415 relations: Abbot, Acanthus (ornament), Accusative case, Aidan of Lindisfarne, Alans, Alaric I, Aldhelm, Alfred Jewel, Alfred the Great, All Saints' Church, Brixworth, All Saints' Church, Earls Barton, Ancient borough, Ancient Greek, Angles, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Saxon architecture, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon dress, Anglo-Saxon military organization, Anglo-Saxon model, Anglo-Saxon multiple estate, Anglo-Saxon paganism, Anglo-Saxon riddles, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Anglosphere, Apartheid, Archbishop of Canterbury, Augustine of Canterbury, Ælfric of Eynsham, Æthelberht of Kent, Æthelflæd, Æthelfrith, Æthelred of Mercia, Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, Æthelstan, Æthelswith, Æthelwold of Winchester, Æthelwulf, Bamburgh, Battle of Assandun, Battle of Badon, Battle of Brunanburh, Battle of Maldon, Battle of Stamford Bridge, Bayeux Tapestry, Bede, ..., Benedict Biscop, Beowulf, Bernicia, Bertha of Kent, Bewcastle Cross, Bible, Bishop of Durham, Book of Cerne, Book of Durrow, Bookbinding, Boston Brahmin, Bradwell-on-Sea, Bretwalda, British Latin, Brittany, Brittonicisms in English, Bulgars, Burh, Byzantine art, Byzantine Empire, Caesura, Cambridge University Press, Canterbury, Canterbury Cathedral, Caratacus, Carolingian dynasty, Catalan language, Cædmon, Cædwalla of Wessex, Ceawlin of Wessex, Celtic Britons, Ceolfrith, Cerdic of Wessex, Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Charibert I, Charlemagne, Charles Kingsley, Charles Reginald Dodwell, Chip carving, Cholsey Abbey, Christianization, Chronica Gallica of 452, Chronicle, Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Sompting, Churl, Civitas, Classical Latin, Clayton, West Sussex, Cnut the Great, Codex, Codex Amiatinus, Coin, Colman, Columba, Common Brittonic, Constantine II of Scotland, Continental Europe, Coppergate Helmet, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Cotton library, Cuthbert, Cynewulf, Danelaw, Danes, Dative case, David M. Wilson, Declension, Deira, Deor, Domesday Book, Dream of the Rood, Dual (grammatical number), Dunstan, Eadred, Easby Cross, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Ecgberht, King of Wessex, Echternach Gospels, Edgar the Peaceful, Edmund I, Edward Augustus Freeman, Edward the Confessor, Edward the Elder, England, England in the Middle Ages, English language, English people, English-speaking world, Epic poetry, Escomb Church, Ethnonym, Europe, Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, Exeter Book, Exonym and endonym, Femininity, Finnian of Movilla, Flanders, Food render, Four Evangelists, Francia, Frank Stenton, Franks, Franks Casket, French language, Freyr, Frisia, Frisii, Frithestan, Garnet, Gaul, Genitive case, George Fitzhugh, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Gildas, Glastonbury Abbey, Godwin, Earl of Wessex, Gospel Book, Gothic language, Goths, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grave goods, Great Britain, Great Heathen Army, Greensted Church, Gregorian mission, Hadrian's Wall, Hadstock, Hagiography, Hammerwich, Harrying of the North, Hörgr, Helena Hamerow, Hemistich, Hengist and Horsa, Heptarchy, Hertfordshire, Hexham, High cross, Historia Brittonum, History of London, History of York, Hoard, Hof (Germanic temple), Homily, Human migration, Humber, Hundred (county division), Huns, Hwicce, Icelandic language, Illuminated manuscript, Imperialism, Inflection, Instrumental case, Insular art, Interlace (art), Invasion, Iona, Ireland, Irish language, Isle of Thanet, Italian language, Ivory carving, J. R. R. Tolkien, James Anthony Froude, Janet Backhouse, Japanese language, John McWhorter, Julian D. Richards, Junius manuscript, Katherine Group, Kempsford, Kent, Kingdom of East Anglia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Essex, Kingdom of Kent, Kingdom of Lindsey, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Sussex, Lacertine, Lady St Mary Church, Wareham, Lakenheath, Language contact, Latin, Latin alphabet, Law of Æthelberht, Leofric, Earl of Mercia, Leslie Webster (art historian), Lichfield, Lindisfarne, Lindisfarne Gospels, List of English words of Old Norse origin, List of Frankish kings, Loanword, Lombards, Malcolm Todd, Malmesbury, Manuscript, Marjorie Chibnall, Masculinity, Material culture, Mercia, Michelle P. Brown, Middle Ages, Middle English, Middlesex, Migration Period, Military occupation, Minster, Swale, Mixed language, Monkwearmouth, Moville, Mund (law), National epic, Nicholas Higham, Nominative case, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Norse–Gaels, Northern Germany, Northumberland, Noun, Nowell Codex, Odin, Odo of Bayeux, Offa of Mercia, Olaf Guthfrithson, Old English, Old English Bible translations, Old English literature, Old Frisian, Old Minster, Winchester, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Saxony, Oral tradition, Orderic Vitalis, Oswald of Northumbria, Oswald of Worcester, Owain ap Dyfnwal (fl. 934), Palaeography, Pannonian Avars, Paris Psalter, Paul the Deacon, Penda of Mercia, Pepin the Short, Peter Brown (historian), Peterborough, Peterborough Cathedral, Philology, Picts, Pidgin, Plural, Polish language, Pope Gregory I, Porticus, Portuguese language, Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Primogeniture, Prior, Procopius, Pronoun, Proto-Germanic language, Psalms, Quartz, Quoit brooch, Racism, Rædwald of East Anglia, Rhenish helm, Richard Coates, Ripon, Robert Knox, Robert of Jumièges, Robin Fleming, Rochester, Kent, Roman Britain, Romanesque architecture, Rome, Romsey Abbey, Royal vill, Rugini, Rupert Bruce-Mitford, Russian language, Ruthwell Cross, Sack of Rome (410), Samuel George Morton, Sanskrit, Sarre, Kent, Saxons, Scandinavia, Scandinavian York, Scoti, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Scriptorium, Scroll, Seamus Heaney, Sermon, Ship burial, Shire, Simon Keynes, Siward, Earl of Northumbria, Slavs, Spanish language, Spong Hill, St Cuthbert Gospel, St Cuthbert's coffin, St John the Baptist's Church, Barnack, St Mary's Church, Reculver, St Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, Staffordshire, Staffordshire Hoard, Stained glass, Stigand, Stockholm Codex Aureus, Stow Minster, Suebi, Sutton Hoo, Sutton Hoo purse-lid, Sweyn Forkbeard, Symbolic anthropology, Synod of Whitby, Tacitus, Taplow burial, Tees-Exe line, Thatching, The Battle of Maldon, The Midlands, The Ruin, The Seafarer (poem), The Tremulous Hand of Worcester, The Wanderer (poem), Theodore of Tarsus, Thorkell the Tall, Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain, Toponymy, Trewhiddle, Tribal Hidage, Vandals, Varangian Guard, Vé (shrine), Vörðr, Verb, Vercelli Book, Vikings, Weregild, Wessex, West Germanic languages, West Saxon dialect, Westminster Abbey, Whitby Abbey, White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, Wilfrid, William the Conqueror, Wulfstan the Cantor, Yeavering, York, 5th century. 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Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
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The acanthus (ἄκανθος) is one of the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration.
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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
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Aidan of Lindisfarne
Aidan of Lindisfarne Irish: Naomh Aodhán (died 31 August 651) was an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria.
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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
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Aldhelm (c. 63925 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, was born before the middle of the 7th century.
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The Alfred Jewel is a piece of Anglo-Saxon goldsmithing work made of enamel and quartz enclosed in gold.
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Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
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All Saints' Church, Brixworth
All Saints' Church, Brixworth, in Northamptonshire, is an outstanding example of early Anglo-Saxon architecture in central England.
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All Saints' Church, Earls Barton
All Saints' Church, Earls Barton is a noted Anglo-Saxon Church of England parish church in Earls Barton, Northamptonshire.
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The ancient boroughs were a historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales.
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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
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The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
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Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
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The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
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Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066.
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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
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Anglo-Saxon dress refers to the variety of early medieval European dress, or clothing, worn by the Anglo-Saxons from the time of their migration to Great Britain in the 5th century until the beginning of the Norman Conquest.
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Anglo-Saxon military organization
Anglo-Saxon military organization is difficult to analyze because there are many conflicting records and opinions as to the precise occurrences and procedures.
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The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Ireland) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s, based on the Chicago school of economics.
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Anglo-Saxon multiple estate
An Anglo-Saxon multiple estate was a large landholding controlled from a central location with surrounding subsidiary settlements.
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Anglo-Saxon paganism, sometimes termed Anglo-Saxon heathenism, Anglo-Saxon pre-Christian religion, or Anglo-Saxon traditional religion, refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Anglo-Saxons between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, during the initial period of Early Medieval England.
