455 relations: A Cyborg Manifesto, Abipón, Abkhazians, Aborigines' Protection Society, Acculturation, Adam František Kollár, Affinity (law), African Americans, Agoraphobia, Agronomy, Ahistoricism, AIBR. Asociación de Antropólogos Iberoamericanos en Red, Aimoré, Ainu people, Ajië language, Aleut, Alfred Tylor, Alor Archipelago, Altered state of consciousness, Amahuaca, American Anthropological Association, American Anthropologist, American Ethnological Society, Amharas, Anatomy, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andamanese, Animal studies, Animal testing, Animism, Anthropological Index Online, Anthropological linguistics, Anthropological science fiction, Anthropological Society of London, Anthropologist, Anthropology of development, Anthropology of media, Anthrozoology, Archaeology, Aristotle, Armenians, Arrernte people, Art history, Ashanti people, Association of Social Anthropologists, Atayal people, Aymara people, Aztecs, Étienne Serres, ..., Babylonia, Baganda, Balinese people, Bamar people, Bambara people, Basques, Basseri, Bedouin, Behavioral ecology, Belief, Bemba people, Bengalis, Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, Bilen people, Biological anthropology, Boasian anthropology, Bougainville Island, Bribri people, Broca's area, Bronisław Malinowski, Brutus of Troy, Burusho people, Caribbean, Caribbeanist, Carneiro's circumscription theory, Center for World Indigenous Studies, Cha'palaa language, Charles Darwin, Chiricahua, Christian anthropology, Chukchi people, Chuuk State, Circumcision, Classical compound, Clifford Geertz, Cognatic kinship, Cognition, Cognitive linguistics, Cognitive science, Colonialism, Comanche, Community, Comparative anatomy, Comparative method, Cross-cultural studies, Cultural anthropology, Cultural Anthropology (journal), Cultural area, Cultural relativism, Cultural universal, Culture of Haiti, Culture of Kiribati, Culture of the Marquesas Islands, ǃKung people, David Price (anthropologist), Decomposition, Deg Hit'an, Development anthropology, Diet (nutrition), Digital anthropology, Discourse analysis, Donna Haraway, Economic anthropology, Economic system, Edward Burnett Tylor, Ekari language, Emic and etic, Emotion, Enculturation, Engaged theory, Environment (biophysical), Enxet, Epistemology, Ernst Cassirer, Ethnic group, Ethnic studies, Ethnobiology, Ethnographic film, Ethnography, Ethnological Society of London, Ethnology, Ethnomusicology, Ethology, Etymology, European Association of Social Anthropologists, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionism, Experimental psychology, Exploration, Eyak language, Fellah, Feminist theory, Fictive kinship, Fijians, Folklore, Fon people, Food security, Fossil, Fossil collecting, Four field approach, Franz Boas, French language, Fur people, Garo people, Gê peoples, Gender equality, Genetics, Genocide, Geology, George Murdock, Georgians, German Renaissance, Gheg Albanian, Global financial system, Global studies, Gondi people, Government, Gros Ventre, Guaraní people, Gujarati people, Guna people, Hadza people, Haida people, Han Chinese, Hausa people, Havasupai, Hebrews, Hidatsa, Historical materialism, History, History of anthropology, History of the British Isles, Holism, Holy Roman Empire, Hominidae, Hominini, Huichol, Human, Human behavior, Human biology, Human body, Human development (biology), Human ethology, Human evolution, Human Relations Area Files, Human rights, Human Terrain System, Iban people, Ideology, Ifugao, Igbo people, Inca society, Indigenous peoples, Infanticide, Innovation, Innu, Institute of Anthropology and Ethnography, Intangible cultural heritage, Interdisciplinarity, Internet research, Interpretation (logic), Inuit, Iraq War order of battle, 2009, Island Caribs, Jack Goody, James Hunt (speech therapist), Japanese people, Javanese people, Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau, Jivaroan peoples, John Kersey the younger, K'iche' people, Kaingang, Kalina people, Kaska Dena, Kazakhs, Khalkha Mongols, Khmer people, Kikuyu people, Kingdom of Kaffa, Kinship, Klamath people, Konso people, Koreans, Kurds, Kutenai, Kwoma people, Language, Legal pluralism, Lepcha people, Levallois technique, Lineage (anthropology), Linguistic anthropology, List of anthropologists, List of ethnic groups in Laos, List of ethnic groups in Vietnam, Literature, Lozi people, Luguru people, Maasai people, Magical thinking, Magnus Hundt, Malagasy people, Man's inhumanity to