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Animal locomotion

Index Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another. [1]

277 relations: Actinopterygii, Adhesion, Aerodynamics, African bee, Airfoil, Albatross, Ambush predator, Amphibious fish, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomical terms of motion, Anglerfish, Animal, Animal locomotion, Animal migration, Animal navigation, Aquatic animal, Arachnid, Arboreal locomotion, Arctic tern, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Arm, Arthropod, Astropecten, Atmosphere of Earth, Ballooning (spider), Banded flying snake, Barnacle, Basiliscus (genus), Bat, Benthic zone, Bipedalism, Bird, Bird feet and legs, Bird flight, Bird of prey, Bow wave, Brachiation, Buoyancy, Bureau of Land Management, Camouflage, Canis, Carbon dioxide, Cartwheel (gymnastics), Cebrennus rechenbergi, Cephalopod, Cestoda, Cetacea, Chrysidinae, Cicindela dorsalis, Cilium, ..., Common ostrich, Convergence zone, Convergent evolution, Coypu, Crawling (human), Department of Primary Industries (New South Wales), Dipodomyinae, Diving bird, Dog flea, Dorsal fin, Drag (physics), Dugong, Dune, Dynamic soaring, Earthworm, Echinoderm, Ecological Society of America, Ecology (journal), Eel, Elastic energy, Electromyography, Energy, Enzyme, Escape reflex, Escape response, Ethology, Feather, Filter feeder, Fin, Fish, Fish fin, Fish locomotion, Flea, Flight, Fluid, Fluoroscopy, Flying and gliding animals, Flying fish, Flying frog, Flying gurnard, Foraging, Force platform, Fossorial, Friction, Frog, Gait, Gecko, Gentoo penguin, Geometer moth, Gerridae, Gibbon, Gliding ant, Gliding flight, Gobabeb, Golden mole, Gravity, Grazing, Greenwood Publishing Group, Ground squirrel, Gull, Gymnotus, Habitat, Hadrurus arizonensis, Handspring (gymnastics), Hare, Hemolymph, Hoatzin, Hopping mouse, Human body weight, Human taxonomy, Huntsman spider, Hydrophobe, Inertia, Infant, Insect flight, Japanese flying squid, Jerboa, Jet propulsion, Joint, Joule, Journal of Morphology, Jumping, Kangaroo, Kangaroo rat, Kinematics, Kinesis (biology), Kleptoparasitism, Larva, Leather star, Lee wave, Leech, Leg, Libinia emarginata, Lift (force), Lift (soaring), Lobster, Luidia, Macropodidae, Manta ray, Mantis shrimp, Marine iguana, Marine mammal, Marsupial mole, Mating system, Matutidae, Metachronal rhythm, Mictyris platycheles, Mole (animal), Mole cricket, Momentum, Mountain, Movement of Animals, Mucus, Mudskipper, Muscle, Naked mole-rat, Namib, Nannosquilla decemspinosa, National Wildlife, National Wildlife Federation, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nectar, Nekton, Neon flying squid, Newton's laws of motion, Nonverbal communication, Nymphalidae, Ocean sunfish, Octopus, Opiliones, Oxygen, Pangolin, Parasitism, Parasitoid, Particle image velocimetry, PBS, Pedetes, Pelvis, Peristalsis, Permian, Peromyscus, Physiology, Pink fairy armadillo, Portuguese man o' war, Portunidae, Predation, Prehensile tail, Prehensility, Pseudoscorpion, Pterosaur, Quadrupedalism, Rabbit, Race track, Raninidae, Ratite, Remora, Respiration (physiology), Ridge lift, Robert McNeill Alexander, Robert R. Reisz, Rodent, Role of skin in locomotion, Ross Piper, Rotating locomotion in living systems, Running, Sailfish, Sailing, Sand star, Scorpion, Sense of balance, Sexual dimorphism, Shoebill, Shrimp, Siamang, Skeleton, Snow leopard, Solifugae, Sonomicrometry, Southern Africa, Sperm whale, Spider silk, Spider wasp, Spinneret, Squid, Squirrel glider, Static electricity, Striped rocket frog, Sucker (zoology), Sucrose, Sugar glider, Suminia, Sunflower sea star, Surface tension, Suspensory behavior, Swim bladder, Swordfish, Synapsid, Tail, Taxis, Tendon, Terrestrial animal, Terrestrial planet, Tetrapod, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thelyphonida, Thermal, Thrust, Tilefish, Torpedo, Trade-off, Treadmill, Tree snail, Tripedalism, Tripod, Tube feet, Undulatory locomotion, University of Sydney Library, Velella, Video, Vulture, Walking, Walking catfish, Walking fish, Water, Wheel spider, Wing. Expand index (227 more) »

Actinopterygii

Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Adhesion

Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another).