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Anglo-Saxon riddles are part of Anglo-Saxon literature.
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Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.
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Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
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Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
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Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
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Ælfric of Eynsham
Ælfric of Eynsham (Ælfrīc; Alfricus, Elphricus) was an English abbot, as well as a consummate, prolific writer in Old English of hagiography, homilies, biblical commentaries, and other genres.
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Æthelberht of Kent
Æthelberht (also Æthelbert, Aethelberht, Aethelbert or Ethelbert, Old English Æðelberht,; 550 – 24 February 616) was King of Kent from about 589 until his death.
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Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians (870 – 12 June 918), ruled Mercia in the English Midlands from 911 until her death.
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Æthelfrith (died c. 616) was King of Bernicia from c. 593 until his death.
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Æthelred of Mercia
Æthelred (died after 704) was King of Mercia from 675 until 704.
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Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians
Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians (or Ealdorman Æthelred of Mercia; died 911) became ruler of English Mercia shortly after the death of its last king, Ceolwulf II in 879.
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Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
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Æthelswith (c. 838–888) was the only known daughter of King Æthelwulf of Wessex.
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Æthelwold of Winchester
Æthelwold of Winchester (904/9 – 984) was Bishop of Winchester from 963 to 984 and one of the leaders of the tenth-century monastic reform movement in Anglo-Saxon England.
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Æthelwulf (Old English for "Noble Wolf"; died 13 January 858) was King of Wessex from 839 to 858.
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Bamburgh is a village and civil parish on the coast of Northumberland, England.
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Battle of Assandun
The Battle of Assandun (or Essendune) was fought between Danish and English armies on 18 October 1016.
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Battle of Badon
The Battle of Badon (Latin: Bellum in monte Badonis or Mons Badonicus, Cad Mynydd Baddon, all literally meaning "Battle of Mount Badon" or "Battle of Badon Hill") was a battle thought to have occurred between Celtic Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the late 5th or early 6th century.
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Battle of Brunanburh
The Battle of Brunanburh was fought in 937 between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin; Constantine, King of Alba and Owen, King of Strathclyde.
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Battle of Maldon
The Battle of Maldon took place on 11 August 991 CE near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Æthelred the Unready.
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Battle of Stamford Bridge
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.
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The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
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Benedict Biscop (pronounced "bishop"; – 690), also known as Biscop Baducing, was an Anglo-Saxon abbot and founder of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory (where he also founded the famous library) and was considered a saint after his death.
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Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
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Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Bryneich, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.
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Bertha of Kent
Saint Bertha or Saint Aldeberge (c. 565 – d. in or after 601) was the queen of Kent whose influence led to the Christianization of Anglo-Saxon England.
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The Bewcastle Cross is an Anglo-Saxon cross which is still in its original position within the churchyard of St Cuthbert's church at Bewcastle, in the English county of Cumbria.
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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
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Bishop of Durham
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
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Book of Cerne
The Book of Cerne (Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, MS Ll. 1. 10) is an early ninth-century Insular or Anglo-Saxon Latin personal prayer book with Old English components.
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Book of Durrow
The Book of Durrow is a medieval illuminated manuscript gospel book in the Insular art style.
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Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.
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The Boston Brahmin or Boston elite are members of Boston's traditional upper class.
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Bradwell-on-Sea is a village and civil parish in Essex, England.
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Bretwalda (also brytenwalda and bretenanwealda, sometimes capitalised) is an Old English word.
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British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods.
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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
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Brittonicisms in English
Brittonicisms in English are the linguistic effects in English attributed to the historical influence of Brittonic speakers as they switched language to English following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon political dominance in Britain.
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The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
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A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement.
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Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
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An example of a caesura in modern western music notation. A caesura (. caesuras or caesurae; Latin for "cutting"), also written cæsura and cesura, is a break in a verse where one phrase ends and the following phrase begins.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
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Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
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Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.
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The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
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Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
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Cædmon (fl. c. AD 657–684) is the earliest English (Northumbrian) poet whose name is known.
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Cædwalla of Wessex
Cædwalla (c. 659 – 20 April 689) was the King of Wessex from approximately 685 until he abdicated in 688.
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Ceawlin of Wessex
Ceawlin (also spelled Ceaulin and Caelin, died ca. 593) was a King of Wessex.
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The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
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Saint Ceolfrid (or Ceolfrith) (Pronounced "Chol-frid") (c. 642 – 716) was an Anglo-Saxon Christian abbot and saint.