man, Manchu people, Manus Province, Mao languages, Mapuche, Mara people, Marc Augé, Marcel Mauss, Margaret Mead, Marshall Islands, Massa language, Material culture, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Māori people, Mbuti people, Memetics, Mende people, Mental health, Mi'kmaq, Miskito people, Mongo people, Monograph, Motivation, Mousterian, Moving Anthropology Student Network, Multiculturalism, Munduruku, Muscogee, Music theory, Mutilation, Mythology, Nama people, Nambikwara, Narrative, Natchez people, National Museum of Natural History (France), Natural science, Ndwandwe, Negeri Sembilan, Nenets people, Neoliberalism, Neolithic, Network of Concerned Anthropologists, Neurosurgery, New Ireland Province, New Latin, New media, Newspaper, Nicobarese languages, Nivkh people, Northern Paiute, Nubians, Nutrition, Nuxalk Nation, Nyakyusa people, Objectivity (science), Office of Strategic Services, Oldowan, Omaha people, On the Origin of Species, Origins of society, Orokaiva people, Osteology, Otoro Nuba people, Otto Casmann, Outline of anthropology, Ovimbundu, Palauan language, Paleolithic, Paleontology, Participant observation, Paul Broca, Pawnee people, Penile subincision, Pentecost Island, Perception, Petrifaction, Philology, Philosophical anthropology, Philosophy, Physics, Political anthropology, Political ecology, Political organisation, Pomo, Popoluca, Positivism, Postcolonialism, Pragmatics, Prehistoric medicine, Primate, Primatology, Psychology, Punjabis, Qualitative research, Race (human categorization), Racism, Reception theory, Reciprocity (cultural anthropology), Religious studies, Research design, Richard Francis Burton, Richard Harvey (astrologer), Riffian people, Ritual, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Rudolf Virchow, Russians, Sama-Bajau, Sami people, Samoans, Santal people, Saramaka, Saulteaux, School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, Science, Science and technology studies, Semang, Semiotics, Shilluk people, Sirionó language, Skokomish people, Slavey, Social anthropology, Social movement, Social organization, Social science, Société de biologie, Société Ethnologique de Paris, Society, Society for Anthropological Sciences, Society for Applied Anthropology, Society for Social Studies of Science, Society of Anthropology of Paris, Sociocultural anthropology, Sociolinguistics, Sociology, Somalis, Songhai people, Standard cross-cultural sample, State (polity), Structuralism, Suku people, Tallensi, Technology, Tehuelche people, Terrain (journal), Thai people, The arts, The Christian Science Monitor, The New World of English Words, Theodor Waitz, Theory, Third World, Tikopia, Tim Ingold, Tinbergen's four questions, Tiv people, Tiwi people, Tobelo language, Toda people, Tohono O'odham, Toraja, Torture, Toubou people, Transcreation, Transpersonal psychology, Trobriand Islands, Trumai, Tuareg people, Tucano language, Tupi people, Turkish people, Ulf Hannerz, United States Office of War Information, University of Copenhagen, Urban anthropology, Urbanization, USC Center for Visual Anthropology, Uttar Pradesh, Vedda, Vera Mae Green, Veterinary medicine, Vietnamese people, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Warao people, Wayuu people, Western world, Wodaabe, Wolof people, Wyandot people, Xavante, Yaghan people, Yanomami, Yap, Yi people, Yokuts, Yukaghir people, Yurok, Zande people, Zoology, Zuni language. Expand index (405 more) » « Shrink index
"A Cyborg Manifesto" is an essay written by Donna Haraway and published in 1984.
The Abipones (Abipones, singular Abipón) were an indigenous peoples of Argentina's Gran Chaco, speakers of one of the Guaicuruan languages.
Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
The Aborigines' Protection Society (APS) was an international human rights organisation, founded in 1837, to ensure the health and well-being and the sovereign, legal and religious rights of the indigenous peoples while also promoting the civilization of the indigenous people who were subjected under colonial powers.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Adam František Kollár de Keresztén (Adam Franz Kollar von Keresztén, kereszténi Kollár Ádám Ferenc; 1718–1783) was a Slovak jurist, Imperial-Royal Court Councilor and Chief Imperial-Royal Librarian, a member of Natio Hungarica in the Kingdom of Hungary, a historian, ethnologist, an influential advocate of Empress Maria Theresa's Enlightened and centralist policies.
