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Index Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. [1]

456 relations: A Voyage to Terra Australis, Adélie Land, Adélie penguin, Adelie Land meteorite, Aerial survey, Aftenposten, Air New Zealand Flight 901, Air pollution, Alain Hubert, Alaskozetes antarcticus, Albatross, Alexander Island, Algae, Allan Hills 84001, Ammonoidea, Amundsen's South Pole expedition, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Ancient Rome, Andes, Andesite, Animal, ANSMET, Antarctic, Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, Antarctic Circle, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctic Conservation Act, Antarctic Convergence, Antarctic flora, Antarctic fur seal, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctic krill, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Plate, Antarctic Plateau, Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, Antarctic Treaty System, Antarctica New Zealand, Antarctican dollar, Antarctopelta, Apuleius, Arctic, Arctic and Antarctic Museum, Argentina, Aristotle, Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, Arms control, Ars Technica, Asteroid, Astronomy, ..., Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere, Aurora, Australia, Australia (continent), Australian Antarctic Territory, Axel Heiberg Glacier, Bacteria, Balleny Islands, Ban (law), Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Bay of Whales, Beardmore Glacier, Belgians, Belgica antarctica, Belgium, Bellingshausen Station, Biodiversity, Biogeographic realm, Biology, Blue ice (glacial), Blue whale, Brazil, Brazilian Antarctica, British Antarctic Survey, Brunt Ice Shelf, Bryophyte, Cambrian, Cambridge University Press, Cape Géodésie, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carl Anton Larsen, Caroline Mikkelsen, Cartography, Census of Marine Life, Chile, Chilean Antarctic Territory, Chinstrap penguin, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chromium, Climate change, Climatology, Coats Land, Cold War, Colobanthus quitensis, Colossal squid, Condominium (international law), Continent, Continental shelf, Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities, Copper, Cosmic microwave background, Cretaceous, Cryolophosaurus, Cryomyces antarcticus, Cryomyces minteri, Currency, Cyanobacteria, Cycad, David Henry Lewis, Deception Island, Deschampsia antarctica, Desert, Devonian, Diamond dust, Diamond jubilee, Diatom, Dominion Range, Douglas Mawson, Drake Passage, Dry ice, Dumoulin Islands, Earless seal, Early Triassic, Earth, East Antarctic Ice Sheet, East Antarctica, Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecosystem, Edgeworth David, Edward Bransfield, Elevation, Elizabeth II, Ellsworth Mountains, Emilio Palma, Emperor penguin, Enderby Land, Endolith, Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, Equator, Eric Rignot, Ernest Shackleton, Esperanza Base, Europa (moon), Experiment, Exploration, Extremophile, Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Falkland Islands, Falklands War, Fault (geology), Fauna, Fimbul Ice Shelf, Flora, Flowering plant, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Forest, Fram, France, France Antarctique, Frank Wild, Fresh water, Fungus, Fur seal, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Gentoo penguin, Genus, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geologic time scale, Geology, Geomatics, Geophysical Research Letters, George J. Dufek, Ginkgo, Glacial period, Glacialisaurus, Glacier, Glaciology, Global warming, Glossopteris, Godthul, Gondwana, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Greek language, Greenpeace, Ground-penetrating radar, Grytviken, Halley Research Station, Hanson Formation, Health, HMS Adventure (1771), HMS Erebus (1826), HMS Resolution (1771), HMS Terror (1813), Horlick Mountains, Hudson Mountains, Hughes Bay, Husvik, Hydrocarbon, Ice, Ice algae, Ice core, Ice sheet, Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise, Ice shelf, Ice stream, Ice-sheet dynamics, IceCube Neutrino Observatory, Igneous rock, Imperial Russian Navy, Indian Ocean, Indian subcontinent, Ingrid Christensen, Instituto Antártico Argentino, International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators, International Glaciological