242 relations: "Polish death camp" controversy, A. J. P. Taylor, Adam Michnik, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Alexander Pushkin, American Jewish Committee, Anna M. Cienciala, Auschwitz concentration camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, Łukasz Ciepliński, Back to You (TV series), Barbara Tuge-Erecińska, BBC, Border Protection Corps, British National Party, Calel Perechodnik, Catholic Church, Channel 4, Channel 4 News, Christie Davies, Christopher Browning, Chrobry II Battalion, Commission of National Education, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Congress Poland, Conservative Party (UK), Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, CTV Television Network, Culture of Poland, Cursed soldiers, Curzon Line, Dagenham, Daily Mail, Daniel Hannan, Daniel Kawczynski, David Cameron, David Cesarani, David Ives, David L. Hoggan, David Miliband, Düsseldorf, Defamation, Destruction of Kalisz, Discrimination, E. H. Carr, Early day motion, East Germany, Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Efraim Zuroff, English language, ..., Enlargement of the European Union, Ernst Nolte, Ethnic cleansing, European Court of Human Rights, European Parliament, Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language, Far-right politics, Federation of Poles in Great Britain, Final Solution, Forced displacement, Foreign relations of Poland, Fox Broadcasting Company, Frederick the Great, Gazeta Wyborcza, General Government, Genocide, Genocide definitions, Georg Forster, Gerald Warner, Gerhard Weinberg, German Empire, German Reich, Germanisation of Poles during the Partitions, Gestapo–NKVD conferences, Giles Coren, Great Purge, Gulag, Hammersmith, Harlow, Harvard University, Hate crime, History of the Jews in Poland, Holocaust denial, Home Army, Honesty, Huntingdon, Intelligentsia, Internment, Invasion of Poland, Iroquois, Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Jagiellonian University, Jan T. Gross, Józef Glemp, Jedwabne pogrom, Jewish Ghetto Police, Jon Snow (journalist), Jonathan Freedland, Joseph Stalin, Journal of Contemporary History, Katorga, Katyn massacre, Kazimierz Kutz, Kielbasa, Kingdom of Prussia, Kraków, Kresy, Kulturkampf, Labor camp, Law and Justice, League of Polish Families, Lebensraum, Lech Wałęsa, Lewis Namier, Lidl, List of ethnic slurs, Lithuania, Lithuanization, Liudmila Gatagova, London, Lublin, Lviv, Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Marshal of Poland, Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, Mazovia, Michael Ellman, Michael Schudrich, Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland), Namiestnik of Poland, Nazi crimes against the Polish nation, Nazism, New York Daily News, Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, Nikolai Gogol, NKVD, Norman Davies, November Uprising, Opposition to immigration, Order of Vytautas the Great, Otto von Bismarck, Palgrave Macmillan, Pan-Slavism, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Partitions of Poland, PDF, Personal union, Peter Stachura, Polack, Polak, Poland, Poles, Poles in Lithuania, Poles in the Soviet Union, Poles in the United Kingdom, Polish Air Force, Polish Americans, Polish cavalry, Polish diaspora, Polish joke, Polish National Party, Polish Operation of the NKVD, Polish Plumber, Polish Press Agency, Polish Social and Cultural Association, Politics of Poland, Pope John Paul II, Popular culture, Press Complaints Commission, Prime minister, Prisoner of war, Prussia, Pseudo-documentary, Racism, Richard C. Lukas, Richard J. Evans, Righteous Among the Nations, Robert S. Wistrich, Routledge, Russia, Russian Empire, Russification, Rzeczpospolita, Rzeczpospolita (newspaper), Second Polish Republic, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland, Show trial, Siberia, Silesia, Silesian Uprisings, Simon Jenkins, Simon Sebag Montefiore, Solidarity (Polish trade union), Something's Up There, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946), Soviet Union, Spa Conference of 1920, Stalinism, Stanford University Press, Stephen Fry, Stephen Pollard, Stereotype, Super Express (newspaper), Sybirak, Taras Bulba, Teutonic Order, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The Jerusalem Post, The Jewish Chronicle, The Times, Timothy Garton Ash, Tomasz Sommer, Tomasz Strzembosz, Trial of the Sixteen, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United States, Upper Silesia plebiscite, Vilho Harle, Vilnius University, Vladimir Dal, Vladimir Putin, War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II, Warsaw, Warsaw Uprising, Władysław Bartoszewski, Western Ukraine, Wisconsin, Witold Pilecki, World War I, World War II, Xenophobia, Yitzhak Shamir, 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état, 2014 European Aquatics Championships. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
"Polish death camp" and "Polish concentration camp" are misnomers that have been a subject of controversy and legislation.