In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity (blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Ahistoricism refers to a lack of concern for history, historical development, or tradition.
The association AIBR (Network of Iberoamerican Anthropologists, from the Spanish Antropólogos Iberoamericanos en Red) started in 1996 with the creation of the portal El Rincón del Antropólogo (The Anthropologist Corner), that brought together the team of one of the first portals of anthropology in the Spanish-speaking world.
The Aimoré (Aymore, Aimboré) are one of several South American peoples of eastern Brazil called Botocudo in Portuguese (from botoque, a plug), in allusion to the wooden disks or tembetás worn in their lips and ears.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
Ajië (also known as Houailou (Wailu), Wai, and A’jie) is an Oceanic language spoken in New Caledonia.
The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.
Alfred Tylor (26 January 1824 – 31 December 1884) was an English geologist.
The Alor Archipelago is located at the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
The Amahuaca or Amhuaca are indigenous peoples of the southeastern Amazon Basin in Peru and Brazil.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
The American Ethnological Society (AES) is the oldest professional anthropological association in the United States.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andamanese are the various indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.
Animal studies is a recently recognized field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
The Anthropological Index Online is an academic journal indexing service for anthropology.
Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.
The American Anthropological Association defines anthropology as "the study of humans, past and present.
The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
The anthropology of development is a term applied to a body of anthropological work which views development from a critical perspective.
Anthropology of media (also anthropology of mass media, media anthropology) is an area of study within social or cultural anthropology that emphasizes ethnographic studies as a means of understanding producers, audiences, and other cultural and social aspects of mass media.
Anthrozoology (also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Arrernte people, sometimes referred to as the Aranda, Arunta, or Arrarnta are an Aboriginal Australian people who live in the Arrernte lands, at Mparntwe (Alice Springs) and surrounding areas of the Central Australia region of the Northern Territory. Some Aranda live in other areas far from their homeland, including the major Australian cities and overseas. Aranda mythology and spirituality focuses on the landscape and the Dreamtime. Altjira is the creator being of the Inapertwa that became all living creatures. Tjurunga are objects of religious significance. The Arrernte Council is the representative and administrative body for the Aranda Lands and is part of the Central Land Council. Tourism is important to the economy of Alice Springs and surrounding communities.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
Ashanti also known as Asante are an ethnic group native to the Ashanti Region of modern-day Ghana.
The Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth, is a learned society in the United Kingdom dedicated to promoting the academic discipline of psychosocial studies.
The Atayal, also known as the Tayal and the Tayan, are an indigenous group of Taiwanese aborigines.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Antoine Étienne Renaud Augustin Serres (12 September 1786, Clairac – 22 January 1868, Paris) was a French physician and embryologist.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Ganda people, or Baganda (endonym: Baganda; singular Muganda), are a Bantu ethnic group native to Buganda, a subnational kingdom within Uganda.
The Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.
The Bamar (also historically the Burmese and Burmans) are the dominant ethnic group in Myanmar.
The Bambara (Bamana or Banmana) are a Mandé ethnic group native to much of West Africa, primarily southern Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal.
The Basseri (باسری or باصری) are a Persian nomadic and pastoral tribe of the Fars Province in Iran.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
The Bemba (or 'BaBemba' using the Ba- prefix to mean 'people of', and also called 'Awemba' or 'BaWemba' in the past) belong to a large group of Bantu peoples mainly in the Northern province, Luapula and Copperbelt Provinces of Zambia who trace their origins to the Luba and Lunda states of the upper Congo basin, in what became Katanga Province in southern Congo-Kinshasa (DRC).
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
The Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology, and Prehistory (German: Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte) is a learned society for the study of anthropology, ethnology, and prehistory founded in Berlin by Adolf Bastian and Rudolf Virchow in 1869 as the Berlin Anthropological Society (German: Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft).
The Bilenalso variously transcribed as Blin, and also formerly known as the Bogo, Bogos or North Agaware an ethnic group on the Horn of Africa.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Boasian anthropology was a school within American anthropology founded by Franz Boas in the late 19th century.
Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea.
The Bribri are an indigenous people of Costa Rica.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists.
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain.
The Burusho or Brusho, also known as the Hunza people or Botraj, live in Hunza, Nagar, Chitral, and in valleys of Gilgit–Baltistan in northern Pakistan, as well as in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
A Caribbeanist is a scholar who specializes in the study of the Caribbean region of the Americas -- its literature, culture, politics, society, ecology and so forth.
Carneiro's Circumscription Theory is a theory of the role of warfare in state formation in political anthropology, created by anthropologist Robert Carneiro (1927-). The theory has been summarized in one sentence by Schacht: “In areas of circumscribed agricultural land, population pressure led to warfare that resulted in the evolution of the state”.
The Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS) is a non-profit American organization.
Cha'palaa (also known as Chachi or Cayapa) is a Barbacoan language spoken in northern Ecuador by ca.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chiricahua are a band of Apache Native Americans, based in the Southern Plains and Southwest United States. Culturally related to other Apache peoples, Chiricahua historically shared a common area, language, customs, and intertwined family relations. At the time of European contact, they had a territory of 15 million acres (61,000 km2) in Southwestern New Mexico and Southeastern Arizona in the United States and in Northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today Chiricahua are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes in the United States: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, Oklahoma with a small reservation outside Deming, New Mexico, and the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico. The San Carlos Apache Tribe, Arizona does have Chiricahua Apache people there also.
In the context of Christian theology, Christian anthropology refers to the study of the human ("anthropology") as it relates to God.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Chuuk State (also known as Truk) is one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM).
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Clifford James Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) was an American anthropologist who is remembered mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology, and who was considered "for three decades...the single most influential cultural anthropologist in the United States." He served until his death as professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science) that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture.
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Cultural Anthropology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Anthropological Association on behalf of the Society for Cultural Anthropology.
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.
The culture of Haiti is an eclectic mix of African and European elements due to the French colonization of Saint Domingue and its large and diverse enslaved African population, as is evidenced in the Haitian language, music, and religion.
Contemporary Kiribati culture is centered on the family, the church and the sea.
The Marquesas Islands were colonized by seafaring Polynesians as early as 300 AD, thought to originate from Samoa.
The !Kung are a part of the San people who live in the Kalahari desert and Ovamboland (northern Namibia and southern Angola).
David H. Price (born 1960) is an American anthropologist.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Deg Hit'an (also Deg Xit'an, Deg Hitan, Degexit'an, Kaiyuhkhotana) is a group of Yupikized Athabaskan peoples in Alaska.
Development anthropology refers to the application of anthropological perspectives to the multidisciplinary branch of development studies.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Digital anthropology is the anthropological study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
Donna J. Haraway (born September 6, 1944) is a Distinguished American Professor Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department and Feminist Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States.
Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.
Ekari (also Ekagi, Kapauku, Mee) is a Trans–New Guinea language spoken by about 100,000 people in the Paniai lakes region of the Indonesian province of Papua, including the villages of Enaratoli, Mapia and Moanemani.
In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Enculturation is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in that culture and worldviews.
Engaged theory is a methodological framework for understanding social complexity.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
The Enxet are an indigenous people of about 17,000 living in the Gran Chaco region of western Paraguay.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernst Alfred Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic studies, in the United States, is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality, gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, and by individuals.
Ethnobiology is the scientific study of the way living things are treated or used by different human cultures.
An ethnographic film is a non-fiction film, often similar to a documentary film, historically dealing with non-Western people, and sometimes associated with anthropology.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS).
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA) is an organization of scholars in the field of anthropology founded in 1989.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Eyak is an extinct Na-Dené language historically spoken by the Eyak people, indigenous to south-central Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River.
Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.
Fijians (iTaukei) are a nation and ethnic group native to Fiji, who speak Fijian and share a common history and culture.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
The Fon people, also called Fon nu, Agadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fossil collecting (some times, in a non-scientific sense, fossil hunting) is the collection of fossils for scientific study, hobby, or profit.
The four field approach in anthropology sees the discipline as composed of the four subfields of Archaeology, Linguistics, Physical Anthropology and Cultural anthropology.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Fur (Fur: fòòrà, Arabic: فور Fūr) are an ethnic group inhabiting western Sudan.