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Cerdic of Wessex
Cerdic is cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as a leader of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, being the founder and first king of Saxon Wessex, reigning from 519 to 534.
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Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall
The Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, is a Grade I listed building and among the oldest largely intact Christian churches in England; it is the 19th oldest building in the country and is still in regular use.
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Charibert I (Caribert; Charibertus; c. 517 – December 567) was the Merovingian King of Paris, the second-eldest son of Chlothar I and his first wife Ingund.
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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
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Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
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Charles Reginald Dodwell
Charles Reginald Dodwell (1922–1994) was a British art historian who specialized in the period covering the years 800–1200.
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Chip carving or chip-carving, kerbschnitt in German, is a style of carving in which knives or chisels are used to remove small chips of the material from a flat surface in a single piece.
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Cholsey Abbey was an Anglo-Saxon nunnery in Cholsey in the English county of Berkshire (now Oxfordshire), which was founded in 986.
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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
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Chronica Gallica of 452
The Chronica Gallica of 452, also called the Gallic Chronicle of 452, is a Latin chronicle of Late Antiquity, presented in the form of annals, which continues that of Jerome.
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A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
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Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Sompting
The Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, also known as St Mary the Virgin Church and St Mary's Church, is the Church of England parish church of Sompting in the Adur district of West Sussex.
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A churl (etymologically the same name as Charles / Carl and Old High German karal), in its earliest Old English (Anglo-Saxon) meaning, was simply "a man", and more particularly a "husband", but the word soon came to mean "a non-servile peasant", still spelled ċeorl(e), and denoting the lowest rank of freemen.
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In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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Clayton, West Sussex
Clayton is a small village at the foot of the South Downs in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England.
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Cnut the Great
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
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A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
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The Codex Amiatinus, is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate versionBruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2005), p. 106.
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A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
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Colmán or Colman is both a given name and a surname.
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Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
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Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
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Constantine II of Scotland
Constantine, son of Áed (Medieval Gaelic: Constantín mac Áeda; Modern Gaelic: Còiseam mac Aoidh, known in most modern regnal lists as Constantine II; died 952) was an early King of Scotland, known then by the Gaelic name Alba.
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Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
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The Coppergate Helmet (also known as the York Helmet) is an eighth-century Anglo-Saxon helmet found in York.
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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
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The Cotton or Cottonian library is a collection of manuscripts once owned by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP (1571–1631), an antiquarian and bibliophile.
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Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
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Cynewulf is one of twelve Old English poets known by name, and one of four whose work is known to survive today.
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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
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Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
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David M. Wilson
Sir David Mackenzie Wilson (born 30 October 1931) is a British archaeologist, art historian, and museum curator, specialising in Anglo-Saxon art and the Viking Age.
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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
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Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD, in Northern England that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.
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"Deor" (or "The Lament of Deor") is an Old English poem found in the late-10th-century collection the Exeter Book.
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Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
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Dream of the Rood
The Dream of the Rood is one of the Christian poems in the corpus of Old English literature and an example of the genre of dream poetry.
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Dual (grammatical number)
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
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Dunstan (909 – 19 May 988 AD)Lapidge, "Dunstan (d. 988)" was successively Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, and Archbishop of Canterbury, later canonised as a saint.
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Eadred (also Edred) (923 – 23 November 955) was King of the English from 946 until his death.
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The Easby Cross is an Anglo-Saxon sandstone standing cross from 800–820, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
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Ecclesiastical History of the English People
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
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Ecgberht, King of Wessex
Ecgberht (771/775 – 839), also spelled Egbert, Ecgbert, or Ecgbriht, was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839.
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The Echternach Gospels (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 9389) were produced, presumably, at Lindisfarne Abbey in Northumbria around the year 690.
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Edgar the Peaceful
Edgar (Ēadgār; 8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death.
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Edmund I (Ēadmund, pronounced; 921 – 26 May 946) was King of the English from 939 until his death.
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Edward Augustus Freeman
Edward Augustus Freeman (2 August 1823 – 16 March 1892) was an English historian, architectural artist, and Liberal politician during the late-19th-century heyday of William Gladstone, as well as a one-time candidate for Parliament.
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Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
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Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder (c. 874 – 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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England in the Middle Ages
England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
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Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
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An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
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Escomb Church is the Church of England parish church of Escomb, County Durham, a village about west of Bishop Auckland.
