278 relations: A. H. de Oliveira Marques, Abwehr, Adlai Stevenson II, Agostinho Neto University, Ahmed Ben Bella, Aide-mémoire, Algarve, Allies of World War II, Américo Tomás, Anarchism, Anarcho-syndicalism, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, Annexation of Goa, António Costa Pinto, António Ferreira Gomes, António Ferro, António Sérgio, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, Armindo Monteiro, Arthur Koestler, Artur Ivens Ferraz, Assimilado, Assistant professor, Autarky, Authoritarianism, Axis powers, Azulejo, Óscar Carmona, Barings Bank, Benito Mussolini, Bernardino Machado, Buick, C. R. Boxer, Cabinda Province, Caesarism, Calouste Gulbenkian, Cape Verde, Caritas Portugal, Carlos de Liz-Texeira Branquinho, Carlos Sampaio Garrido, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Carnation Revolution, Casablanca (film), Catholic Church, Catholic social teaching, Catholic University of Portugal, Chrysler Imperial, Civilizing mission, Coimbra, Cold War, ..., Collar (order), Colony, Communism, Concordat of 1940, Conservatism, Continental Portugal, Corporatism, Corporative Chamber, Corporatocracy, Coup d'état, Daman and Diu, Democracy, Destak, Dieter Nohlen, Ditadura Nacional, Doctor of Civil Law, Doctorate, Domingos Oliveira, Economic growth, Economic interventionism, Economic policy, Economist, Eduardo Mondlane University, Education in Portugal, Engelbert Dollfuss, Erich Maria Remarque, Estado Novo (Portugal), Estádio da Machava, European Economic Community, European Free Trade Association, European Payments Union, Evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II, Excellency, Extraterritoriality, Far East, Fascism, Fátima, Portugal, Fernando Pessoa, Fernando Rosas, Fernando Santos Costa, Finance minister, First Portuguese Republic, Fordham University, Francisco Craveiro Lopes, Francisco da Costa Gomes, Francisco Franco, Francisco Rolão Preto, Freedom of the press, Freemasonry in Portugal, FRELIMO, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, George William Rendel, Gilberto Freyre, Goa, Golden Rose, Grand Cross, Great Depression, Habeas corpus, HCESAR, Hebdomadal Council, Henrique Galvão, HIAS, Humberto Delgado, Ian Smith, Iberian Pact, Import substitution industrialization, India, Indian Army, Indian independence movement, Indigenous peoples, International Monetary Fund, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Israel Goldstein, Jaime Nogueira Pinto, Jawaharlal Nehru, Júlio Botelho Moniz, Júlio Pomar, Jerónimos Monastery, João José Sinel de Cordes, José Alberto dos Reis, José Manuel Barroso, José Mendes Cabeçadas, José Norton de Matos, José Vicente de Freitas, Juvenile MUD, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Portugal, Labour Charter of 1927, Lajes Field, Le Figaro, League of Nations, Liberalism, Life (magazine), Lisbon, List of Presidents of Portugal, List of Prime Ministers of Portugal, Lusa News Agency, Lusotropicalism, Madeira, Manuel António Vassalo e Silva, Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, Manuel II of Portugal, Marc Chagall, Marcelo Caetano, Marshall Plan, Marxism, Max Ernst, Mário Sacramento, Mário Soares, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Military logistics, Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, Ministry of Finance (Portugal), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Portugal), Ministry of National Defence (Portugal), Mocidade Portuguesa, Moisés Bensabat Amzalak, Monte Real Air Base, Movement of Democratic Unity, National Syndicalists (Portugal), National Union (Portugal), Nationalism, Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), NATO, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neill Lochery, New University of Lisbon, NRP Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuremberg Laws, Octávio Pato, OECD, Olivenza, Operation Alacrity, Order of Prince Henry, Order of the Colonial Empire, Order of the Tower and Sword, Orly Airport, Os Grandes Portugueses, Otto von Habsburg, Overseas Ministry (Portugal), Patriarchate of Lisbon, Paul H. Lewis, Paul-Henri Spaak, Pedro Teotónio Pereira, Peggy Guggenheim, People's Republic of Angola, People's Republic of Mozambique, PIDE, Pluricontinentalism, Politics of Portugal, Pope Leo XIII, Pope Pius XI, Pope