Society, International Polar Year, Invertebrate, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, ISO 4217, James Clark Ross, James Cook, James Weddell, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John Davis (sealer), John George Bartholomew, Jules Dumont d'Urville, Jupiter, Jurassic, Katabatic wind, Keystone species, Killer whale, King Baudouin Ice Shelf, King Edward Point, King penguin, Krill, Lake Untersee, Lake Vostok, Land, Last Glacial Maximum, Leith Harbour, Leopard seal, Library of Congress, Light pollution, Limestone, List of country calling codes, List of Russian explorers, List of Ultras of Antarctica, List of volcanoes in Antarctica, Lists of places in Antarctica, Lois Jones (scientist), Louse, Lystrosaurus, Mac. Robertson Land, Marchantiophyta, Marie Byrd Land, Marinus of Tyre, Marsupial, Matthew Flinders, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McMurdo Dry Valleys, McMurdo Station, Mercator Cooper, Mesozoic, Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Meteorite, Meteorology, Metres above sea level, Microbiology, Microorganism, Microscopic scale, Middle English, Midge, Mikhail Lazarev, Military activity in the Antarctic, Mirny (sloop-of-war), Mite, Montreal Protocol, Moss, Mount Erebus, Mount Terror (Antarctica), NASA, Nathaniel Palmer, National Film and Sound Archive, National Science Foundation, Natural gas field, Nature (journal), Nature Geoscience, Nematode, New Guinea, New Scientist, New Zealand, Nickel, Nimrod Expedition, North Africa, North Pole, Northern Hemisphere, Norway, Nothofagus, Notothenioidei, Ocean Harbour, Oceanography, Ohio State University, Oil field, Old French, Onyx River, Operación 90, Optical phenomena, Outer space, Overfishing, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Pacific Ocean, Paleozoic, Patagonian toothfish, Penguin, Pensacola Mountains, Perihelion and aphelion, Permian, Peter I Island, Physics, Phytoplankton, Pine Island Glacier, Pinniped, Pinophyta, Planet, Plant, Plate tectonics, Platinum, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Poa annua, Polar regions of Earth, Polar vortex, Population density, Postimees, Precambrian, Precipitation, Prefabrication, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Prince Charles Mountains, Prince Olav Harbour, Princess Elisabeth Antarctica, Protist, Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, Pteridospermatophyta, Ptolemy, Qantas, Queen Elizabeth Land, Queen Maud Land, Remote sensing, Research, Research station, Research stations in Antarctica, Rhyolite, Richard E. Byrd, Romanization of Greek, Ross Dependency, Ross Ice Shelf, Ross Island, Ross Sea, Rotifer, Royal Navy, Russia, Sand, Sandstone, Satellite imagery, Science (journal), Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Sea cucumber, Sea ice, Sea level rise, Seal hunting, Seawater, Shackleton Range, Shale, Shield (geology), Shoaling and schooling, Silt, Sloop-of-war, Smithsonian (magazine), Snow, Snow petrel, Soil, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Solar wind, Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen, Sounds of Australia, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia Island, South Magnetic Pole, South Pole, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Ocean, Southern rockhopper penguin, Soviet Union, Spelling pronunciation, Springtail, Squid, Stonington, Connecticut, Stratigraphy, Stratosphere, Stromness, South Georgia, Subglacial lake, Sublimation (phase transition), Sun, Sun dog, Supercontinent, Sydney, Symmetry, Synapsid, Systematic review, Tardigrade, Terra Australis, Terra Nova Expedition, The New York Times, The Polar Geospatial Center, Thermohaline circulation, Tonne, Tourism in Antarctica, Transantarctic Mountains, Transport in Antarctica, Trilobite, Trinity Church (Antarctica), Troposphere, Tundra, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, United States Exploring Expedition, United States Navy, University of California, San Diego, Vertebrate, Victoria Land, Vinson Massif, Volcanism, Volcano, Vostok (sloop-of-war), Vostok Station, Weather front, Weddell Sea, Weddell seal, West Antarctic Ice Sheet, West Antarctica, Whaling, Wilkes Land, Wilkes Land crater, Wilkins Sound, World Ocean, World Park Base, Year, 60th parallel south. Expand index (406 more) »

