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# Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution. [1]

70 relations: Accuracy and precision, Airy disk, Angle, Angular aperture, Angular diameter, Angular distance, Aperture, Aperture synthesis, Applied Physics Letters, Astronomical interferometer, Astronomical seeing, Bessel function, Blue, Cambridge University Press, Camera, Collimated light, Dawes' limit, Deconvolution, Diameter, Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Digital image processing, Double-slit experiment, Empirical evidence, F-number, Focal length, Focus (optics), Fourier transform, Gaussian beam, Human eye, Image resolution, Image-forming optical system, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Laser, Lens (optics), Light, Max Planck Society, Measurement, Microscope, Minute and second of arc, Nanometre, Near-field scanning optical microscope, Nikon, Numerical aperture, Object (image processing), Objective (optics), Oil immersion, Optical aberration, Optical resolution, Optical telescope, ... Expand index (20 more) »

## Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

## Airy disk

In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light.

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

## Angular aperture

The angular aperture of a lens is the angular size of the lens aperture as seen from the focal point: where.

## Angular diameter

The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.

## Angular distance

In mathematics (in particular geometry and trigonometry) and all natural sciences (e.g. astronomy and geophysics), the angular distance (angular separation, apparent distance, or apparent separation) between two point objects, as viewed from a location different from either of these objects, is the angle of length between the two directions originating from the observer and pointing toward these two objects.

## Aperture

In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.

## Aperture synthesis

Aperture synthesis or synthesis imaging is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection of telescopes to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.

## Applied Physics Letters

Applied Physics Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by the American Institute of Physics.

## Astronomical interferometer

An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.

## Astronomical seeing

Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.

## Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.

## Blue

Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.

## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

## Camera

A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Collimated light

Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.

## Dawes' limit

Dawes' limit is a formula to express the maximum resolving power of a microscope or telescope.

## Deconvolution

In mathematics, deconvolution is an algorithm-based process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data.

## Diameter

In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

## Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

## Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

## Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

## Double-slit experiment

In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

## Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

## F-number

The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.

## Focal length

The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.

## Focus (optics)

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.

## Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

## Gaussian beam

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation whose transverse magnetic and electric field amplitude profiles are given by the Gaussian function; this also implies a Gaussian intensity (irradiance) profile.

## Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

## Image resolution

Image resolution is the detail an image holds.

## Image-forming optical system

In optics, an image-forming optical system is a system capable of being used for imaging.

## John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

## Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

## Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

## Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

## Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

## Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

## Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

## Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

## Near-field scanning optical microscope

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM/SNOM) is a microscopy technique for nanostructure investigation that breaks the far field resolution limit by exploiting the properties of evanescent waves.

## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

## Nikon

(or), also known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optics and imaging products.

## Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

## Object (image processing)

An object in image processing is an identifiable portion of an image that can be interpreted as a single unit or is an identifiable portion of an image that can be interpreted as a single unit.

## Objective (optics)

In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.

## Oil immersion

In light microscopy, oil immersion is a technique used to increase the resolving power of a microscope.

## Optical aberration

Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.

## Optical resolution

Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.

## Optical telescope

An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.

## Petri dish

A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.

## Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

## Photoactivated localization microscopy

Photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM or FPALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) are widefield (as opposed to point scanning techniques such as laser scanning confocal microscopy) fluorescence microscopy imaging methods that allow obtaining images with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

The point spread function (PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object.

## Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

## Red

Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

## Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

## Sparrow's resolution limit

Sparrow's Resolution Limit is an estimate of the angular resolution limit of an optical instrument.

## Violet (color)

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.

## Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

## Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

## Wavefront

In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.

## Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

## William Rutter Dawes

William Rutter Dawes (19 March 1799 – 15 February 1868) was an English astronomer.

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

## 4Pi STED microscopy

The 4Pi-STED-microscope is the result of combining the two unrelated concepts of Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and 4Pi-microscopy.

## References

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