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Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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African bee

The African honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is a subspecies of the Western honey bee.

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Airfoil

An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

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Albatross

Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).

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Ambush predator

Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.

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Amphibious fish

Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anatomical terms of motion

Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.

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Anglerfish

Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

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Animal migration

Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.

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Animal navigation

Animal navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments.

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Arachnid

Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Arboreal locomotion

Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.

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Arctic tern

The Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a tern in the family Laridae.

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Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum

The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum is a 98-acre (40 ha) zoo, aquarium, botanical garden, natural history museum, publisher, and art gallery founded in 1952.

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Arm

In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.

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Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Astropecten

Astropecten is a genus of sea stars of the family Astropectinidae.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Ballooning (spider)

Ballooning, sometimes called kiting, is a process by which spiders, and some other small invertebrates, move through the air by releasing one or more gossamer threads to catch the wind, causing them to become airborne at the mercy of air currents.

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Banded flying snake

The twin-barred tree snake (Chrysopelea pelias) is a species of snake found in Southeast Asia.

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Barnacle

A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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Basiliscus (genus)

Basiliscus is a genus of large corytophanid lizards, commonly known as basilisks, which are endemic to southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.

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Bat

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.

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Bipedalism

Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bird feet and legs

The anatomy of bird legs and feet is diverse, encompassing many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions.

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Bird flight

Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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Bow wave

A bow wave is the wave that forms at the bow of a ship when it moves through the water.

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Brachiation

Brachiation (from "brachium", Latin for "arm"), or arm swinging, is a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms.

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Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

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Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.

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Camouflage

Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Canis

Canis is a genus of the Canidae containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, coyotes, jackals, dingoes, and dogs.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cartwheel (gymnastics)

A cartwheel is a sideways rotary movement of the body.

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Cebrennus rechenbergi

Cebrennus rechenbergi, also known as the Moroccan flic-flac spider and Cartwheeling spider, is a species of huntsman spider indigenous to Morocco.

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Cephalopod

A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Cestoda

Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.

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Cetacea

Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Chrysidinae

The subfamily Chrysidinae contains those species that are most commonly recognized as cuckoo wasps, being by far the largest and most familiar subfamily.

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Cicindela dorsalis

Cicindela dorsalis (common name eastern beach tiger beetle) is a species of tiger beetle.

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Cilium

A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Common ostrich

The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.

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Convergence zone

A convergence zone in meteorology is a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet and interact, usually resulting in distinctive weather conditions.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Coypu

The coypu (Myocastor coypus), also known as the nutria, is a large, herbivorous, semiaquatic rodent.

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Crawling (human)

Crawling or Quadrupedal movement is a method of human locomotion that makes use of all four limbs.

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Department of Primary Industries (New South Wales)

The New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, a division of the New South Wales Government, is responsible for the administration and development for agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture, forestry, and biosecurity in New South Wales.

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Dipodomyinae

Dipodomyinae is a subfamily of heteromyid rodents, the kangaroo rats and mice.

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Diving bird

Diving birds are birds which plunge into water to catch fish or other food.

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Dog flea

The dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis) is a species of flea that lives as an ectoparasite on a wide variety of mammals, particularly the domestic dog and cat.

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Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Dugong

The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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Dune

In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.

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Dynamic soaring

Dynamic soaring is a flying technique used to gain energy by repeatedly crossing the boundary between air masses of significantly different velocity.

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Earthworm

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Echinoderm

Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Ecological Society of America

The Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a professional organization of ecological scientists.

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Ecology (journal)

Ecology is a scientific journal that publishes research and synthesizes papers in the field of ecology.

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Eel

An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.

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Elastic energy

Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.

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Electromyography

Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.

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Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Escape reflex

Escape reflex, a kind of escape response, is a simple reflectory reaction in response to stimuli indicative of danger, that initiates an escape motion of an animal.

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Escape response

In animal behaviour, escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a rapid series of movements performed by an animal in response to possible predation.

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Ethology

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Feather

Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Fin

A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fish fin

Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish.

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Fish locomotion

Fish locomotion is the variety of types of animal locomotion used by fish, principally by swimming.

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Flea

Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Flight

Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.

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Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

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Flying and gliding animals

A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.

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Flying fish

The Exocoetidae are a family of marine fishes in the order Beloniformes class Actinopterygii.