A Voyage to Terra Australis

A Voyage to Terra Australis: Undertaken for the Purpose of Completing the Discovery of that Vast Country, and Prosecuted in the Years 1801, 1802, and 1803, in His Majesty's Ship the Investigator was a sea voyage journal written by English mariner and explorer Matthew Flinders.

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Adélie Land

Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.

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Adélie penguin

The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a species of penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast, which is their only residence.

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Adelie Land meteorite

Adelie Land is a meteorite discovered on December 5, 1912, in Antarctica by Francis Howard Bickerton (1889-1954), a member of Sir Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition.

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Aerial survey

Aerial survey is a method of collecting geomatics or other imagery by using airplanes, helicopters, UAVs, balloons or other aerial methods.

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Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.

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Air New Zealand Flight 901

Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE-901) was a scheduled Air New Zealand Antarctic sightseeing flight that operated between 1977 and 1979.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alain Hubert

Alain Hubert (born September 11, 1953) is a Belgian explorer.

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Alaskozetes antarcticus

Alaskozetes antarcticus is a species of non-parasitic mite, known for its ability to survive in subzero temperatures.

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Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).

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Alexander Island

Alexander Island, which is also known as Alexander I Island, Alexander I Land, Alexander Land, Alexander I Archipelago, and Zemlja Alexandra I, is the largest island of Antarctica.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Allan Hills 84001

Allan Hills 84001 (commonly abbreviated ALH84001) is a meteorite that was found in Allan Hills, Antarctica on December 27, 1984, by a team of U.S. meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project.

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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Amundsen's South Pole expedition

The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.

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Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is a United States scientific research station at the South Pole, the southernmost place on the Earth.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) is a program funded by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation that looks for meteorites in the Transantarctic Mountains.

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The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition

The Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) is a global coalition of environmental non-governmental organizations with more than 150 members in 40 countries worldwide.

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Antarctic Circle

The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.

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Antarctic Circumpolar Current

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.

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Antarctic Conservation Act

The Antarctic Conservation Act, enacted in 1978 by the 95th United States Congress, and amended by, is a United States federal law that addresses the issue of environmental conservation on the continent of Antarctica.

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Antarctic Convergence

The Antarctic Convergence is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica, varying in latitude seasonally, where cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters meet the relatively warmer waters of the subantarctic.

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Antarctic flora

The Antarctic flora is a distinct community of vascular plants which evolved millions of years ago on the supercontinent of Gondwana.

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Antarctic fur seal

The Antarctic fur seal, sometimes called the Kerguelen fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), is one of eight seals in the genus Arctocephalus, and one of nine fur seals in the subfamily Arctocephalinae.

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Antarctic ice sheet

The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.

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Antarctic krill

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean.

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Antarctic Peninsula

The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.

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Antarctic Plate

The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.

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Antarctic Plateau

The Antarctic Plateau, or Polar Plateau, is a large area of East Antarctica which extends over a diameter of about, and includes the region of the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.

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Antarctic Treaty Secretariat

The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS) is an organization created in 2003 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.

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Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.

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Antarctica New Zealand

Antarctica New Zealand is an Institute set up by the New Zealand Government in 1996 to manage its interests in Antarctica and the Ross Sea.

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Antarctican dollar

Antarctican dollars are collectors' items produced by the "Antarctica Overseas Exchange Office" in the appearance of a national money for the continent of Antarctica.

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Antarctopelta (meaning 'Antarctic shield') was a genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur with one known species, A. oliveroi, which lived in Antarctica during the Late Cretaceous Period.

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Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic and Antarctic Museum

The Russian State Arctic and Antarctic Museum (Российский государственный музей Арктики и Антарктики) is a museum in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic

The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, in Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense.

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Arms control

Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.

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Ars Technica

Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.

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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.

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Australian Antarctic Territory

The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy.

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Axel Heiberg Glacier

The Axel Heiberg Glacier in Antarctica is a valley glacier, long, descending from the high elevations of the Antarctic Plateau into the Ross Ice Shelf (nearly at sea level) between the Herbert Range and Mount Don Pedro Christophersen in the Queen Maud Mountains.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Balleny Islands

The Balleny Islands are a series of uninhabited islands in the Southern Ocean extending from 66°15' to 67°35'S and 162°30' to 165°00'E.

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Ban (law)

A ban is a formal or informal prohibition of something.

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Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva

Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva is the most important Antarctic base of Chile.

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Bay of Whales

The Bay of Whales was a natural ice harbor, or iceport, indenting the front of Ross Ice Shelf just north of Roosevelt Island, Antarctica.

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Beardmore Glacier

The Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica is one of the largest valley glaciers in the world, being long and having a width of.

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Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.

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Belgica antarctica

Belgica antarctica, the Antarctic midge, is a species of flightless midge, endemic to the continent of Antarctica.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bellingshausen Station

Bellingshausen Station is a Russian (formerly Soviet) Antarctic station at Collins Harbour, on King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biogeographic realm

A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Blue ice (glacial)

Blue ice occurs when snow falls on a glacier, is compressed, and becomes part of the glacier.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian Antarctica

Brazilian Antarctica (Antártida Brasileira or Antártica Brasileira) is the name of the Antarctic territory south of 60°S, and from 28°W to 53°W, proposed as "Zone of Interest" by geopolitical scholar Therezinha de Castro.