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
Adam Michnik (born 17 October 1946) is a Polish historian, essayist, former dissident, public intellectual, and editor-in-chief of the Polish newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza.
Aleksander Kwaśniewski (born 15 November 1954) is a Polish politician and journalist.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906.
Anna Maria Cienciala (November 8, 1929 – December 24, 2014) was a Polish-American historian and author.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu (Teren Niemiecki zabrany Polsce) is a memorial and museum in Oświęcim (German: Auschwitz), Poland, which includes the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau. It is devoted to the memory of the victims who died at both camps during World War II. The museum performs several tasks, including Holocaust research.
Łukasz Ciepliński (born November 26, 1913 - died March 1, 1951) was a Polish soldier who fought in the Polish anti-Nazi and anti-communist resistance movements.
Back to You is an American sitcom which aired on Fox from September 19, 2007, to May 14, 2008.
Barbara Krystyna Tuge-Erecińska (born March 24, 1956) was the Ambassador of the Republic of Poland to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, appointed by President Lech Kaczyński on 24 October 2006.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Border Protection Corps (Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, KOP) was a Polish military formation that was created in 1924 to defend the country's eastern borders against armed Soviet incursions and local bandits.
The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
Calel (Calek) Perechodnik (8 September 1916 – October 1944) was a Polish Jew who joined the Jewish Ghetto Police in the Otwock Ghetto during the Nazi German occupation of Poland.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Channel 4 News is the main news programme on British television broadcaster Channel 4.
John Christopher Hughes "Christie" Davies (25 December 1941 – 26 August 2017) was a British sociologist, professor emeritus of sociology at the University of Reading, England, the author of many articles and books on criminology, the sociology of morality, censorship, and humour.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
The Chrobry II Battalion was a unit, formally subordinate to the Polish Home Army (AK), which took part in the Warsaw Uprising.
The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, abbreviated KEN, Edukacinė komisija, Адукацыйная камісія) was the central educational authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by the Sejm and the King Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The CTV Television Network (commonly referred to as CTV) is an English-language broadcast television network in Canada launched in 1961.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
The "cursed soldiers" (also known as "doomed soldiers", "accursed soldiers" or "damned soldiers"; Żołnierze wyklęci) or "indomitable soldiers" is a term applied to a variety of Polish anti-Soviet or anti-communist Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and its aftermath by some members of the Polish Underground State.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Dagenham is a town in East London and in the county of Essex, England.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Daniel John Hannan (born 1 September 1971) is a British writer, journalist and politician.
Daniel Robert Kawczynski (born 24 January 1972) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Shrewsbury and Atcham in Shropshire, England.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Cesarani OBE (13 November 1956 – 25 October 2015) was an English historian who specialised in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust.
David Ives (born July 11, 1950) is an American playwright, screenwriter, and novelist.
David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923 – August 7, 1988) was an American professor of history, author of The Forced War: When Peaceful Revision Failed and other works in the German and English languages.
David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British Labour Party politician, charity chief executive and public policy analyst who was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2007 to 2010 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for South Shields from 2001 to 2013.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
The destruction and sacking of the city of Kalisz (zburzenie Kalisza) by German Empire troops took place from 2 August until 22 August 1914 at the beginning of World War I. The event is also known as the Pogrom of Kalisz or Poland’s Louvain (see Schrecklichkeit atrocities).
