137 relations: Academic Press, Adaptation, Albatross, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, American Scientist, Amphipoda, Animal, Antarctic, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctic Convergence, Antarctica, Aquarium, Arthropod, Arthropod leg, Australian Antarctic Division, BBC News, Biological life cycle, Biological pump, Biology Letters, Bioluminescence, Biomass (ecology), BioScience, Bird, Bow wave, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, Carbon sink, Caridoid escape reaction, Chitin, Continental shelf, Copepod, Crabeater seal, Crustacean, Crustacean larva, Current Biology, Decapod anatomy, Diatom, Drag (physics), Drift ice, Ecdysis, Ecosystem, Eddy (fluid dynamics), Egg, Elsevier, Energy, Environment International, Escape response, Euphausia, ..., Euphausia pacifica, Exoskeleton, Exuviae, Eyestalk, Feces, Fertilisation, Filter feeder, Fish, Fluorescence, Food and Agriculture Organization, Fossil fuel, Fur seal, Gastrulation, Glass, Global warming, Hepatopancreas, High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions, Ice algae, Induction period, Iron, James Dwight Dana, Japan, John Wiley & Sons, Keystone species, Krill, Leopard seal, Malacostraca, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Mating, Micrometre, Millisecond, Mysida, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Nature Climate Change, North Sea, Northern krill, Norway, Notothenioidei, Nutrient, Ocean, Ocean acidification, PDF, Pelagic zone, Penguin, Pergamon Press, PH, Photic zone, Phytoplankton, Pinniped, Plankton, PLOS Biology, Poland, Polar Biology, Polar Record, Predation, Primary production, Rainforest, RRS Discovery, Salp, Science (journal), Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Seta, Shoaling and schooling, South Korea, Southern Ocean, Spawn (biology), Species, Spermatophore, Springer Science+Business Media, Squid, Sternum (arthropod anatomy), Stimulus (physiology), Subantarctic, Swarm behaviour, The Australian, Thorax, Tonne, Upwelling, Weddell Sea, Whale, Wiley-Blackwell, World Register of Marine Species, Yolk, Zooplankton, 55th parallel south. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (German: Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung) is located in Bremerhaven, Germany, and a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.
American Scientist (informally abbreviated AmSci) is an American bimonthly science and technology magazine published since 1913 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.
The Antarctic Convergence is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica, varying in latitude seasonally, where cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters meet the relatively warmer waters of the subantarctic.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.
The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) is a division of the Department of the Environment.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to deep sea water and sediment.
Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bow wave is the wave that forms at the bow of a ship when it moves through the water.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
The caridoid escape reaction, also known as lobstering or tail-flipping, refers to an innate escape mechanism in marine and freshwater crustaceans such as lobsters, krill, shrimp and crayfish.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
The crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga) is a true seal with a circumpolar distribution around the coast of Antarctica.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Crustaceans may pass through a number of larval and immature stages between hatching from their eggs and reaching their adult form.
Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.
The decapod crustacean, such as a crab, lobster, shrimp or prawn, is made up of 20 body segments grouped into two main body parts, the cephalothorax and the pleon (abdomen).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Environment International is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering environmental science and health.
In animal behaviour, escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a rapid series of movements performed by an animal in response to possible predation.
Euphausia is the largest genus of krill, and is placed in the family Euphausiidae.
Euphausia pacifica, the North Pacific krill, is a euphausid that lives in the northern Pacific Ocean.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
In biology, exuviae are the remains of an exoskeleton and related structures that are left after ecdysozoans (including insects, crustaceans and arachnids) have moulted.
In anatomy, an eyestalk (sometimes spelled as eye stalk or known as an ommatophore) is a protrusion that extends the eye away from the body, giving the eye a better field of vision.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The hepatopancreas, digestive gland or midgut gland is an organ of the digestive tract of arthropods and molluscs.
High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions are regions of the ocean where the abundance of phytoplankton is low and fairly constant despite the availability of macronutrients.
Ice algae are any of the various types of algal communities found in annual and multi-year sea or terrestrial ice.
An induction period in chemical kinetics is an initial slow stage of a chemical reaction; after the induction period, the reaction accelerates.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.
The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).
Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.
The Marine Ecology Progress Series is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers all aspects of marine ecology.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Mysida is an order of small, shrimp-like crustaceans in the malacostracan superorder Peracarida.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Climate Change is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group covering all aspects of research on global warming, especially its effects.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, is a species of krill that lives in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Notothenioidei is one of 18 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic fish and sub-Antarctic fish.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polar Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the biology of the polar regions.
Polar Record is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of Arctic and Antarctic exploration and research.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
RRS Discovery was the last traditional wooden three-masted ship to be built in Britain.
A salp (plural salps), salpa (plural salpae or salpas), is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is an interdisciplinary body of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
The sternum (pl. "sterna") is the ventral portion of a segment of an arthropod thorax or abdomen.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region.
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean and contains the Weddell Gyre.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
The 55th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.