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British Antarctic Survey

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.

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Brunt Ice Shelf

The Brunt Ice Shelf borders the Antarctic coast of Coats Land between Dawson-Lambton Glacier and Stancomb-Wills Glacier Tongue.

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Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cape Géodésie

Cape Géodésie is a low, ice-covered point marked by prominent rock outcrops at its northeast end, lying northwest of the mouth of Astrolabe Glacier, Antarctica.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carl Anton Larsen

Carl Anton Larsen (7 August 1860 – 8 December 1924) was a Norwegian Antarctic explorer, who made important contributions to the exploration of Antarctica, the most significant being the first discovery of fossils, for which he received the Back Grant from the Royal Geographical Society.

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Caroline Mikkelsen

Caroline Mikkelsen (20 November 1906 Digitalarkivet Norge.no |language.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Census of Marine Life

The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year scientific initiative, involving a global network of researchers in more than 80 nations, engaged to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of life in the oceans.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chilean Antarctic Territory

The Chilean Antarctic Territory or Chilean Antarctica (Spanish: Territorio Chileno Antártico, Antártica Chilena) is the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile.

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Chinstrap penguin

The chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) is a species of penguin which inhabits a variety of islands and shores in the Southern Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean.

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Coats Land

Coats Land is a region in Antarctica which lies westward of Queen Maud Land and forms the eastern shore of the Weddell Sea, extending in a general northeast-southwest direction between 20º00´W and 36º00´W.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colobanthus quitensis

Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) is one of two native flowering plants found in the Antarctic region.

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Colossal squid

The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, from Greek mesos (middle), onycho (claw, nail), and teuthis (squid)), sometimes called the Antarctic squid or giant cranch squid, is believed to be the largest squid species in terms of mass.

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Condominium (international law)

In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Continental shelf

The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.

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Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities

The Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities is a treaty that is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cryolophosaurus (or; "CRY-oh-loaf-oh-SAWR-us") is a genus of large theropods known from only a single species Cryolophosaurus ellioti, known from the early Jurassic period of Antarctica.

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Cryomyces antarcticus

Cryomyces antarcticus is a fungus of uncertain placement in the class Dothideomycetes, division Ascomycota.

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Cryomyces minteri

Cryomyces minteri is a fungus of uncertain placement in the class Dothideomycetes, division Ascomycota.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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David Henry Lewis

David Henry Lewis, DCNZM (1917 – 23 October 2002) was a sailor, adventurer, doctor, and Polynesian scholar.

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Deception Island

Deception Island is an island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, with one of the safest harbours in Antarctica.

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Deschampsia antarctica

Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) is one of two flowering plants native to Antarctica, the other being Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort).

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diamond dust

Diamond dust is a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals.

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Diamond jubilee

A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person (e.g. accession to the throne, wedding, etc.). In the case of an event not relating to a person (e.g. the founding of an organization), a diamond jubilee is observed at the 75th anniversary.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Dominion Range

The Dominion Range is a broad mountain range, about long, forming a prominent salient at the juncture of the Beardmore and Mill glaciers in Antarctica.

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Douglas Mawson

Sir Douglas Mawson OBE FRS FAA (5 May 1882 – 14 October 1958) was an Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer, and academic.

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Drake Passage

The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.

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Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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Dumoulin Islands

The Dumoulin Islands are a small group of rocky islands in the Antarctic region at the northeast end of the Geologie Archipelago, north of Astrolabe Glacier Tongue.

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Earless seal

The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.

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Early Triassic

The Early Triassic is the first of three epochs of the Triassic Period of the geologic timescale.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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East Antarctic Ice Sheet

The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is one of two large ice sheets in Antarctica, and the largest on the entire planet.

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East Antarctica

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains.

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Eastern Hemisphere

The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, UK) and west of the antimeridian (which crosses the Pacific Ocean and relatively little land from pole to pole).

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edgeworth David

Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David (28 January 1858 – 28 August 1934), professionally known as Edgeworth David, was a Welsh Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer.

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Edward Bransfield

Edward Bransfield (c. 1785 – 31 October 1852) was an Irish sailor who rose to become an officer in the British Royal Navy, serving as a master on several ships, after being impressed into service at the age of 18 in Ireland.