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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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Eustace II, Count of Boulogne
Eustace II, (&ndash), also known as Eustace aux Gernons (with moustaches) Heather J. Tanner, ‘Eustace (II), count of Boulogne (d. c.1087)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
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The Exeter Book, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3501, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a tenth-century book or codex which is an anthology of Anglo-Saxon poetry.
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Exonym and endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
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Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
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Finnian of Movilla
Finnian of Movilla (–589) was an Irish Christian missionary.
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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
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Food render or food rent (Old English: foster) was a form of tax in kind (Old English: feorm) levied in Anglo-Saxon England, consisting of essential foodstuffs provided by territories such as regiones, multiple estates or hundreds to kings and other members of royal households at a territory's royal vill.
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In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Sir Frank Merry Stenton (17 May 1880 – 15 September 1967) was a 20th-century historian of Anglo-Saxon England, and president of the Royal Historical Society (1937–1945).
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
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The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
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Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.
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Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
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The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.
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Frithestan (or Frithustan) was the Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester from 909 until his resignation in 931.
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Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
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George Fitzhugh (November 4, 1806 – July 30, 1881) was an American social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
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Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
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Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England.
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Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Godwin of Wessex (Godƿin; 100115 April 1053) was one of the most powerful earls in England under the Danish king Cnut the Great and his successors.
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The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith.
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Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
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The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
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In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
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In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
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In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
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Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
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Great Heathen Army
The Great Viking Army, known by the Anglo-Saxons as the Great Heathen Army (OE: mycel hæþen here), was a coalition of Norse warriors, originating from primarily Denmark, Sweden and Norway, who came together under a unified command to invade the four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that constituted England in AD 865.
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Greensted Church, in the small village of Greensted-juxta-Ongar, near Chipping Ongar in Essex, England, is the oldest wooden church in the world, and probably the oldest wooden building in Europe still standing, albeit only in part, since few sections of its original wooden structure remain.
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The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
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Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
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Hadstock is a village in Essex, England, about from Saffron Walden.
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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
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Hammerwich is a village and civil parish in Lichfield District, Staffordshire, England, south-east of Burntwood.
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Harrying of the North
The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England.
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A hörgr (Old Norse, plural hörgar) or hearg (Old English) was a type of altar or cult site, possibly consisting of a heap of stones, used in Norse religion, as opposed to a roofed hall used as a ''hof'' (temple).
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Helena Francisca Hamerow, FSA (born 18 September 1961) is Professor of Early Medieval Archaeology and former Head of the School of Archaeology at Oxford University.
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A hemistich (via Latin from Greek ἡμιστίχιον, from ἡμι- "half" and στίχος "verse") is a half-line of verse, followed and preceded by a caesura, that makes up a single overall prosodic or verse unit.
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Hengist and Horsa
Hengist and Horsa are legendary brothers said to have led the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in their invasion of Britain in the 5th century.
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The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
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Hertfordshire (often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south.
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Hexham is a market town and civil parish in Northumberland, England, south of the River Tyne, and was the administrative centre for the Tynedale district from 1974 to 2009.
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A high cross or standing cross (cros ard / ardchros, crois àrd / àrd-chrois, croes uchel / croes eglwysig) is a free-standing Christian cross made of stone and often richly decorated.
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The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
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History of London
The history of London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, extends over 2000 years.
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History of York
The history of York as a city dates to the beginning of the first millennium AD but archaeological evidence for the presence of people in the region of York dates back much further to between 8000 and 7000 BC.
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A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
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Hof (Germanic temple)
A heathen hof or Germanic pagan temple was a temple building of Germanic religion; a few have also been built for use in modern heathenry.
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A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.
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Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
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The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
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Hundred (county division)
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
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The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
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Hwicce (Old English: /ʍi:kt͡ʃe/) was a tribal kingdom in Anglo-Saxon England.
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Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
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An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
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Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
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The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
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Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
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In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art.
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An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
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Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.
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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
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The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
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Isle of Thanet
The Isle of Thanet lies at the most easterly point of Kent, England.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
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Ivory carving is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually.
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J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
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James Anthony Froude
James Anthony Froude (23 April 1818 – 20 October 1894) was an English historian, novelist, biographer, and editor of Fraser's Magazine.
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Janet Backhouse (8 February 1938 – 3 November 2004) was a leading authority in the field of illuminated manuscripts.
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is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
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John Hamilton McWhorter V (born October 6, 1965) is an American academic and linguist who is Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University, where he teaches linguistics, American studies, philosophy, and music history.
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Julian D. Richards
Julian Daryl Richards is a British archaeologist.
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The Junius manuscript is one of the four major codices of Old English literature.