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Flying frog

A flying frog (also called a gliding frog) is a frog that has the ability to achieve gliding flight.

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Flying gurnard

The flying gurnard (Dactylopterus volitans), also known as the helmet gurnard, is a bottom-dwelling fish of tropical to warm temperate waters on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Foraging

Foraging is searching for wild food resources.

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Force platform

Force platforms or force plates are measuring instruments that measure the ground reaction forces generated by a body standing on or moving across them, to quantify balance, gait and other parameters of biomechanics.

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Fossorial

Cape ground squirrel. A fossorial (from Latin fossor, "digger") is an animal adapted to digging and lives primarily, but not solely, underground.

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Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Frog

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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Gait

Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.

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Gecko

Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.

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Gentoo penguin

The long-tailed gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) is a penguin species in the genus Pygoscelis, most closely related to the Adélie penguin (P. adeliae) and the chinstrap penguin (P. antarcticus).

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Geometer moth

The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.

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Gerridae

The Gerridae are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, pond skaters, water skippers, or jesus bugs.

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Gibbon

Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.

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Gliding ant

Gliding ants are arboreal ants of several different genera that are able to control the direction of their descent when falling from a tree.

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Gliding flight

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.

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Gobabeb

The Gobabeb Training and Research Center is an internationally recognised centre for dry land training and research in Namibia.

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Golden mole

Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals endemic to Southern Africa, where their Afrikaans names are gouemolle or kruipmolle (singular gouemol or kruipmol).

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Grazing

Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Ground squirrel

The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees.

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Gull

Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.

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Gymnotus

Gymnotus is a genus of Neotropical freshwater fish in the family Gymnotidae found widely in South America, Central America and southern Mexico (36th parallel south to 18th parallel north).

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Habitat

In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Hadrurus arizonensis

Hadrurus arizonensis, the giant desert hairy scorpion, giant hairy scorpion, or Arizona Desert hairy scorpion, is the largest scorpion in North America, and one of the 8–9 species of Hadrurus in the United States, attaining a length of.

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Handspring (gymnastics)

A handspring is an acrobatic move in which a person executes a complete revolution of the body by lunging headfirst from an upright position into an inverted vertical position and then pushing off (i.e., "springing") from the floor with the hands so as to leap back to an upright position.

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Hare

Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.

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Hemolymph

Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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Hoatzin

The hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin), also known as the reptile bird, skunk bird, stinkbird, or Canje pheasant, is a species of tropical bird found in swamps, riparian forests, and mangroves of the Amazon and the Orinoco basins in South America.

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Hopping mouse

A hopping mouse is any of about ten different Australian native mice in the genus Notomys.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Human taxonomy

Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.

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Huntsman spider

Huntsman spiders, members of the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae), are known by this name because of their speed and mode of hunting.

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Hydrophobe

In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Inertia

Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.

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Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Insect flight

Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.

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Japanese flying squid

The Japanese flying squid, Japanese common squid or Pacific flying squid, scientific name Todarodes pacificus, is a squid of the family Ommastrephidae.

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Jerboa

The jerboa (from جربوع) forms the bulk of the membership of the family Dipodidae.

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Jet propulsion

Jet propulsion is thrust produced by passing a jet of matter (typically fluid) in the opposite direction to the direction of motion.

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Joint

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Journal of Morphology

The Journal of Morphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of anatomy and morphology featuring primary research articles, review articles, and meeting abstracts.

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Jumping

Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living (e.g., robotic) mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory.

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Kangaroo

The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

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Kangaroo rat

Kangaroo rats, small rodents of genus Dipodomys, are native to western North America.

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Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

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Kinesis (biology)

Kinesis, like a taxis or tropism, is a movement or activity of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus.

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Kleptoparasitism

Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).

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Larva

A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Leather star

The leather star (Dermasterias imbricata) is a starfish in the family Asteropseidae found at depths to 100 m off the western seaboard of North America.

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Lee wave

In meteorology, lee waves are atmospheric stationary waves.

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Leech

Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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Leg

A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.

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Libinia emarginata

Libinia emarginata, the portly spider crab, common spider crab or nine-spined spider crab, is a species of stenohaline crab that lives on the Atlantic coast of North America.

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Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.

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Lift (soaring)

Lift is a meteorological phenomenon used as an energy source by soaring aircraft and soaring birds.

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Lobster

Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Luidia

Luidia is a genus of starfish in the family Luidiidae (Sladen, 1889) in which it is the only genus.

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Macropodidae

Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, the kangaroo family, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, wallaroos, pademelons, quokkas, and several others.

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Manta ray

Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta.

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Mantis shrimp

Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.