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The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Ellsworth Mountains

The Ellsworth Mountains are the highest mountain ranges in Antarctica, forming a long and wide chain of mountains in a north to south configuration on the western margin of the Ronne Ice Shelf in Marie Byrd Land.

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Emilio Palma

Emilio Marcos Palma (born 7 January 1978) is an Argentine man known for being the first documented person born on the continent of Antarctica.

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Emperor penguin

The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.

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Enderby Land

Enderby Land is a projecting land mass of Antarctica.

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An endolith is an organism (archaeon, bacterium, fungus, lichen, algae or amoeba) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains of a rock.

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Eocene–Oligocene extinction event

The transition between the end of the Eocene and the beginning of the Oligocene is marked by large-scale extinction and floral and faunal turnover (although minor in comparison to the largest mass extinctions).

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Eric Rignot

Eric Rignot is Professor of Earth system science at the University of California, Irvine, and principal scientist for the Radar Science and Engineering Section at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

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Ernest Shackleton

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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Esperanza Base

Esperanza base (Base Esperanza, "Hope Base") is a permanent, all year-round Argentine research station in Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula (Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula).

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.

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An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (–; Фаддей Фаддеевич Беллинсгаузен, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen), a Russian officer of Baltic German descent in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral.

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Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Fimbul Ice Shelf

The Fimbul Ice Shelf is an ice shelf about long and wide, nourished by Jutulstraumen Glacier, bordering the coast of Queen Maud Land from 3°W to 3°E.

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Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Fram ("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France Antarctique

France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.

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Frank Wild

Commander John Robert Francis Wild, (10 April 1873 – 19 August 1939), known as Frank Wild, was an explorer.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fur seal

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.

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Gaius Julius Hyginus

Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.

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Gentoo penguin

The long-tailed gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) is a penguin species in the genus Pygoscelis, most closely related to the Adélie penguin (P. adeliae) and the chinstrap penguin (P. antarcticus).

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.

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Geophysical Research Letters

Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.

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George J. Dufek

George John Dufek (10 February 1903, Rockford, Illinois – 10 February 1977, Bethesda, Maryland) was an American naval officer, naval aviator, and polar expert.

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Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Glacialisaurus is a genus of massospondylid sauropodomorph dinosaur.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Glossopteris (γλώσσα glossa, meaning "tongue", because the leaves were tongue-shaped, and pteris, Greek for fern or feathery) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (also known as Arberiales or Ottokariales).

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Godthul is a bay long entered between Cape George and Long Point, on the north coast of South Georgia, between Cumberland East Bay and Ocean Harbour.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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Ground-penetrating radar

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.

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Grytviken is a settlement on the island of South Georgia, part of a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic.

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Halley Research Station

Halley Research Station, run by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), is a scientific research station on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.

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Hanson Formation

The Hanson Formation is a geologic formation on Mount Kirkpatrick, Antarctica.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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HMS Adventure (1771)

HMS Adventure was a barque that the Royal Navy purchased in 1771.

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HMS Erebus (1826)

HMS Erebus was a designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in Pembroke dockyard, Wales in 1826.

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HMS Resolution (1771)

HMS Resolution was a sloop of the Royal Navy, a converted merchant collier purchased by the Navy and adapted, in which Captain James Cook made his second and third voyages of exploration in the Pacific.

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HMS Terror (1813)

HMS Terror was a specialized warship and a newly developed bomb vessel constructed for the Royal Navy in 1813.

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Horlick Mountains

The Horlick Mountains are a mountain range in the Transantarctic Mountains of Antarctica.

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Hudson Mountains

The Hudson Mountains is a group of parasitic cones, forming nunataks just above the Antarctic ice sheet in west Ellsworth Land.

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Hughes Bay

Hughes Bay is a bay lying between Cape Sterneck and Cape Murray along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.

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Husvik is a former whaling station on the north-central coast of South Georgia Island.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ice algae

Ice algae are any of the various types of algal communities found in annual and multi-year sea or terrestrial ice.

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Ice core

An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is an international scientific collaboration attempting to improve estimates of the amounts of ice contained in ice sheets around the world and of their contribution to sea level rise and to publish data and analyses concerning these subjects.

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Ice shelf

An ice shelf is a thick floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.

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Ice stream

A fast-moving ice or ice stream is a region of an ice sheet that moves significantly faster than the surrounding ice.

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Ice-sheet dynamics

Ice sheet dynamics describe the motion within large bodies of ice, such those currently on Greenland and Antarctica.

