346 relations: Acanthocephala, African bush elephant, Albrecht Dürer, Algae, Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Amphibian, Ancient Egypt, Animal attacks, Animal coloration, Animal husbandry, Animal locomotion, Animal rights, Animal style, Animals in sport, Annelid, Antarctica, Anthropocentrism, Anti-predator adaptation, Aphid, Apoikozoa, Arachnid, Archaea, Archenteron, Argentinosaurus, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Arthropod, Arthropods in film, Asexual reproduction, Autotroph, Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Barnacle, Basal (phylogenetics), Bilateria, Biological life cycle, Bird, Bird of prey, Bivalvia, Blastula, Blowgun, Blue whale, Body plan, Bone, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Budding, Burgess Shale, Butterfly, Cambrian explosion, Canada, ..., Carbohydrate, Carl Linnaeus, Carmine, Carnivore, Cat, Cattle in religion and mythology, Cecidomyiidae, Cell junction, Cellular differentiation, Cellular respiration, Cephalization, Cephalopod, Chaetognatha, Chameleon, Chemosynthesis, Chinese zodiac, Choanoflagellate, Chordate, Cilium, Clade, Clam, Classical antiquity, Cleavage (embryo), Cnidaria, Cochineal, Coelom, Cold seep, Collagen, Comparative anatomy, Consumer (food chain), Consumer-resource systems, Coral, Cormorant, Cormorant fishing, Crustacean, Cryogenian, CSIRO Publishing, Ctenophora, Cultural depictions of lions, Dürer's Rhinoceros, Deer in mythology, Desmosome, Detritivore, Deuterostome, Devonian, Dicyemida, Digestion, Diploblasty, DNA barcoding, Dog, Domestic canary, Domestication of animals, Dominance (genetics), Drosophila melanogaster, Earthworm, Ecdysis, Ecdysozoa, Echinoderm, Ecology, Ectoderm, Ediacaran biota, Egg, Egg cell, Embryogenesis, Embryophyte, Endoderm, Enterocoely, Entoprocta, Ernst Haeckel, Ethology, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Evo-devo gene toolkit, Evolutionary arms race, Exoskeleton, Extinction, Extracellular matrix, Fauna, Fish, Fish farming, Fishing, Flatworm, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food web, Fossil, Fragmentation (reproduction), Furongian, Gamete, Gap junction, Gastropoda, Gastrotrich, Gastrulation, Gene, George Stubbs, Germ layer, Glycoprotein, Gnathifera (clade), Gnathostomulid, Great chain of being, Gromia sphaerica, Habitat, Hawksbill sea turtle, Helminths, Hemichordate, Herbivore, Heterotroph, History of Animals, Holocene, Homeobox, Horse worship, Hox gene, Hunting dog, Hydra (genus), Hydrostatic skeleton, Hydrothermal vent, Inbreeding, Inbreeding avoidance, Inbreeding depression, Infusoria, Insect, Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Insects in mythology, Invagination, Invertebrate, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Jellyfish, Karl Ernst von Baer, Kermes (dye), Kingdom (biology), Kinorhyncha, Larva, Lascaux, Le Règne Animal, Leather, Leech, Lipid, List of animal names, List of feeding behaviours, Lists of organisms by population, Livestock, Lophotrochozoa, Loricifera, Louis Agassiz, Lugworm, Malacostraca, Mammal, Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Mantis, Marine life, Mating, Meat, Meiosis, Mesoderm, Mesozoa, Micrometre, Microorganism, Milk, Mitosis, Model organism, Molecular phylogenetics, Mollusca, Monophyly, Motility, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Mussel, Myxozoa, Nature (journal), Nature Communications, Nematode, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Neontology, Nephrozoa, Nervous tissue, Obligate parasite, Omnivore, Onychophora, Ordovician, Organ (anatomy), Organogenesis, Orthonectida, ParaHoxozoa, Parakeet, Parasitism, Parasitoid wasp, Parrot, Parthenogenesis, Parts of Animals, Peristalsis, Pet, Phenotypic trait, Philosophie Zoologique, Phoronid, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Placozoa, Platytrochozoa, Platyzoa, Ploidy, Poison dart frog, Precambrian, Predation, Priapulida, Proarticulata, Prokaryote, Protein, Protist, Protostome, Protozoa, Rabbit, Radiata, Redox, Reptile, Richard Owen, Rotifer, Salinella, Sarcopterygii, Sauropoda, Scarab (artifact), Schizocoely, Sea anemone, Sea 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Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.