Pius XII, Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Army, Portuguese Cape Verde, Portuguese Colonial War, Portuguese Communist Party, Portuguese constitutional referendum, 1933, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese India, Portuguese Macau, Portuguese Mozambique, Portuguese Navy, Portuguese people, Portuguese presidential election, 1958, Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese Timor, President of Portugal, Priest, Prime Minister of Portugal, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Prince Henry the Navigator, Professor, Quadragesimo anno, Refugee, Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Requiem, Rerum novarum, Rhodesia, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Righteous Among the Nations, Robert Paxton, Ronald Hugh Campbell, RTP1, Salgado Zenha, Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, Santa Comba Dão, São Miguel Island, Scorched earth, Second Spanish Republic, Second Vatican Council, Secret police, Seminary, SIC Notícias, Social order, Socialism, Sociedade Independente de Comunicação, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Sponge cake, Tarrafal camp, The Great Betrayal, The Night in Lisbon, Thomas Gerard Gallagher, Time (magazine), Tungsten, University of Aveiro, University of Évora, University of Coimbra, University of Minho, University of Oxford, V. K. Krishna Menon, Valerian Zorin, Viseu, Viseu District, Washington Conference (1943), Winston Churchill, World Bank, World War I, World War II, Yad Vashem, Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 20 July plot, 25 de Abril Bridge, 28 May 1926 coup d'état. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
António Henrique Rodrigo de Oliveira Marques (23 August 1933 - 23 January 2007) was a Portuguese historian.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of progressive causes in the Democratic Party.
The Agostinho Neto University (Universidade Agostinho Neto) is a public university based in Luanda, the capital city of Angola.
Ahmed Ben Bella (أحمد بن بلّة; 25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.
In international relations, an aide-mémoire (memory aid) is a proposed agreement or negotiating text circulated informally among delegations for discussion without committing the originating delegation's country to the contents.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás (or Thomaz), GCC, GOA, GOSE, (19 November 1894 – 18 September 1987) was a Portuguese Navy officer and politician.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism) is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
Research Professor at the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS) of the University of Lisbon, and Professor of Politics and Contemporary European History at the Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal.
António Ferreira Gomes, GCSE, GCL (Milhundos, Penafiel, 10 May 1906 - Ermesinde, 13 April 1989) was a Portuguese Roman Catholic bishop, and is considered one of the most notable figures of Portuguese Catholic hierarchy in the 20th century.
António Joaquim Tavares Ferro (17 August 1895, Lisbon - 11 November 1956, Lisbon) was a Portuguese writer, journalist and politician, associated with the Estado Novo.
António Sérgio de Sousa (September 3, 1883 – February 12, 1969) was an influential educationist, philosopher, journalist, sociologist and essayist from Portugal.
Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches GCC, OL (July 19, 1885 – April 3, 1954) was a Portuguese consul during World War II.
Armindo Rodrigues de Sttau Monteiro (16 December 1896 – 15 October 1955), known as Armindo Monteiro, was a Portuguese university professor, businessman, diplomat and politician who exercised important functions during the Estado Novo period.
Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.
General Artur Ivens Ferraz (1 December 1870, in Lisbon – 16 January 1933, in Lisbon), was a Portuguese military officer and politician.
Assimilado is the term given to African subjects of the colonizing Portuguese Empire from the 1910s to the 1960s, who had reached a level of "civilization", according to Portuguese legal standards, that theoretically qualified them for full rights as Portuguese citizens.
Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Azulejo (or, or, from the Arabic al zellige زليج) is a form of Spanish and Portuguese painted tin-glazed ceramic tilework.
António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, BTO, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona,; 24 November 1869 – 18 April 1951) was the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal and 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951), having been Minister of War in 1923.
Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London, and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank).
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL (28 March 1851 – 29 April 1944), was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26).
Buick, formally the Buick Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).
Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown, Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.
Cabinda (also spelled Kabinda, formerly called Portuguese Congo, known locally as Tchiowa) is an exclave and province of Angola, a status that has been disputed by several political organizations in the territory.
Caesarism has been used in a variety of ways over the centuries.
Calouste Gulbenkian (Western Գալուստ Կիւլպէնկեան; 23 March 1869 – 20 July 1955) was a businessman and philanthropist of British nationality and Armenian origin.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Caritas Portugal ("Cáritas Portuguesa" in Portugal) is the official Catholic's Church organization in Portugal for charity and social relief, instituted by the Portuguese Episcopal Conference.
Alberto Carlos de Liz-Texeira Branquinho (27 January 1902 in Viseu, Portugal– † 1973) was a Portuguese diplomat credited with saving the lives of 1,000 Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from Hungarian Fascists and the Nazis during the later stages of World War II.
Carlos de Almeida Fonseca Sampaio Garrido (5 April 1883 – April 1960) was a Portuguese diplomat credited with saving the lives of approximately 1,000 Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary while serving as Portugal’s ambassador in Budapest between July and December 1944.
Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (May 16, 1882 – September 2, 1964) was an American historian, educator, diplomat, devout Catholic and academic.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick's.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic social teaching is the Catholic doctrines on matters of human dignity and common good in society.
The Catholic University of Portugal (Universidade Católica Portuguesa), also referred to as Católica or UCP for short, is the only concordatary university (non-state-run university with concordatary status) of the Catholic Church, in Portugal.
The Chrysler Imperial, introduced in 1926, was Chrysler's top of the line vehicle for much of its history.
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.
Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A collar is an ornate chain, often made of gold and enamel, and set with precious stones, which is worn about the neck as a symbol of membership in various chivalric orders.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Concordat of 1940 was an agreement between Portugal and the Holy See of the Catholic Church signed in Vatican City on 7 May 1940 under António de Oliveira Salazar´s Estado Novo.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Continental Portugal (Portugal continental) or mainland Portugal are terms used for the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe; having approximately 95% of the total population and 96.6% of the country's land.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
The Corporative Chamber (Câmara Corporativa) was one of the two parliamentary chambers established under the Portuguese Constitution of 1933, the other being the National Assembly.
Corporatocracy, a portmanteau of corporate and -ocracy (form of government), short form corpocracy, is a recent term used to refer to an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Destak is a Portuguese free daily newspaper, which is distributed in Lisbon, Porto and Coimbra, and also other Portuguese cities.
Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.
The Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) was the name of the Portuguese regime that started in 1928 after re-election of General Óscar Carmona to the post of President.
Doctor of Civil Law (DCL; Doctor Civilis Legis) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa Oliveira (31 July 1873, Lisbon – 24 December 1957, Lisbon) was a Portuguese general and politician.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
The Eduardo Mondlane University (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane; UEM) is the oldest and largest university in Mozambique.
Education in Portugal is free and compulsory until the age of 18, when students complete the 12th grade.
Engelbert Dollfuss (Engelbert Dollfuß,; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian Christian Social and Patriotic Front statesman.
Erich Maria Remarque (born Erich Paul Remark; 22 June 1898 – 25 September 1970) was a German novelist who created many works about the horrors of war.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
The Estádio da Machava is a multi-purpose stadium in Machava, a mainly residential subdivision of the city of Matola, in the outskirts of Maputo, Mozambique.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European Payments Union (EPU) was an organization in existence from July 1950 to December 1958, when it was replaced by the European Monetary Agreement.
The evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II was an event which dramatically changed the lives of Gibraltarians.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fátima is a civil parish in the municipality of Ourém, in the Portuguese Santarém District, Beira Litoral Province.
Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (13 June 1888 – 30 November 1935), commonly known as Fernando Pessoa, was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.
Fernando José Mendes Rosas (born 18 April 1946, in Lisbon) is a Portuguese historian, professor and politician.
Fernando dos Santos Costa (December 19, 1899 - October 15, 1982) was an officer of the Portuguese Army, who was a member of the Government of Salazar, from 1936 to 1958.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964) was a Portuguese politician and military man.
Francisco da Costa Gomes, ComTE, GOA (30 June 1914 – 31 July 2001) was a Portuguese military officer and politician, the 15th President of the Portuguese Republic (the second after the Carnation Revolution).
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco de Barcelos Rolão Preto, GCIH (12 February 1893, Gavião – 18 December 1977, Hospital do Desterro, Lisbon) was a Portuguese politician, journalist, and leader of the Portuguese National Syndicalists Movement (MNS), a fascist organization.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The first known Freemasons in Portugal were the Swiss John Coustos and two other Portuguese members of his lodge, who were arrested by the Portuguese Inquisition and questioned under torture in the 1740s.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Sir George William Rendel (23 February 1889 – 6 May 1979) was a British diplomat.
Gilberto de Mello Freyre (March 15, 1900 – July 18, 1987) was a Brazilian sociologist, anthropologist, historian, writer, painter, journalist and congressman, born in Recife, Northeast Brazil.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Golden Rose is a gold ornament, which popes of the Catholic Church have traditionally blessed annually.
Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
HCESAR (pronounced by saying the name of the letter H and then the word César: in Portuguese, agá-César) is an obsolete typewriter keyboard layout.
The Hebdomadal Council was the chief executive body for the University of Oxford from its establishment by the Oxford University Act 1854 until its replacement, in the Michaelmas term of 2000, by the new University Council.
Henrique Galvão (February 4, 1895 – June 25, 1970) was a Portuguese military officer, writer and politician.
HIAS (founded as the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society) is an American nonprofit organization that provides humanitarian aid and assistance to refugees.
Humberto da Silva Delgado, ComC, GCA, GOA, ComA, OA, ComSE, GCL, OIP, CBE (Portuguese pronunciation:; 15 May 1906 – 13 February 1965) was a General of the Portuguese Air Force and politician.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
The Iberian Pact (Pacto Ibérico), formally the Portuguese–Spanish Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression was a non-aggression pact signed at Lisbon on 17 March 1939 by the nationalist governments of Portugal and Spain.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Israel Goldstein (June 18, 1896 – 1986) was an American-born Israeli rabbi, author and Zionist leader.
Jaime Alexandre Nogueira Pinto (born 4 February 1946 in Porto, Santo Ildefonso) is a Portuguese writer and university professor, son of Jaime da Cunha Guimarães by Alda Branca Nogueira Pinto, who died in 2007.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Júlio Carlos Alves Dias Botelho Moniz (Lisbon, 12 October 1900 – Lisbon, 30 September 1970) was a Portuguese soldier and politician.
Júlio Artur da Silva Pomar, GOL, GCM (Lisbon, January 10, 1926 – Lisbon, May 22, 2018) was a Portuguese painter and visual artist.
The Jerónimos Monastery or Hieronymites Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos), is a former monastery of the Order of Saint Jerome near the Tagus river in the parish of Belém, in the Lisbon Municipality, Portugal; it was secularised on 28 December 1833 by state decree and its ownership transferred to the charitable institution, Real Casa Pia de Lisboa.
João José Sinel de Cordes (Barcarena (Oeiras), 18 August 1867 — Lisbon, 29 January 1930) was a Portuguese general and politician.
José Alberto dos Reis (November 1, 1875–December 12, 1955) was a Portuguese jurist and the leading Portuguese authority on legal procedure in the 20th century.