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
An early day motion (EDM), in the Westminster system, is a motion, expressed as a single sentence, tabled by Members of Parliament that formally calls for debate "on an early day".
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet.
Efraim Zuroff (born August 5, 1948) is an American-born Israeli historian and Nazi hunter who has played a key role in bringing indicted Nazi and fascist war criminals to trial.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Ernst Nolte (11 January 1923 – 18 August 2016) was a German historian and philosopher.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language (Толко́вый слова́рь живо́го великору́сского языка́), commonly known as Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary (Толко́вый слова́рь Да́ля), is a major explanatory dictionary of the Russian language.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
The Federation of Poles in Great Britain (Zjednoczenie Polskie w Wielkiej Brytanii) is an organisation established to promote the interests of Poles in the United Kingdom and to promote the history of Poland and the culture of Poland among the British people.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others.
The Fox Broadcasting Company (often shortened to Fox and stylized as FOX) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
This is a list of scholarly and international legal definitions of genocide, a word coined with genos (Greek: birth, kind, race) and an English suffix -cide by Raphael Lemkin in 1944.
Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754Many sources, including the biography by Thomas Saine, give Forster's birth date as November 26; according to Enzensberger, Ulrich (1996) Ein Leben in Scherben, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag,, the baptism registry of St Peter in Danzig lists November 27 as the date of birth and December 5 as the date of baptism. – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary.
James Gerald Warner of Craigenmaddie (born 1945) is a Scottish newspaper columnist, author, broadcaster, commentator, and former policy adviser to Michael Forsyth when he was Secretary of State for Scotland.
Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
After partitioning Poland in the end of 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia and later German Empire imposed a number of Germanisation policies and measures in the newly gained territories, aimed at limiting the Polish ethnic presence in these areas.
The Gestapo–NKVD conferences were a series of security police meetings organized in late 1939 and early 1940 by Germany and the Soviet Union, following their joint invasion of Poland in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
Giles Robin Patrick CorenBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales confirms subject's full name.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Hammersmith is a district of west London, England, located west-southwest of Charing Cross.
Harlow is a former Mark One New Town and local government district in the west of Essex, England.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership (or perceived membership) in a certain social group or race.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc.
Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (3 September 1921 – 21 July 2016) was a Polish-born polymath and inventor with 50 patents to his credit.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Tomasz Gross (born 1947) is a Polish-American sociologist and historian.
Józef Glemp (18 December 192923 January 2013) was a Polish Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Jedwabne pogrom (Pogrom w Jedwabnem) was a World War II massacre committed in the town of Jedwabne, German-occupied Poland, on 10 July 1941.
The Jewish Ghetto Police or Jewish Police Service (Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei or Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst), also called the Jewish Police by Jews, were auxiliary police units organized within the Jewish ghettos of German-occupied Poland by local Judenrat (Jewish council) collaborating with the German Nazis.
Jonathan George Snow (born 28 September 1947) is an English journalist and television presenter.
Jonathan Saul Freedland (born 25 February 1967) is a British journalist, who writes a weekly column for The Guardian.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Journal of Contemporary History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of history in all parts of the world since the end of the First World War.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kazimierz Julian Kutz (born 1929) is a Polish film director, author, journalist and politician, one of the representatives of the Polish Film School and a deputy speaker of the Senate of Poland.
Kielbasa or Kiełbasa is a type of sausage originating from Poland.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") is a German term referring to power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.
Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.
The League of Polish Families (Polish: Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) is a nationalist conservative political party in Poland, part of the Catholic-National Movement and with many elements of far-right ideology.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (27 June 1888 – 19 August 1960) was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background.
Lidl Stiftung & Co.