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The so-called Katherine Group is a group of five 13th century Middle English texts composed by an anonymous author of the English West Midlands, in a variety of Middle English known as AB language.
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Kempsford is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England, about south of Fairford.
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Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
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Kingdom of East Anglia
The Kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.
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Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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Kingdom of Essex
The kingdom of the East Saxons (Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
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Kingdom of Kent
The Kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.
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Kingdom of Lindsey
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
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Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
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Kingdom of Sussex
The kingdom of the South Saxons (Suþseaxna rice), today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
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Lacertines, most commonly found in Celtic Art, are interlaces created by animal forms.
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Lady St Mary Church, Wareham
The parish church of Lady St.
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Lakenheath is a village in Suffolk, England.
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Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
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Law of Æthelberht
The Law of Æthelberht is a set of legal provisions written in Old English, probably dating to the early 7th century.
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Leofric, Earl of Mercia
Leofric (died 31 August or 30 September 1057) was an Earl of Mercia.
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Leslie Webster (art historian)
Leslie Elizabeth Webster, (born 8 November 1943) is an English retired museum curator and scholar of Anglo-Saxon and Viking studies.
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Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
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The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
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The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book probably produced around the years 715-720 in the monastery at Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, which is now in the British Library in London.
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List of English words of Old Norse origin
Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England between the mid 9th to the 11th centuries (see also Danelaw).
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List of Frankish kings
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
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Malcolm Todd, FSA (27 November 1939 – 6 June 2013) was a British historian and archaeologist with an interest in the interaction between the Roman Empire and Western Europe.
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Malmesbury is a market town and civil parish in the southern Cotswolds in the county of Wiltshire, England.
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A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
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Marjorie Morgan McCallum Chibnall (27 September 1915 – 23 June 2012) was an English historian, medievalist and Latin translator.
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Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
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Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
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Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
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Michelle P. Brown
Michelle P. Brown is Professor of Medieval Manuscript Studies at the School of Advanced Study, University of London.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
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Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.
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The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
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Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
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Minster is a large village on the north coast of the Isle of Sheppey and in the Swale district of Kent, England.
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Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
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Monkwearmouth is an area of Sunderland located at the north side of the mouth of the River Wear.
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Moville (Magh Bhile, "the plain of the sacred tree" in the Irish language) is a coastal town located on the Inishowen Peninsula of County Donegal, Ireland, close to the northern tip of the island of Ireland.
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The mund is a principle in Germanic tradition and law that can be crudely translated as "protection" and which grew as the prerogative of a Germanic tribe king or leader.
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A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
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Nicholas John Higham FRS (born 25 December 1961 in Salford) is a British numerical analyst and Richardson Professor of Applied Mathematics at the School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester.
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The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
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Norman conquest of England
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
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The Norse–Gaels (Gall-Goídil; Irish: Gall-Ghaeil; Gall-Ghàidheil, 'foreigner-Gaels') were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture.
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Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.
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Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
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The Nowell Codex is the second of two manuscripts comprising the bound volume Cotton Vitellius A.xv, one of the four major Anglo-Saxon poetic manuscripts.
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In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
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Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux (died 1097), Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was, for a time, second in power after the King of England.
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Offa of Mercia
Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.
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Olaf Guthfrithson (Óláfr Guðrøðsson; Ánláf; Amlaíb mac Gofraid; died 941) was a Viking leader who ruled Dublin and Viking Northumbria in the 10th century.
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old English Bible translations
The Old English Bible translations are the partial translations of the Bible prepared in medieval England into the Old English language.
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Old English literature
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
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Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
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Old Minster, Winchester
The Old Minster was the Anglo-Saxon cathedral for the diocese of Wessex and then Winchester from 660 to 1093.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
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Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
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Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia (Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-Holstein) and western Saxony-Anhalt.
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Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
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Orderic Vitalis (Ordericus Vitalis; 1075 –) was an English chronicler and Benedictine monk who wrote one of the great contemporary chronicles of 11th- and 12th-century Normandy and Anglo-Norman England.
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Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald (c 604 – 5 August 641/642Bede gives the year of Oswald's death as 642, however there is some question as to whether what Bede considered 642 is the same as what would now be considered 642. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede's years began in September, and if this theory is followed (as it was, for instance, by Frank Stenton in his notable history Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1943), then the date of the Battle of Heavenfield (and the beginning of Oswald's reign) is pushed back from 634 to 633. Thus, if Oswald subsequently reigned for eight years, he would have actually been killed in 641. Poole's theory has been contested, however, and arguments have been made that Bede began his year on 25 December or 1 January, in which case Bede's years would be accurate as he gives them.) was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint, of whom there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages.