José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.
José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior, OTE, ComA, commonly known as Mendes Cabeçadas (19 August 1883 in Loulé – 11 June 1965 in Lisbon), was a Portuguese Navy officer, Freemason and republican, having a major role in the preparation of the revolutionary movements that created and ended the Portuguese First Republic: the 5 October revolution in 1910 and the 28 May coup d'état of 1926.
José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos, GCTE, GCL (March 23, 1867 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal – January 3, 1955 in Ponte de Lima) was a Portuguese general and politician.
José Vicente de Freitas, 2nd Baron of Freitas GCTE (22 January 1869 – 6 September 1952) was a Portuguese military officer and politician.
The Juvenile Movement of Democratic Unity was the youth wing of a Portuguese democratic platform that opposed the dictatorship of António Oliveira Salazar, the Movement of Democratic Unity.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Charter of Labour of 1927 (Carta del Lavoro) was one of the main pieces of legislation Benito Mussolini, the Italian Fascist dictator from 1922–43, introduced in his attempts to modernise the Italian economy.
Lajes Field or Lajes Air Base (Base Aérea das Lajes), officially designated Air Base No.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime.
The Prime Minister of the Portuguese Republic (Primeiro-Ministro da República Portuguesa) is the head of the country's Government.
The Lusa News Agency (Lusa – Agência de Notícias de Portugal, SA), literally Lusa - Portuguese News Agency, is the largest Portuguese news agency, incorporated on 28 November 1986.
Lusotropicalism or Luso-tropicalism was first used by Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre to describe the distinctive character of Portuguese imperialism overseas, proposing that the Portuguese were better colonizers than other European nations.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Manuel António Vassalo e Silva (Torres Novas, 8 November 1899 – Lisbon, 11 August 1985) was an officer of the Portuguese Army and an overseas administrator.
Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, GCC, GCSE, GCIH (29 November 1888, Lousado, Vila Nova de Famalicão, Portugal – 2 August 1977, Buraca, Amadora, Portugal) was a Portuguese cardinal who served as patriarch of Lisbon from 1929 to 1971.
Dom Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932), "the Patriot" ("o Patriota") or "the Unfortunate" ("o Desventurado"), was the last King of Portugal, ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I, and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, the Prince Royal.
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (GCTE, GCC; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar, who was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime, from 1968 until his overthrow in the Carnation Revolution of 1974.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.
Mário Emílio de Morais Sacramento (July 7, 1920 – March 27, 1969) was a Portuguese physician and essayist that became famous for his antifascist activities against the dictatorial regime led by Oliveira Salazar in Portugal.
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL (7 December 1924 – 7 January 2017) was a Portuguese politician who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.
Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 / AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or simply as the Rebbe, was a Russian Empire–born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the last rebbe of the Lubavitcher Hasidic dynasty.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
The Military Order of Saint James of the Sword (Ordem Militar de Sant'Iago da Espada) is a Portuguese order of chivalry.
The Ministry of Finance (Ministério das Finanças) is a Portuguese government ministry.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros, MNE), is a Portuguese government ministry.
The Ministry of National Defence (Ministério da Defesa Nacional or MDN) is a Portuguese government ministry.
The Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth) was a Portuguese youth organization founded in 1936 (dissolved in 1974) during the Portuguese President of the Council´s António de Oliveira Salazar's far-right-wing regime, the Estado Novo.
Moisés Bensabat Amzalak (4 October 1892 - 6 June 1978) was a Portuguese scholar and economist.
Monte Real Air Base, officially designated as Air Force Base No.
The Movement of Democratic Unity (Movimento de Unidade Democrática or MUD) was a quasi-legal platform of Portuguese democratic organizations that opposed the authoritarian regime of António Oliveira Salazar and was founded in October 1945.