The Garos are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group in Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura, Nagaland and neighboring areas of Bangladesh like Mymensingh, Netrokona, Jamalpur, Sherpur and Sylhet, who call themselves A·chik Mande (literally "hill people," from a·chik "bite soil" + mande "people") or simply A·chik or Mande.
Gê are the people who spoke Ge languages of the northern South American Caribbean coast and Brazil.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George Peter ("Pete") Murdock (May 11, 1897 – March 29, 1985), also known as G. P. Murdock, was an American anthropologist.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance, was a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.
Global studies is the interdisciplinary study of political, economic, legal, ecological and cultural interconnectedness.
The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond people are Adivasi who speak Dravidian language, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Western Odisha.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Gros Ventre (from French: "big belly"), also known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin, Haaninin, and Atsina, are a historically Algonquian-speaking Native American tribe located in north central Montana.
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
The Guna, known as Kuna prior to an orthographic reform in 2010, and historically as Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia.
The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
The Han Chinese,.
The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.
The Havasupai people (Havasupai: Havsuw' Baaja) are an American Indian tribe who have lived in the Grand Canyon for at least the past 800 years.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
The Hidatsa are a Siouan people.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology.
The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
The Huichol or Wixáritari (Huichol pronunciation: /wiˈraɾitaɾi/) are an indigenous people of Mexico living in the Sierra Madre Occidental range in the states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Durango. They are best known to the larger world as the Huichol, however, they refer to themselves as Wixáritari ("the people") in their native Huichol language. The adjectival form of Wixáritari and name for their own language is Wixárika.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
Human ethology is the study of human behavior.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
The Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF), located in New Haven, Connecticut is a nonprofit international membership organization with over 300 member institutions in the U.S. and more than 20 other countries.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Human Terrain System (HTS) was a United States Army, Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) support program employing personnel from the social science disciplines – such as anthropology, sociology, political science, regional studies, and linguistics – to provide military commanders and staff with an understanding of the local population (i.e. the "human terrain") in the regions in which they are deployed.
The Ibans or Sea Dayaks are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Ifugao (Probinsia ti Ifugao; Lalawigan ng Ifugao) is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
The Inca society was the society of the Inca civilization in South America.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.
The Institute of Anthropology and Ethnography or N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology (Институт этнологии и антропологии им.; abbreviated as ИЭА in Russian and IEA in English) is a Russian institute of research, specializing in ethnographic studies of cultural and physical anthropology.
An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World Wide Web, or Internet-based resources (like Internet discussion forum) in research.
An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Below is an estimated list of the major units deployed within the Multi-National Force - Iraq and other United States military units that were operating in Iraq under the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) in 2009, during the Iraq War.
The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles.
Sir John Rankine Goody, (27 July 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British social anthropologist.
James Hunt (1833 – 29 August 1869) was a speech therapist in London, England who had among his clients Charles Kingsley, Leo Tennyson (son of the poet laureate Alfred Tennyson) and Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau (10 February 1810 – 12 January 1892) was a French biologist.
Jivaroan peoples refers to groups of indigenous peoples in the headwaters of the Marañon River and its tributaries, in northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.
John Kersey the younger (fl. 1720) was an English philologist and lexicographer of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
The Kaingang (also spelled caingangue in Portuguese or kanhgág in the Kaingang language) people are a Native American ethnic group spread out over the three southern Brazilian states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and the southeastern state of São Paulo.
The Kalina, also known as the Caribs, Kali'na, mainland Caribs and several other names, are an indigenous people native to the northern coastal areas of South America.
The Kaska or Kaska Dena are a First Nations people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group living mainly in northern British Columbia and the southeastern Yukon in Canada.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
The Khalkha (Халх, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Kikuyu (also Akikûyu/Agikuyu/Gikuyu) is the largest ethnic group in Kenya.
The Kingdom of Kaffa (c. 1390–1897) was an early modern state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its first capital at Bonga.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California.
The Konso, also known as the Xonsita, are a Lowland East Cushitic-speaking ethnic group primarily inhabiting south-central Ethiopia.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The Kutenai, also known as the Ktunaxa, Ksanka, Kootenay (in Canada) and Kootenai (in the United States), are an indigenous people of Canada and the United States.