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Oswald of Worcester
Oswald of Worcester (died 29 February 992) was Archbishop of York from 972 to his death in 992.
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Owain ap Dyfnwal (fl. 934)
Owain ap Dyfnwal (fl. 934) was an early tenth-century King of Strathclyde.
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Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
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The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
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For the third copy of the Utrecht Psalter.
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Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon (720s 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.
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Penda of Mercia
Penda (died 15 November 655)Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the year as 655.
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Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
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Peter Brown (historian)
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University.
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Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.
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Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front.
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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
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A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
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Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
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Pope Gregory I
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
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A porticus, in church architecture and archaeology, is usually a small room in a church.
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Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
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Pre-Romanesque art and architecture
Pre-Romanesque art and architecture is the period in European art from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about 500 CE or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period.
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Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
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Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
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Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
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The quoit brooch is a type of brooch found from the 5th century and later during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain that has given its name to the Quoit Brooch Style to embrace all types of Anglo-Saxon metalwork in the decorative style typical of the finest brooches.
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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
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Rædwald of East Anglia
Rædwald (Rædwald, 'power in counsel'), also written as Raedwald or Redwald, was a 7th-century king of East Anglia, a long-lived Anglo-Saxon kingdom which included the present-day English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk.
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The Rhenish helm is a type of spire typical of Romanesque church architecture of the historic Rhineland.
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Richard Coates (born 16 April 1949, in Grimsby, Lincolnshire, and educated at Wintringham School) is an English linguist.
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Ripon is a cathedral city in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England.
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Robert Knox, (4 September 1793 – 20 December 1862) was a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethologist and doctor.
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Robert of Jumièges
Robert of Jumièges (died between 1052 and 1055) was the first Norman Archbishop of Canterbury.
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Robin Fleming is a medieval historian, professor of history at Boston College, and a 2013 MacArthur Fellow.
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Rochester is a town and was a historic city in the unitary authority of Medway in Kent, England.
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
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Romsey Abbey is a parish church of the Church of England in Romsey, a market town in Hampshire, England.
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A royal vill, royal tun or villa regales was the central settlement of a rural territory in Anglo Saxon England, which would be visited by the King and members of the royal household on regular circuits of their kingdoms.
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The Rugini were a tribe in Pomerania.
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Rupert Leo Scott Bruce-Mitford, FBA, FSA (surname sometimes Mitford) (14 June 1914 – 10 March 1994) was a British archaeologist and scholar, best known for his multi-volume publication on the Sutton Hoo ship burial.
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Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
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The Ruthwell Cross is a stone Anglo-Saxon cross probably dating from the 8th century, when the village of Ruthwell, now in Scotland, was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
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Sack of Rome (410)
The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410.
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Samuel George Morton
Samuel George Morton (January 26, 1799 – May 15, 1851) was an American physician and natural scientist.
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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
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Sarre is a village and civil parish in Thanet District in Kent, England.
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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
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Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to the city (York) controlled by these kings.
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Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.
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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
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Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
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A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
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Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.
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A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
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A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself.
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A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
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Simon Douglas Keynes, (born 23 September 1952) is the current Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Celtic at Cambridge University, and a Fellow of Trinity College.
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Siward, Earl of Northumbria
Siward (or more recently) or Sigurd (Sigeweard, Sigurðr digri) was an important earl of 11th-century northern England.
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Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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Spong Hill is an Anglo-Saxon cemetery site located at North Elmham in Norfolk, England.
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St Cuthbert Gospel
The St Cuthbert Gospel, also known as the Stonyhurst Gospel or the St Cuthbert Gospel of St John, is an early 8th-century pocket gospel book, written in Latin.
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St Cuthbert's coffin
What is usually referred to as St Cuthbert's coffin is a fragmentary oak coffin in Durham Cathedral, pieced together in the 20th century, which between AD 698 and 1827 contained the remains of Saint Cuthbert, who died in 687.
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St John the Baptist's Church, Barnack
The Church of St John the Baptist, Barnack is a Church of England parish church in the village of Barnack, now in the City of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire.
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St Mary's Church, Reculver
St Mary's Church, Reculver, was founded in the 7th century as either a minster or a monastery on the site of a Roman fort at Reculver, which was then at the north-eastern extremity of Kent in south-eastern England.
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St Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber
St Peter's Church is the former parish church of Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire, England.
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Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
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The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork.
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The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
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Stigand (died 1072) was an Anglo-Saxon churchman in pre-Norman Conquest England who became Archbishop of Canterbury.