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IceCube Neutrino Observatory

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.

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Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

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Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Ingrid Christensen

Ingrid Christensen (10 October 1891 – 18 June 1976) was an early polar explorer.

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Instituto Antártico Argentino

The Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA; Argentine Antarctic Institute) is the Argentine federal agency in charge of orientating, controlling, addressing and performing scientific and technical research and studies in the Antarctic.

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International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators

The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) was founded in 1991 by seven companies.

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International Glaciological Society

The International Glaciological Society (IGS) was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in glaciology, practical and scientific aspects of snow and ice.

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International Polar Year

The International Polar Years (IPY) are collaborative, international efforts with intensive research foci on the polar regions.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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ISO 3166-1 alpha-2

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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James Clark Ross

Sir James Clark Ross (15 April 1800 – 3 April 1862) was a British naval officer and explorer remembered today for his exploration of the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry and, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica.

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James Cook

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.

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James Weddell

James Weddell (24 August 1787 in Ostend – 9 September 1834) was a British sailor, navigator and seal hunter who in February 1823 sailed to latitude of 74°15′S (a record 7.69 degrees or 532 statute miles south of the Antarctic Circle) and into a region of the Southern Ocean that later became known as the Weddell Sea.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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John Davis (sealer)

Captain John Davis (born 1784 in Surrey, England) was a seal hunter from Connecticut, United States.

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John George Bartholomew

John George Bartholomew FRSE FRGS (22 March 1860 – 14 April 1920) was a British cartographer and geographer.

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Jules Dumont d'Urville

Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French explorer, naval officer and rear admiral, who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Katabatic wind

A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.

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Keystone species

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

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Killer whale

| status.

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King Baudouin Ice Shelf

The King Baudouin Ice Shelf (also called Roi Baudouin Ice shelf, from French: Plateforme de glace Roi Baudouin) in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, is within the Norwegian part of Antarctica.

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King Edward Point

King Edward Point (also known as KEP) is the capital of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, on the northeastern coast of the island of South Georgia.

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King penguin

The king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is a large species of penguin, second only to the emperor penguin in size.

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Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.

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Lake Untersee

Lake Untersee (Untersee, "Lower Lake") is the largest surface freshwater lake in the interior of the Gruber Mountains of central Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica.

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Lake Vostok

Lake Vostok (Озеро Восток, Ozero Vostok, lit. "Lake East") is the largest of Antarctica's almost 400 known subglacial lakes.

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Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Leith Harbour

Leith Harbour, also known as Port Leith, was a whaling station on the northeast coast of South Georgia, established and operated by Christian Salvesen Ltd, Edinburgh.

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Leopard seal

The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Light pollution

Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of country calling codes

Country calling codes or country dial in codes are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries or regions of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of Ultras of Antarctica

This is a list of all the Ultra prominent peaks (with topographic prominence greater than 1,500 metres) in Antarctica.

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List of volcanoes in Antarctica

This is a list of volcanoes in Antarctica.

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Lists of places in Antarctica

Antarctica is the southernmost continent on Earth.

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Lois Jones (scientist)

Lois M. Jones (1935 – March 13, 2000) was an American geochemist who led the first all-woman science team to Antarctica in 1969.

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Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.

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Lystrosaurus ("shovel lizard") was a herbivorous genus of Late Permian and Early Triassic Period dicynodont therapsids, which lived around 250 million years ago in what is now Antarctica, India, and South Africa.

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Mac. Robertson Land


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The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.

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Marie Byrd Land

Marie Byrd Land is the portion of West Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast.

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Marinus of Tyre

Marinus of Tyre (Μαρῖνος ὁ Τύριος, Marînos o Týrios; 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized, possibly Phoenician, geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy's influential Geography.

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Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Matthew Flinders

Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was an English navigator and cartographer, who was the leader of the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent.

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McDonnell Douglas DC-10

The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas.

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McMurdo Dry Valleys

The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of snow-free valleys in Antarctica located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound.

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McMurdo Station

The McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research center on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica.

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Mercator Cooper

Mercator Cooper (September 29, 1803 – spring 1872) was a ship's captain who is credited with the first formal American visit to Tokyo, Japan and the first formal landing on the mainland East Antarctica.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Midges are a group of insects that include many kinds of small flies.

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Mikhail Lazarev

Admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev (Михаил Петрович Лазарев, 3 November 1788 – 11 April 1851) was a Russian fleet commander and an explorer.