The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), also known as the African savanna elephant, is the larger of the two species of African elephants, and the largest living terrestrial animal.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as: Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide.
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.
Animals in sport are a specific form of working animals.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
The Apoikozoa is a clade of opisthokont eukaryotes consisting of the Animalia and Choanoflagellatea.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The primary gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing zygote is known as the archenteron or the digestive tube.
Argentinosaurus (meaning "Argentine lizard") is a genus of titanosaur sauropod dinosaur first discovered by Guillermo Heredia in Argentina.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Arthropods, mainly insects and arachnids, are used in film either to create fear and disgust in horror and thriller movies, or they are anthropomorphized and used as sympathetic characters in animated children's movies.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.
A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.
A blowgun (also called a blowpipe or blow tube) is a simple ranged weapon consisting of a long narrow tube for shooting light projectiles such as darts.
The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carmine, also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Due to the multiple benefits from cattle, there are varying beliefs about cattle in societies and religions.
Cecidomyiidae (sometimes misspelled "Cecidomyidae") is a family of flies known as gall midges or gall gnats.
A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cephalization is an evolutionary trend in which, over many generations, the mouth, sense organs, and nerve ganglia become concentrated at the front end of an animal, producing a head region.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, is a phylum of predatory marine worms which are a major component of plankton worldwide.
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle.
The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Consumers are organisms that eat organisms from a different population. These organisms are formally referred to as heterotrophs, which include animals, some bacteria and fungi.
Consumer-resource interactions are the core motif of ecological food chains or food webs, and are an umbrella term for a variety of more specialized types of biological species interactions including prey-predator (see predation), host-parasite (see parasitism), plant-herbivore and victim-exploiter systems.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
Cormorant fishing is a traditional fishing method in which fishermen use trained cormorants to fish in rivers.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The Cryogenian (from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from.
CSIRO Publishing is an Australian-based science and technology publisher.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
Lions have been an important symbol to humans for tens of thousands of years and appear as a theme in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515.
Deer have significant roles in the mythology of various peoples located all over the world.
A desmosome ("binding body"), also known as a macula adhaerens (plural: maculae adhaerentes) (Latin for adhering spot), is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Dicyemida, also known as Rhombozoa, is a phylum of tiny parasites that live in the renal appendages of cephalopods.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.
DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), is a domesticated form of the wild canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands (The Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands).
The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Enterocoely (adjective forms: enterocoelic and enterocoelous) is a process by which some animal embryos develop.
Entoprocta, whose name means "anus inside", is a phylum of mostly sessile aquatic animals, ranging from long.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.
The evo-devo gene toolkit is the small subset of genes in an organism's genome whose products control the organism's embryonic development.
In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is a struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multi cellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.
The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The gastrotrichs (phylum Gastrotricha), commonly referred to as hairybacks, are a group of microscopic (0.06-3.0 mm), worm-like, pseudocoelomate animals, and are widely distributed and abundant in freshwater and marine environments.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
George Stubbs (25 August 1724 – 10 July 1806) was an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Gnathifera is an assemblage of phyla of platyzoans comprising the rotifers (Bdelloidea, Monogononta, Seisonidae), acanthocephalans, and gnathostomulids.
Gnathostomulids, or jaw worms, are a small phylum of nearly microscopic marine animals.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
Gromia sphaerica is a large spherical testate amoeba, a single-celled organism classed among the protists and is the largest in the genus Gromia.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants.
Horse worship is a spiritual practice with archaeological evidence of its existence during the Iron Age and, in some places, as far back as the Bronze Age.
Hox genes, a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis.
A hunting dog refers to a canine that hunts with or for humans.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Inbreeding avoidance, or the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to the prevention of the deleterious effects of inbreeding.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
Infusoria is a collective term for minute aquatic creatures such as ciliates, euglenoids, protozoa, unicellular algae and small invertebrates that exist in freshwater ponds.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta".
Insects have appeared in mythology around the world from ancient times.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.
Kermes is a red dye derived from the dried bodies of the females of a scale insect in the genus Kermes, primarily Kermes vermilio.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Kinorhyncha (I move, ῥύγχος "snout") is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
Le Règne Animal (The Animal Kingdom) is the most famous work of the French naturalist Georges Cuvier.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Many animals, particularly domesticated, have specific names for males, females, young, and groups.
Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food.
This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia.
Loricifera (from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera.
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.
The lugworm or sandworm (Arenicola marina) is a large marine worm of the phylum Annelida.
Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (published 1758–1759), Carl Linnaeus described the Mammalia as one of the six classes of animals, characterized by being: Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats.
Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families.
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The Mesozoa (singular: mesozoon) are minuscule, worm-like parasites of marine invertebrates.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.
Nemertea is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
An obligate parasite or holoparasite is a parasitic organism that cannot complete its life-cycle without exploiting a suitable host.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
Onychophora (from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In animal development, organogenesis is the phase of embryonic development that starts at the end of gastrulation and goes until birth.
Orthonectida is a small phylum of poorly known parasites of marine invertebrates that are among the simplest of multi-cellular organisms.
The ParaHoxozoa are a proposed basal Diploblast/Eumetazoa clade as sister of the Ctenophora.
A parakeet is any one of a large number of small to medium-sized species of parrot, in multiple genera, that generally have long tail feathers.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Parts of Animals (or On the Parts of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων μορίων; Latin De Partibus Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Philosophie Zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism.
Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida, sometimes called horseshoe worms) are a small phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as: Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites.
The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.
The Platytrochozoa are a proposed basal Spiralia clade of animals as sister of the Gnathifera.
The paraphyletic "Platyzoa" are a group of protostome unsegmented animals proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Poison dart frog (also known as dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly known as poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to tropical Central and South America.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.
Proarticulata is an extinct phylum of very early, superficially bilaterally symmetrical animals known from fossils found in the Ediacaran (Vendian) marine deposits, and dates to approximately.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
Salinella salve is a dubious species of very simple animal that may not exist, but which some have named as the sole member of the phylum Monoblastozoa.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.
Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt.
Schizocoely (adjective forms: schizocoelous or schizocoelic) is a process by which some animal embryos develop.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of protostome animals, including within their number the molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other taxa.
The splendid fairywren (Malurus splendens) is a passerine bird in the Australasian wren family, Maluridae.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.
A spongivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating animals of the phylum Porifera, commonly called sea sponges, for the main component of its diet.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
The Stegophilinae are a subfamily of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Trichomycteridae.
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Symbion is the name of a genus of aquatic animals, less than 0.5 mm wide, found living attached to the bodies of cold-water lobsters.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned fish) from the late Devonian period, about 375 MYA (million years ago), having many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titanosaurs (members of the group Titanosauria) were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs which included Saltasaurus and Isisaurus.
The Tonian (from Greek τόνος (tónos), meaning "stretch") is the first geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or ET-743) is an antitumor chemotherapy drug sold by Pharma Mar S.A. and Johnson and Johnson under the brand name Yondelis.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Trees for Life is a registered charity working to restore the Caledonian Forest and its unique wildlife to the Scottish Highlands.
The Trezona Formation is a Neoproterozoic epoch fossiliferous geological formation in South Australia.
The Trichomycteridae are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes.
Trilobozoa ("three-lobed animals") is a taxon of extinct organisms which displayed tri-radial symmetry.
Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
A trochophore (also spelled trocophore) is a type of free-swimming planktonic marine larva with several bands of cilia.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
The Vandelliinae are a subfamily of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Trichomycteridae.
In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as: Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Whistlejacket is an oil-on-canvas painting from about 1762 by the British artist George Stubbs showing the Marquess of Rockingham's racehorse approximately at lifesize, rearing up against a plain background.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America (corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf).
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
Xenacoelomorpha is a basal bilaterian phylum of small and very simple animals, grouping the xenoturbellids with the acoelomorphs.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
Anamalia, Animal (Metazoan) Evolution, Animal (biology), Animal Characteristics, Animal Phylogeny, Animal body, Animal life, Animal phylogeny, Animal phylum, Animal reproduction, Animal types, Animalia, Animalia Kingdom, Animals, Animals versus humans, Anumal, Basal metazoa, Basal metazoan, Classification of animals, Kingdom Animal, Kingdom Animalia, Kingdom animal, Kingdom animalia, KingdomAnimalia, Metazoa, Metazoan, Metazoan life, Metazoans, Metazoic, Metazoon, New Animal Phylogeny, New animal phylogeny, Non-human animal, Nonhuman animal, Water animal.