87 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Acute-phase protein, Adderall, Addiction, Addison's disease, Afferent nerve fiber, Altitude sickness, Amphetamine, Anorexia nervosa, Antidepressant, Anxiety disorder, Appendicitis, Appetite, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical pneumonia, Blood–brain barrier, Broken heart, Caffeine, Cancer, Cannabis (drug), Cardiac arrest, Central nervous system, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic pain, Circumventricular organs, Cocaine, Coeliac disease, Corticosteroid, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Crohn's disease, Dehydration, Dementia, Depression (mood), Dexmethylphenidate, Dextroamphetamine, Dopamine, Eicosanoid, Endothelium, Exenatide, Fasting, Fever, Fluoxetine, Gastroparesis, General anaesthesia, Glycoprotein, Heart failure, Hepatitis, Heroin, Histamine, HIV/AIDS, ..., Hypervitaminosis D, Hypothyroidism, Leptin, Lipopolysaccharide, Lisdexamfetamine, Liver, Long QT syndrome, Mania, Mental disorder, Metabolic disorder, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Mood disorder, Morphine, Narcolepsy, Neuropeptide Y, Nicotine, Norepinephrine, Opiate, Oxycodone, Peptidoglycan, Phenethylamine, Proinflammatory cytokine, Pulmonary aspiration, Refeeding syndrome, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Sickness behavior, Stimulant, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Thalassemia, Topiramate, Tuberculosis, Ulcerative colitis, Urea cycle, Venous blood, Zinc deficiency. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly associated with the disease.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Broken heart (also known as a heartbreak or heartache) is a metaphor for the intense emotional—and sometimes physical—stress or pain one feels at experiencing great longing.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dexmethylphenidate, sold under the trade names Focalin among others, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Exenatide (marketed as Byetta, Bydureon) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 receptor agonist) medication, belonging to the group of incretin mimetics, approved in April 2005 for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Venous blood is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium of the heart.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.