The Kwoma are a people of northeastern New Guinea who live in the Peilungupo mountains north of the Sepik River.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Legal pluralism is the existence of multiple legal systems within one (human) population and/or geographic area.
The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup (Lepcha: ᰕᰫ་ᰊᰪᰰ་ᰆᰧᰶ ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰀᰪᰱ ᰛᰪᰮ་ᰀᰪᰱ; "beloved children of the Róng and of God"), and Rongpa (Sikkimese), are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim and number between 30,000 and 50,000.
The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.
The following is a list of ethnic groups within Laos.
Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage (Ethnic groups in Vietnam).
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The Lozi people are an ethnic group primarily of western Zambia, inhabiting the region of Barotseland.
The Luguruare a matrilineal ethnic and linguistic group from Pwani Region and Morogoro Region in Tanzania.
Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
Magical thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields.
Magnus Hundt or Magnus canis (1449 in Magdeburg – 1519 in Meißen), also known as Parthenopolitanus, was a German philosopher, physician and theologian.
The Malagasy (Malgache) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar.
The phrase "Man's inhumanity to man" is first documented in the Robert Burns poem called Man was made to mourn: A Dirge in 1784.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manus Province is the smallest province in Papua New Guinea with a land area of 2,100 km², but with more than 220,000 km² of water.
The Mao languages are a branch of the Omotic languages spoken in Ethiopia.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
The Mara people are the native inhabitants of Mizoram in India, native to northeastern India, primarily in the Mara Autonomous District Council of the state of Mizoram, where they form the majority of the population. Significant numbers of Maras are also found living south-eastern part of Myanmar Burma, in Chin State and Rakhine State which border the district. They were earlier known as the Lakher by outsiders as Mizo called them by that name, and the new name Mara was inserted in List of Scheduled Tribes in Mizoram state in 1978 replacing the old name. The Maras were in early period known to the outside world under different tribal names such as Mara, Lakher, Shendu, Baungshel or Shendoo, Maring, Zyu or Zao/Zho, Khongzai, etc. They constitute a distinct tribal group lying in Saiha district of Mizoram. They called themselves "Maras".
Marc Augé (born September 2, 1935 in Poitiers) is a French anthropologist.
Marcel Mauss (10 May 1872 – 10 February 1950) was a French sociologist.
Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
Massa (or Masana, Masa) is a Chadic language spoken in southern Chad and northern Cameroon by the Masa people.
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie, shortened to MPI EVA) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Mbuti or Bambuti are one of several indigenous pygmy groups in the Congo region of Africa.
Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution.
The Mende people (also spelled Mendi) are one of the two largest ethnic groups in Sierra Leone; their neighbours, the Temne people, have roughly the same population.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
The Miskito are an indigenous ethnic group in Central America, of whom many are mixed race.
The Mongo people are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the equatorial forest of Central Africa.
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
MASN (Moving Anthropology Student Network) is an independent association and open platform to connect and create.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
The Munduruku, also known as Mundurucu or Wuy Jugu, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the Amazon River basin.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nama (in older sources also called Namaqua) are an African ethnic group of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana.
The Nambikwara (also called Nambikuára) is an indigenous people of Brazil, living in the Amazon.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
The Natchez (Natchez pronunciation) are a Native American people who originally lived in the Natchez Bluffs area in the Lower Mississippi Valley, near the present-day city of Natchez, Mississippi in the United States.
The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The Ndwandwe are a Bantu Nguni-speaking people who populate sections of southern Africa.
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Network of Concerned Anthropologists (NCA) is an independent ad hoc network of anthropologists seeking to promote an ethical anthropology.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
New Ireland Province, formerly New Mecklenburg (Neu-Mecklenburg), is the most northeastern province of Papua New Guinea.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.
The Nivkh (also Nivkhs, Nivkhi, or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting the northern half of Sakhalin Island and the region of the Amur River estuary in Russia's Khabarovsk Krai.
Northern Paiute is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, and southeast Oregon.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The Nuxalk Nation is the band government of the Nuxalk people of Bella Coola, British Columbia.
The Nyakyusa (also called the Sokile, Ngonde or Nkonde) are an African ethnic and linguistic group who live in the fertile mountains of southern Tanzania and northern Malawi—former German East Africa.
Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.