The National Syndicalist Movement (Portuguese: Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista) was a political movement that briefly flourished in Portugal in the 1930s.
The National Union (União Nacional) was the only legal political party in Portugal for most of the period of the Estado Novo.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neill Lochery (born 1965) is a Scottish author and leading historian on the modern history of Europe and the Mediterranean Middle East.
New University of Lisbon (Universidade Nova de Lisboa -) or NOVA is a Portuguese university whose Rectorate is located in Campolide, Lisbon.
The NRP Afonso de Albuquerque was a warship of the Portuguese Navy, named after the 16th-century Portuguese navigator Afonso de Albuquerque.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Octávio Floriano Rodrigues Pato (1 April 1925, Vila Franca de Xira – 19 February 1999) started working at 14 in a shoe factory.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.
Operation Alacrity was the codename for a possible Allied seizure of Azores during World War II.
The Order of Prince Henry the Navigator (Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique) is a Portuguese National Order of Knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Infante Henry the Navigator (known in Portuguese as Henrique), third son of King John I of Portugal and his queen, Philippa of Lancaster.
The Order of the Colonial Empire (Portuguese:"Ordem do Império Colonial") was a Portuguese Order (decoration), established on 13 April 1932 as a colonial order of knighthood, to reward services by soldiers and civilians in the Portuguese colonies in Asia and Africa.
The Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit (Ordem Militar da Torre e Espada do Valor, Lealdade e Mérito) is a Portuguese order of knighthood and the pinnacle of the Portuguese honours system.
Paris Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Orly), commonly referred to as Orly, is an international airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France.
Os Grandes Portugueses (The Greatest Portuguese) was a public poll contest organized by the Portuguese public broadcasting station RTP and hosted by Maria Elisa.
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 4 July 2011), also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Former headquarters of the Portuguese Ministry of the Overseas, in Lisbon. The Overseas Ministry (in Portuguese: Ministério do Ultramar) was the department of the Government of Portugal responsible for the administration of the Portuguese Empire.
The Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon (Patriarchatus Ulixbonensis) is a Metropolitan Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church based in Lisbon, national capital of Portugal.
Paul H. Lewis is Professor of Political Science at Tulane University.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Pedro Teotónio Pereira (Lisbon, Mártires, 7 November 1902 – Lisbon, 14 February 1972) was a Portuguese politician and diplomat.
Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite.
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.
The People's Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República Popular de Moçambique) was a self-declared communist state that lasted from 25 June 1975 to 1 December 1990, when the country became the present-day Republic of Mozambique.
The PIDE or International and State Defense Police (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) was a Portuguese security agency that existed during the Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.
Pluricontinentalism (Portuguese: Pluricontinentalismo) was a geopolitical concept, positing that Portugal was a transcontinental country and a unitary nation-state consisting of continental Portugal and its overseas provinces.
Politics in Portugal takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Portugal is the head of government.
Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
The Portuguese Army (Exército Português) is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch.
Cape Verde was a colony of the Portuguese Empire from the initial settlement of the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 until the independence of Cape Verde in 1975.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
The Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português,, PCP) is a major political party in Portugal.
The constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 1933.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Portuguese Macau was the period of Macau as a Portuguese colony and later, an overseas province under Portuguese administration from 1557 to 1999.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Presidential elections were held in Portugal on 8 June 1958, during the authoritarian Estado Novo regime led by Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar.
São Tomé and Príncipe islands were a colony of the Portuguese Empire from its discovery in 1470 until 1975, when independence was granted by Portugal.
Portuguese Timor (Timor Português) was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the current title of the head of government of Portugal.
The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (before 1964, of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in Rhodesia.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
A Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known as Mass for the dead (Latin: Missa pro defunctis) or Mass of the dead (Latin: Missa defunctorum), is a Mass in the Catholic Church offered for the repose of the soul or souls of one or more deceased persons, using a particular form of the Roman Missal.