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Military activity in the Antarctic

As Antarctica has never been permanently settled by humans, there has historically been little military activity in the Antarctic.

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Mirny (sloop-of-war)

Mirny was a 20-gun sloop-of-war of the Imperial Russian Navy, the second ship of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition in 1819—1821, during which Faddey Bellingshausen (commander of the lead ship Vostok) and Mikhail Lazarev (commanding Mirny) circumnavigated the globe, discovered the continent of Antarctica and twice circumnavigated it, and discovered a number of islands and archipelagos in the Southern Ocean and the Pacific.

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Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Mount Erebus

Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.

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Mount Terror (Antarctica)

Mount Terror is a large shield volcano that forms the eastern part of Ross Island, Antarctica.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nathaniel Palmer

Nathaniel Brown Palmer (8 August 179921 June 1877) was an American seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer.

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National Film and Sound Archive

The National Film and Sound Archive of Australia (NFSA) is Australia’s audiovisual archive, responsible for developing, preserving, maintaining, promoting and providing access to a national collection of copies of film, television, sound, and radio audiovisual materials and related items.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural gas field

Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nimrod Expedition

The British Antarctic Expedition 1907–09, otherwise known as the Nimrod Expedition, was the first of three expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Pole

The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).

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Notothenioidei is one of 18 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic fish and sub-Antarctic fish.

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Ocean Harbour

Ocean Harbour is a deeply indented bay on the north coast of South Georgia which is entered west-northwest of Tijuca point.

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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.

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Oil field

An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Onyx River

The Onyx River is an Antarctic meltwater stream which flows westward through the Wright Valley from Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda, during the few months of the Antarctic summer.

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Operación 90

Operación 90 (Operation NINETY) was the first Argentine ground expedition to the South Pole, conducted in 1965, by ten soldiers of the Argentine Army under then-Colonel Jorge Edgard Leal.

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Optical phenomena

Optical phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.

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Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Patagonian toothfish

The Patagonian toothfish, Dissostichus eleginoides, is a species of cod icefish found in cold waters between depths of in the southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and Southern Ocean on seamounts and continental shelves around most sub-Antarctic islands.

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Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.

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Pensacola Mountains

The Pensacola Mountains are a large group of mountain ranges of the Transantarctic Mountains System, located in the Queen Elizabeth Land region of Antarctica,.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Peter I Island

Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Pine Island Glacier

Pine Island Glacier (PIG) is a large ice stream, and the fastest melting glacier in Antarctica, responsible for about 25% of Antarctica's ice loss.

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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Poa annua

Poa annua, or annual meadow grass (known in America more commonly as annual bluegrass or simply poa), is a widespread low-growing turfgrass in temperate climates.

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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Polar vortex

A polar vortex is an upper level low-pressure area lying near the Earth's poles.

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Population density

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.

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Postimees (The Postman) is an Estonian daily newspaper established on January 1, 1857, by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.

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Prime meridian (Greenwich)

A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.

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Prince Charles Mountains

The Prince Charles Mountains are a major group of mountains in Mac. Robertson Land in Antarctica, including the Athos Range, the Porthos Range, and the Aramis Range.

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Prince Olav Harbour

Prince Olav Harbour is small harbour in the south west portion of Cook Bay, entered between Point Abrahamsen and Sheep Point, along the north coast of South Georgia.

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Princess Elisabeth Antarctica

Princess Elisabeth Antarctica, located on Utsteinen Nunatak in Queen Maud Land, is a Belgian scientific polar research station, which went into service on February 15, 2009.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.

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The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.

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Queen Elizabeth Land

Queen Elizabeth Land is portion of mainland Antarctica named by the government of the United Kingdom and claimed as part of the British Antarctic Territory, which is the largest of the 14 British Overseas Territories.

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Queen Maud Land

Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research station

A research station is a station that is built for the purpose of conducting scientific research.

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Research stations in Antarctica

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed.

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Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).

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Richard E. Byrd

Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr., (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an American naval officer and explorer.

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Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

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Ross Dependency

The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.

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Ross Ice Shelf

The Ross Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica (as of 2013 an area of roughly and about across: about the size of France).

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Ross Island

Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.

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Ross Sea

The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment.

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The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research

The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is an interdisciplinary body of the International Council for Science (ICSU).

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Sea cucumber

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Sea ice

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Seal hunting

Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Shackleton Range

The Shackleton Range is a mountain range in Antarctica.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Shield (geology)

A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas.