The Omaha are a federally recognized Midwestern Native American tribe who reside on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
The origins of society — the evolutionary emergence of distinctively human social organization — is an important topic within evolutionary biology, anthropology, prehistory and palaeolithic archaeology.
The Orokaiva are a people indigenous to Papua New Guinea.
Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists.
The Otoro Nuba are an ethnic group in the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state, in southern Sudan.
Otto Casmann (1562 - 1 August 1607) (also known by the Latinized name Casmannus) was a German humanist who converted from Catholicism to Protestantism as a young man.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anthropology: Anthropology – study of humanity.
The Ovimbundu, also known as the Southern Mbundu, are a Bantu ethnic group who lives on the Bié Plateau of central Angola and in the coastal strip west of these highlands.
Palauan (a tekoi er a Belau) is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Palau, the other being English.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.
Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
Penile subincision is a form of body modification consisting of a urethrotomy, in which the underside of the penis is incised and the urethra slit open lengthwise, from the urethral opening (meatus) toward the base.
Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophical anthropology, sometimes called anthropological philosophy, is a discipline dealing with questions of metaphysics and phenomenology of the human person, and interpersonal relationships.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies.
Political ecology is the study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes.
A political organisation or political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups.
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California.
Popoluca is a Nahuatl term (meaning "gibberish, unintelligible speech") for various indigenous peoples of southeastern Veracruz and Oaxaca.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Primatology is the scientific study of primates.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Reception theory is a version of reader response literary theory that emphasizes each particular reader's reception or interpretation in making meaning from a literary text.
In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
A research design according to Andrew B kirumbi (2018) is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research.
Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.
Richard Harvey (1560-1630) was an English astrologer, theologian and controversialist.
The Riffian people, in Tarifit: Irifiyen, by others also known as Riff, Riyefa or Ruafa, are a Berber speaking people of Northwestern Africa, who derive their name from the Rif region in the northern edge of Morocco.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (RAI) is a long-established anthropological organisation, with a global membership.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Samoans or Samoan people (tagata Sāmoa) are a Polynesian ethnic group native to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language.
The Santal, or rarely Santals (Santali:ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ,सांथाल, translit, translit), are an ethnic group, native to Nepal and the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
The Saramaka or Saramacca are one of six Maroon peoples (formerly called "Bush Negroes") in the Republic of Suriname and one of the Maroon peoples in French Guiana.
The Saulteaux (pronounced,; also written Salteaux and many other variants) are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is a French grande école (élite higher-education establishment that operates outside the regulatory framework of the public university system) specialised in the social sciences and often considered as the most prestigious institution for the social sciences in France.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture.
The Semang are the Negrito and Austric ethnic groups of the Malay Peninsula.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
The Shilluk (Shilluk: Chollo) are a major Luo Nilotic ethnic group of Southern Sudan, living on both banks of the river Nile, in the vicinity of the city of Malakal.
Sirionó (also Mbia Chee, Mbya, Siriono) is a Tupian (Tupi–Guarani, Subgroup II) language spoken by about 400 Sirionó people (50 are monolingual) and 120 Yuqui in eastern Bolivia (eastern Beni and northwestern Santa Cruz departments) in the village of Ibiato (Eviato) and along the Río Blanco in farms and ranches.
The Skokomish (pronounced) are one of nine tribes of the Twana, a Native American people of western Washington state in the United States.
The Slavey (also Slave and South Slavey) are a First Nations aboriginal people of the Dene group, indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canada's Northwest Territories, and extending into northeastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta.
Social anthropology or anthroposociology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.
A social movement is a type of group action.
In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Société de biologie is a learned society founded in Paris in 1848.
The Société Ethnologique de Paris was a short-lived French learned society set up by William Frédéric Edwards in 1839.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
The Society for Anthropological Sciences (SASci) is a scholarly association formed in 2004 to promote the development of empirical theory and methods in anthropology.
The Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) is a US-based professional association for applied anthropology, established "to promote the integration of anthropological perspectives and methods in solving human problems throughout the world; to advocate for fair and just public policy based upon sound research; to promote public recognition of anthropology as a profession; and to support the continuing professionalization of the field." Members include academic as well as practicing and applied anthropologists.
The Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) is a non-profit scholarly association devoted to the social studies of science and technology (STS).
The Society of Anthropology of Paris (Société d’Anthropologie de Paris) is a French learned society for anthropology founded by Paul Broca in 1859.