Rerum novarum (from its incipit, with the direct translation of the Latin meaning "of the new things"), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 15 May 1891.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
Righteous Among the Nations (חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.
Robert Owen Paxton (born 1932) is an American political scientist and historian specializing in Vichy France, fascism, and Europe during the World War II era.
Sir Ronald Hugh Campbell (27 September 1883 – 15 November 1953) was a British diplomat who held several important positions including that of British ambassador to France from July 1939 to 22 June 1940, when the armistice between Germany and France was signed at Compiègne.
RTP1 is the main television channel of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, the Portuguese public broadcasting corporation.
Francisco Salgado Zenha, GCL (2 May 1923, Braga – 1 November 1993, Lisbon) was a Portuguese left-wing politician and lawyer.
Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, (24 February 1880 – 7 May 1959), more commonly known as Sir Samuel Hoare, was a senior British Conservative politician who served in various Cabinet posts in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s.
Santa Comba Dão is a city and a municipality in the Viseu District in Portugal.
São Miguel Island (named for the Archangel Michael or, literally, Portuguese for Saint Michael), is also referred to locally as "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
SIC Notícias is the cable news channel of the Portuguese television network SIC (Sociedade Independente de Comunicação) and the second thematic channel of the station.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
SIC – Sociedade Independente de Comunicação ("Independent Communication Company") is a Portuguese television network and media company, which runs several television channels.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Sponge cake is a cake based on flour (usually wheat flour), sugar, butter and eggs, and is sometimes leavened with baking powder.
Tarrafal (also known as Campo da Morte Lenta in Portuguese) was a prison camp in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde.
The Great Betrayal: The Memoirs of Ian Douglas Smith is a 1997 autobiography written by Ian Smith, focusing on his time as Prime Minister of the British self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia, later Rhodesia (April 13, 1964 – June 1, 1979).
The Night in Lisbon (Die Nacht von Lissabon) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque published in 1962.
Thomas Gerard Gallagher (born 1954) taught politics at the University of Bradford until 2011 and is now Emeritus Professor of Politics at the university.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The University of Aveiro (Universidade de Aveiro) is a public university, in addition to providing polytechnic education, located in the Portuguese city of Aveiro.
The University of Évora (Universidade de Évora) is a public university in Évora, Portugal.
The University of Coimbra (UC; Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal.
The University of Minho (Universidade do Minho) is a public university in Portugal, divided into the following campuses.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.
Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin (Валериан Александрович Зорин; 1 January 1902 - 14 January 1986) was a Soviet diplomat best remembered for his famous confrontation with Adlai Stevenson on 25 October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Viseu is a city and municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal and the capital of the district of the same name, with a population of 99.274 inhabitants, and center of the Viseu Dão Lafões intermunipical community, with 267.633 inhabitants.
The District of Viseu (Distrito de Viseu) is located in the Central Inland of Portugal, the District Capital is the city of Viseu.
The Third Washington Conference (codenamed Trident) was held in Washington, D.C from May 12 to May 25, 1943.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Zimbabwe Rhodesia was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 12 December 1979.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
The 25 de Abril Bridge (Ponte 25 de Abril, 25th of April Bridge) is a suspension bridge connecting the city of Lisbon, capital of Portugal, to the municipality of Almada on the left (south) bank of the Tagus river.
The 28 May 1926 coup d'état, sometimes called 28 May Revolution or, during the period of the authoritarian Estado Novo (New State), the National Revolution (Revolução Nacional), was a military coup of a nationalist origin, that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship), later refashioned into the Estado Novo, an authoritarian dictatorship that would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974.
A'toniu di oli'vaira sala'zar, Antonio De Oliveira Salazar, Antonio De Oliviera Salazar, Antonio Oliveira Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, Antonio salazar, António Oliveira Salazar, António Salazar, Dr. Salazar, Manholas's son, Oliveira Salazar, Oliveira de Salazar, Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira, Salazar, António de Oliveira.