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Shoaling and schooling

In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.

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Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

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In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Snow petrel

The snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) is the only member of the genus Pagodroma. It is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica and has been seen at the geographic South Pole.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen

Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen (8 October 1913 – 25 October 1996) DIS Norge.

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Sounds of Australia

The Sounds of Australia (formerly known as the National Registry of Recorded Sound), founded in 2007 is the National Film and Sound Archive's selection of sound recordings with cultural, historical and aesthetic significance and relevance, which inform or reflect life in Australia.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

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South Georgia Island

South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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South Magnetic Pole

The South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

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Southern rockhopper penguin

The southern rockhopper penguin group (Eudyptes chrysocome), are two subspecies of rockhopper penguin, that together are sometimes considered distinct from the northern rockhopper penguin.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).

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Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.

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Stonington, Connecticut

The town of Stonington is located in New London County, Connecticut, United States, in the state's southeastern corner.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Stromness, South Georgia

Stromness is a former whaling station on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic.

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Subglacial lake

A subglacial lake is a lake under a glacier, typically an ice cap or ice sheet.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sun dog

A sun dog (or sundog) or mock sun, formally called a parhelion (plural parhelia) in meteorology, is an atmospheric optical phenomenon that consists of a bright spot to the left or right of the Sun.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Systematic review

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.

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Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.

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Terra Australis

Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.

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Terra Nova Expedition

The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Polar Geospatial Center

The Polar Geospatial Center is a research center at the University of Minnesota's College of Science and Engineering funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs.

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Thermohaline circulation

Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tourism in Antarctica

Tourism in Antarctica started with sea 1960s.

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Transantarctic Mountains

The Transantarctic Mountains (abbreviated TAM) comprise a mountain range of uplifted sedimentary rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land.

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Transport in Antarctica

Transport in Antarctica has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport, predominantly by air and water, as well as land.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Trinity Church (Antarctica)

Holy Trinity Church (Церковь Святой Троицы) is a small Russian Orthodox church on King George Island near Bellingshausen Station, a Russian research station in Antarctica.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Exploring Expedition

The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States from 1838 to 1842.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of California, San Diego

The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Victoria Land

Victoria Land is a region of Antarctica which fronts the western side of the Ross Sea and the Ross Ice Shelf, extending southward from about 70°30'S to 78°00'S, and westward from the Ross Sea to the edge of the Antarctic Plateau.

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Vinson Massif

Vinson Massif is a large mountain massif in Antarctica that is long and wide and lies within the Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth Mountains.

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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Vostok (sloop-of-war)

Vostok was a 28-gun sloop-of-war of the Imperial Russian Navy, the lead ship of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition in 1819—1821, during which Faddey Bellingshausen (commander of the ship) and Mikhail Lazarev (commanding Mirny, the second ship) circumnavigated the globe, discovered the continent of Antarctica and twice circumnavigated it, and discovered a number of islands and archipelagos in the Southern Ocean and the Pacific.

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Vostok Station

Vostok Station (translit,, literally "Station East") is a Russian research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.

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Weather front

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.

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Weddell Sea

The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean and contains the Weddell Gyre.

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Weddell seal

The Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, is a relatively large and abundant true seal (family: Phocidae) with a circumpolar distribution surrounding Antarctica.

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West Antarctic Ice Sheet

The Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is the segment of the continental ice sheet that covers West (or Lesser) Antarctica, the portion of Antarctica on the side of the Transantarctic Mountains which lies in the Western Hemisphere.

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West Antarctica

West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica, one of the two major regions of Antarctica, is the part of that continent that lies within the Western Hemisphere, and includes the Antarctic Peninsula.

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Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.

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Wilkes Land

Wilkes Land is a large district of land in eastern Antarctica, formally claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, though the validity of this claim has been placed for the period of the operation of the Antarctic Treaty, to which Australia is a signatory.

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Wilkes Land crater

Wilkes Land crater is an informal term that may apply to two separate cases of conjectured giant impact craters hidden beneath the ice cap of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica.

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Wilkins Sound

Wilkins Sound is a seaway in Antarctica that is largely occupied by the Wilkins Ice Shelf.

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World Ocean

The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.

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World Park Base

World Park Base was a non-governmental year-round Antarctic base located at Cape Evans on Ross Island in the Ross Dependency.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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60th parallel south

The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctica

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