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Stockholm Codex Aureus
The Stockholm Codex Aureus (Stockholm, National Library of Sweden, MS A. 135, also known as the Codex Aureus of Canterbury and Codex Aureus Holmiensis) is a Gospel book written in the mid-eighth century in Southumbria, probably in Canterbury, whose decoration combines Insular and Italian elements.
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The Minster Church of St Mary, Stow in Lindsey, is a major Anglo-Saxon church in Lincolnshire.
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The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
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Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries.
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Sutton Hoo purse-lid
The Sutton Hoo purse-lid is one of the major objects excavated from the Anglo-Saxon royal burial-ground at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England.
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Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
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Symbolic anthropology or, more broadly, symbolic and interpretive anthropology, is the study of cultural symbols and how those symbols can be used to gain a better understanding of a particular society.
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Synod of Whitby
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
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The Taplow burial is a 7th-century Anglo-Saxon burial mound in a part of a churchyard at the edge of the small riverside estate of Taplow Court, Buckinghamshire.
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The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary northeast-southwest line that can be drawn on a map of Great Britain which roughly divides the country into lowland and upland regions.
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Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
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The Battle of Maldon
"The Battle of Maldon" is the name given to an Old English poem of uncertain date celebrating the real Battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion.
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The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
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"The Ruin" is an elegy in Old English, written by an unknown author probably in the 8th or 9th century, and published in the 10th century in the Exeter Book, a large collection of poems and riddles.
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The Seafarer (poem)
The Seafarer is an Old English poem giving a first-person account of a man alone on the sea.
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The Tremulous Hand of Worcester
The Tremulous Hand of Worcester is the name given to a 13th-century scribe of Old English manuscripts with handwriting characterized by large, shaky, leftward leaning figures usually written in light brown ink.
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The Wanderer (poem)
The Wanderer is an Old English poem preserved only in an anthology known as the Exeter Book, a manuscript dating from the late 10th century.
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Theodore of Tarsus
Theodore of Tarsus (602 – 19 September 690.) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 668 to 690, best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury.
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Thorkell the Tall
Thorkell the Tall, also known as Thorkell the High in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Old Norse: Þorke(ti)ll inn hávi; Torkjell Høge; Swedish; Torkel Höge: Torkild den Høje), was a prominent member of the Jomsviking order and a notable lord.
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Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain
The Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain is concerned with the period of history from just before the departure of the Roman Army, in the 4th century, to just after the Norman Conquest in the 11th century.
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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
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Trewhiddle is a small settlement in south Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
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The Tribal Hidage is a list of thirty-five tribes that was compiled in Anglo-Saxon England some time between the 7th and 9th centuries.
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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
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The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
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In Germanic paganism, a vé (Old Norse) or wēoh (Old English) is a type of shrine or sacred enclosure.
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In Norse mythology, a vǫrðr (pl. varðir or verðir — "warden," "watcher" or "caretaker") is a warden spirit, believed to follow from birth to death the soul (hugr) of every person.
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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
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The Vercelli Book is one of the oldest of the four Old English Poetic Codices (the others being the Junius manuscript, the Exeter Book, and the Nowell Codex).
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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
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Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.
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Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
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West Germanic languages
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
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West Saxon dialect
West Saxon was one of four distinct dialects of Old English.
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Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
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Whitby Abbey was a 7th-century Christian monastery that later became a Benedictine abbey.
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White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is an informal acronym that refers to social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, many of whom trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.
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Wilfrid (c. 633 – c. 709) was an English bishop and saint.
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William the Conqueror
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
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Wulfstan the Cantor
Wulfstan the Cantor (c. 960 – early 11th century), also known as Wulfstan of Winchester, was an Anglo-Saxon monk of the Old Minster, Winchester.
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Yeavering /ˈjɛvəriŋ/ is a very small hamlet in the north-east corner of the civil parish of Kirknewton in the English county of Northumberland.
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York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
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The 5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE) in the Julian calendar.
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Angelsachsen, Anglo Saxon, Anglo Saxon culture, Anglo Saxon people, Anglo Saxon peoples, Anglo Saxons, Anglo saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Saxon culture, Anglo-Saxon people, Anglo-Saxon peoples, Anglo-Saxon society, Anglo-Saxons Britain, Anglo-saxon, Anglo-saxons, Anglons-saxons, Anglosaxon, Anglosaxons, Anglossaxon, Early medieval England, Le monde Anglo-Saxon, Old English people, The anglo saxon way of life.