Sociocultural anthropology is a portmanteau used to refer to social anthropology and cultural anthropology together.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.
The standard cross-cultural sample is a sample of 186 cultures used by scholars engaged in cross-cultural studies.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
The Suku, also known as the Basuku, are an ethnic group inhabiting the southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northwestern Angola, with a population of around 200,000 people.
Tallensi, also spelled Talensi, are a people of northern Ghana who speak a language of the Gur branch of the Niger-Congo language family.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Aónikenk people, better known by the exonym Tehuelche, are a group of indigenous peoples of Patagonia and the southern pampas regions of Argentina and Chile.
Terrain is a French academic journal of ethnology, social and cultural anthropology (the three terms are not clearly distinguished in France).
Thai people or the Thais (ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper).
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The New World of English Words, or, a General Dictionary is a dictionary compiled by Edward Phillips and first published in London in 1658.
Theodor Waitz (March 17, 1821 – May 21, 1864) was a German psychologist and anthropologist.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Tikopia is a small high island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Timothy Ingold, FBA, FRSE (born 1 November 1948), Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 is a British anthropologist, and Chair of Social Anthropology at the University of Aberdeen.
Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.
Tiv (or TiviDuggan, E. de C. (1932) "Notes on the Munshi ("Tivi") Tribe of Northern Nigeria: Some Historical Outlines" Journal of the Royal African Society 31(123)) is an ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa.
The Tiwi people, properly Tunuvivi, are one of the many Indigenous groups of Australia.
Tobelo (bahasa Tobelo) is a North Halmahera language spoken on the eastern Indonesian island of Halmahera and on parts of several neighboring islands.
Toda people are a Dravidian ethnic group who live in the Nilgiri Mountains of Tamil Nadu.
The Tohono O’odham are a Native American people of the Sonoran Desert, residing primarily in the U.S. state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.
The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
Transcreation is a term used chiefly by advertising and marketing professionals to refer to the process of adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining its intent, style, tone and context.
Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology.
The Trobriand Islands are a archipelago of coral atolls off the east coast of New Guinea.
The Trumai (or Trumaí; native name: Ho kod ke) are an indigenous people of Brazil.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Tucano, also Tukano or Tucana, endonym Dahseyé (Dasea), is a Tucanoan language spoken in Amazonas, Brazil and Colombia.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Ulf Hannerz, (born June 9, 1942 in Malmö) is a Swedish anthropologist.
The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a United States government agency created during World War II.
The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.
Urban anthropology is a subset of anthropology concerned with issues of urbanization, poverty, urban space, social relations, and neoliberalism.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The USC Center for Visual Anthropology (CVA) is a center located at the University of Southern California.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
The Vedda (වැද්දා, வேடர் Vēdar) are a minority indigenous group of people in Sri Lanka who, among other self-identified native communities such as Coast Veddas, Anuradhapura Veddas and Bintenne Veddas, are accorded indigenous status.
Vera Mae Green (1928 - 1982) was an anthropologist, educator, and scholar, who made major contributions in the fields of Caribbean studies, interethnic studies, black family studies and the study of poverty and the poor.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The Warao are an indigenous people inhabiting northeastern Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Wodaabe (Woɗaaɓe), also known as the Mbororo or Bororo, are a small subgroup of the Fulani ethnic group.
The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
The Xavante (also Shavante, Chavante, Akuen, A'uwe, Akwe, Awen, or Akwen) are an indigenous people, comprising 15,315 individuals within the territory of eastern Mato Grosso state in Brazil.
The Yaghan, also called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana, or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world.
The Yanomami, also spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of approximately 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil.
Yap or Wa′ab (Waqab) traditionally refers to an island located in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, a part of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo) are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
The Yokuts (previously known as MariposasPowell, 1891:90–91.) are an ethnic group of Native Americans native to central California.
The Yukaghir, or Yukagir (юкаги́ры; self-designation: одул (odul), деткиль (detkil)) are a people in East Siberia, living in the basin of the Kolyma River.
The Yurok, whose name means "downriver people" in the neighboring Karuk language (also called yuh'ára, or yurúkvaarar in Karuk), are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast.
The Azande (plural of "Zande" in the Zande language) are an ethnic group of North Central Africa.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zuni (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.
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