell, now in Scotland, was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
A sceat (sceattas) was a small, thick silver coin minted in England, Frisia and Jutland during the Anglo-Saxon period.
The Seax of Beagnoth (also known as the Thames scramasax) is a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon seax (single-edged knife).
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
Solomon and Saturn is the generic name given to four Old English works, which present a dialogue of riddles between Solomon, the king of Israel, and Saturn, identified in two of the poems as a prince of the Chaldeans.
*Sowilō or *sæwelō is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune, meaning "sun".
Spong Hill is an Anglo-Saxon cemetery site located at North Elmham in Norfolk, England.
What is usually referred to as St Cuthbert's coffin is a fragmentary oak coffin in Durham Cathedral, pieced together in the 20th century, which between AD 698 and 1827 contained the remains of Saint Cuthbert, who died in 687.
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
The rune is called Thurs (Old Norse Þurs "giant", from a reconstructed Common Germanic Þurisaz) in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems.
The t-rune is named after Týr, and was identified with this god.
The tremissis or tremis (Greek: τριμίσιον, trimision) was a small solid gold coin of Late Antiquity.
The Undley bracteate is a 5th-century bracteate found in Undley Common, near Lakenheath, Suffolk.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark u rune is *Ūruz meaning "wild ox"Page, R.I. (2005).
Walafrid, alternatively spelt Walahfrid, surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i.e. "squint-eyed") (c. 808 – 18 August 849), was an Alemannic Benedictine monk and theological writer who lived on Reichenau Island.
West Friesland (also West Frisia; West-Frisian: West-Fryslân) is a contemporary region in the Northwest of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
West Heslerton is a small village in North Yorkshire, England, southeast of Pickering.
The Westeremden yew-stick is a yew-wood stick found in Westeremden B in the Groningen province of the Netherlands in 1917.
Willoughby on the Wolds is a small village in Nottinghamshire, England, on the border with Leicestershire.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Abecedarium anguliscum, Anglo Saxon runes, Anglo-Frisian Futhorc, Anglo-Frisian futhorc, Anglo-Frisian runes, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, Anglo-Saxon futhorc, Anglosaxon runes, Calc (rune), English runes, Futhorc, Fuþorc, Old English runes, ᛣ.