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Marine iguana

The marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), also known as the Galápagos marine iguana, is a species of iguana found only on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) that has the ability, unique among modern lizards, to forage in the sea, making it a marine reptile.

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Marine mammal

Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.

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Marsupial mole

Marsupial moles (Notoryctidae) are specialized marsupial mammals, known from two species distributed in the Australian interior.

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Mating system

A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.

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Matutidae

Matutidae is a family of crabs, sometimes called moon crabs, adapted for swimming or digging.

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Metachronal rhythm

A metachronal rhythm or metachronal wave refers to wavy movements produced by the sequential action (as opposed to synchronized) of structures such as cilia, segments of worms or legs.

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Mictyris platycheles

Mictyris platycheles is a species of crab found on mudflats on the east coast of Australia from Tasmania and Victoria to Queensland.

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Mole (animal)

Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).

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Mole cricket

Mole crickets are members of the insect family Gryllotalpidae, in the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets).

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Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Mountain

A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Movement of Animals

Movement of Animals (or On the Motion of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων κινήσεως; Latin De Motu Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.

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Mucus

Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Mudskipper

Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the subfamily Oxudercinae, within the family Gobiidae (gobies).

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Naked mole-rat

The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), also known as the sand puppy, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa.

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Namib

The Namib is a coastal desert in southern Africa.

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Nannosquilla decemspinosa

Nannosquilla decemspinosa is a species of long-bodied, short-legged mantis shrimp.

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National Wildlife

National Wildlife is an American magazine published bi-monthly by the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), a nonprofit conservation group.

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National Wildlife Federation

The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) is the United States' largest private, nonprofit conservation education and advocacy organization, with over six million members and supporters, and 51 state and territorial affiliated organizations (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands).

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nectar

Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Nekton

Nekton or necton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water.

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Neon flying squid

The neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii), sometimes called the red flying squid, akaika, and red squid is a species of large flying squid in the family Ommastrephidae.

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Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.

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Nymphalidae

The Nymphalidae are the largest family of butterflies with more than 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea.

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Ocean sunfish

The ocean sunfish or common mola (Mola mola) is the heaviest known bony fish in the world.

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Octopus

The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Opiliones

The Opiliones or (formerly Phalangida) are an order of arachnids colloquially known as harvestmen, harvesters or daddy longlegs.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pangolin

Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").

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Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parasitoid

A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.

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Particle image velocimetry

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method of flow visualization used in education and research.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Pedetes

Pedetes is a genus of rodent, the springhares, in the family Pedetidae.

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Pelvis

The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Peristalsis

Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.

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Permian

The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Peromyscus

Peromyscus is a genus of rodents whose members are commonly referred to as deer mice.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pink fairy armadillo

The pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus) or pichiciego is the smallest species of armadillo (mammals of the families Chlamyphoridae and Dasypodidae, recognized by a bony armor shell), first described by Richard Harlan in 1825.

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Portuguese man o' war

The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war (Physalia physalis), also known as the man-of-war, is a marine hydrozoan of the family Physaliidae found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

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Portunidae

Portunidae is a family of crabs which contains the swimming crabs.

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Predation

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prehensile tail

A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp or hold objects.

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Prehensility

Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding.

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Pseudoscorpion

A pseudoscorpion, also known as a false scorpion or book scorpion, is an arachnid belonging to the order Pseudoscorpiones, also known as Pseudoscorpionida or Chelonethida.

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Pterosaur

Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Quadrupedalism

Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Rabbit

Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).

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Race track

A race track (or "racetrack", "racing track" or "racing circuit") is a facility built for racing of vehicles, athletes, or animals (e.g. horse racing or greyhound racing).

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Raninidae

Raninidae is a family of unusual crabs, sometimes known as "frog crabs", on account of their frog-like appearance.

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Ratite

A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.

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Remora

The remoras, sometimes called suckerfish, are a family (Echeneidae) of ray-finned fish in the order Perciformes.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Ridge lift

Ridge lift (or 'slope lift') is created when a wind strikes an obstacle, usually a mountain ridge or cliff, that is large and steep enough to deflect the wind upward.

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Robert McNeill Alexander

Robert McNeill (Neill) Alexander, CBE FRS (7 July 1934 – 21 March 2016) was a British zoologist and a leading authority in the field of biomechanics.

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Robert R. Reisz

Robert Rafael Reisz is a Canadian paleontologist and specialist in the study of early amniote and tetrapod evolution.

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Rodent

Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Role of skin in locomotion

Role of skin in locomotion describes how the integumentary system is involved in locomotion.

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Ross Piper

Ross Piper is a British zoologist, entomologist, and explorer.

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Rotating locomotion in living systems

Several organisms are capable of rolling locomotion; however, true wheels and propellers—despite their utility in human vehicles—do not appear to play a significant role in the movement of living things (with the exception of certain flagella, which function like corkscrews).

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Running

Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.

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Sailfish

A sailfish is a fish of the genus Istiophorus of billfish living in colder areas of all the seas of the earth.

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Sailing

Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.

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Sand star

The sand star, Luidia foliolata, is a species of starfish in the family Luidiidae found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on sandy and muddy seabeds at depths to about.

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Scorpion

Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.

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Sense of balance

The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Shoebill

The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead, is a very large stork-like bird.

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Shrimp

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Siamang

The siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal black-furred gibbon native to the forests of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand.

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Skeleton

The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Snow leopard

The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.

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Solifugae

Solifugae is an order of animals in the class Arachnida known variously as camel spiders, wind scorpions, sun spiders, or solifuges.

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Sonomicrometry

Sonomicrometry is a technique of measuring the distance between piezoelectric crystals based on the speed of acoustic signals through the medium they are embedded in.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Sperm whale

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.

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Spider silk

Spider silk is a protein fibre spun by spiders.

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Spider wasp

Wasps in the family Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps or pompilid wasps.

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Spinneret

A spinneret is a silk-spinning organ of a spider or the larva of an insect.

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Squid

Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.

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Squirrel glider

The squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) is a nocturnal gliding possum.

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Static electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

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Striped rocket frog

The striped rocket frog (Litoria nasuta) or in its native range known as the rocket frog, occurs mostly in coastal areas from northern Western Australia to around Gosford in New South Wales at its southernmost point, with a disjunct population occurring further south at the Sydney suburb of Avalon.

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Sucker (zoology)

A sucker in zoology refers to specialised attachment organ of an animal.

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Sucrose

Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar glider

The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, omnivorous, arboreal, and nocturnal gliding possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass.

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Suminia

Suminia getmanovi is an extinct species of anomodont, that lived 260 million years ago in the late Permian ("zone II").

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Sunflower sea star

Pycnopodia helianthoides, commonly known as the sunflower sea star, is a large sea star found in the northeast Pacific.

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Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.

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Suspensory behavior

Suspensory behaviour is a form of arboreal locomotion or a feeding behavior that involves hanging or suspension of the body below or among tree branches.

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Swim bladder

The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of many bony fish (but not cartilaginous fish) to control their buoyancy, and thus to stay at their current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.

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Swordfish

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.

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Synapsid

Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Tail

The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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Taxis

A taxis (plural taxes) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food.

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Tendon

A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.

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Terrestrial animal

Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Tetrapod

The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Journal of Experimental Biology

The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.

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Thelyphonida

Thelyphonida is an arachnid order comprising invertebrates commonly known as whip scorpions or vinegaroons (also spelled vinegarroons and vinegarones).

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Thermal

A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.

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Thrust

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

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Tilefish

Tilefishes are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae.

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Torpedo

A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.

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Trade-off

A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects.

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Treadmill

A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running or climbing while staying in the same place.

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Tree snail

Tree snail is a common name that is applied to various kinds of tropical air-breathing land snails, pulmonate gastropod mollusks that have shells, and that live in trees, in other words, are exclusively arboreal in habitat.

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Tripedalism

Tripedalism (from the Latin tri.

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Tripod

A tripod is a portable three-legged frame or stand, used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of some other object.

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Tube feet

Tube feet are small active tubular projections on the oral face of an echinoderm, whether the arms of a starfish, or the undersides of sea urchins, sand dollars and sea cucumbers.

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Undulatory locomotion

Undulatory locomotion is the type of motion characterized by wave-like movement patterns that act to propel an animal forward.

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University of Sydney Library

The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney.

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Velella

Velella is a monospecific genus of hydrozoa in the Porpitidae family.

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Video

Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.

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Vulture

A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.

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Walking

Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.

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Walking catfish

The walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is a species of freshwater airbreathing catfish native to Southeast Asia.

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Walking fish

A walking fish, or ambulatory fish, is a fish that is able to travel over land for extended periods of time.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Wheel spider

The wheel spider or golden wheel spider (Carparachne aureoflava), is a huntsman spider native to the Namib Desert of Southern Africa.

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Wing

A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

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Animal Locomotion, Locomotion in animals, Locomotor activity, Locomotory organ, Motion (biology), Motion in biology, Passive locomotion in animals.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_locomotion

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