The following is a list of ethnic slurs (ethnophaulisms) that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity, or to refer to them in a derogatory (that is, critical or disrespectful), pejorative (disapproving or contemptuous), or otherwise insulting manner.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanization (sometimes also called Lithuanianization) is a process of cultural assimilation—either forced or voluntary—adoption of Lithuanian culture or language experienced by non-Lithuanian people or groups of people.
Liudmila Sultanovna Gatagova (Людмила Султановна Гатагова) is a Russian historian, essayist, and the Research Fellow at the Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Palgrave Macmillan – partner of CrossRef and COUNTER, 2010 specializing in international relations and history of the Russian Empire and the Caucasus until the Revolution of 1917, including the crystallization of the Russian national identity and the accompanied ethnic conflicts within the state.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (born 1962 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American historian specializing in East Central European history of the 19th and 20th century.
Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Michael John Ellman (born 27 July 1942, Ripley, Surrey) has been a professor of economics at the University of Amsterdam since 1978.
Michael Joseph Schudrich (born June 15, 1955) is the Chief Rabbi of Poland.
Mieczysław B. Biskupski is a Polish-American historian and political scientist, with focus on Central European (and particularly Polish) history and international relations.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych) is the Polish government department tasked with maintaining Poland's international relations and coordinating its participation in international and regional supra-national political organisations such as the European Union and United Nations.
The Namiestnik (or Viceroy) of the Kingdom of Poland (namiestnik Królestwa Polskiego, наместник Царства Польского) was the deputy of the King of Poland (Tsar of Poland)—i.e., the deputy of the Emperor of Russia who, under Congress Poland (1815–74), styled himself "King of Poland." Between 1874 and 1914, when the former Congress Poland was known as the Vistula Country, the title Namiestnik was replaced by that of Governor-General of Warsaw (Generał-gubernator warszawski).
Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, claimed the lives of 2.77 million Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Opposition to immigration exists in most states with immigration, and has become a significant political issue in many countries.
The Order of Vytautas the Great is the Lithuanian Presidential Award.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter D. Stachura is a British historian, writer, lecturer and essayist.
In the contemporary English language, the nouns Polack (and) or Polak are ethnic slurs and derogatory references to a person of Polish descent.
Polak is the Polish noun for a Pole.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish minority in Lithuania numbered 200,317 persons, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 6.6% of the total population of Lithuania.
The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution (in the Autumn of Nations), and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others.
The Polish community in the United Kingdom since the mid-20th century largely stems from the Polish presence in the British Isles during the Second World War, when Poles made a substantial contribution to the Allied war effort.
The Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne, literally "Air Forces") is the aerial warfare military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
The Polish cavalry (jazda, kawaleria, konnica) can trace its origins back to the days of medieval mounted knights.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
A Polish joke is an ethnic joke used to mock the Polish people in the English language based on negative stereotypes.
The Polish National Party (Polska Partia Narodowa) is a fringe nationalist and ultra-conservative political party in Poland led by Leszek Bubel.
The Polish Operation of the Soviet security service in 1937–1938 was a mass operation of the NKVD carried out in the Soviet Union against Poles (labeled by the Soviets as "agents") during the period of the Great Purge.
Polish plumber (le plombier polonais, polski hydraulik) was a phrase first used by Philippe Val in Charlie Hebdo and popularised by Philippe de Villiers as a symbol of cheap labour coming from Central Europe as a result of the directive on services in the internal market during the EU Constitution referendum in France in 2005.
The Polish Press Agency (Polska Agencja Prasowa, PAP) is Poland's national news agency, producing and distributing political, economic, social, and cultural news as well as events information.
The Polski Ośrodek Społeczno-Kulturalny (POSK) is the Polish Social and Cultural Association in London.
Politics of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
The Press Complaints Commission (PCC) was a voluntary regulatory body for British printed newspapers and magazines, consisting of representatives of the major publishers.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
A pseudo-documentary is a film or video production that takes the form or style of a documentary film but does not portray real events.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Richard C. Lukas (born 1937) is an American historian and author of numerous books and articles in military, diplomatic, Polish, and Polish-American history.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Righteous Among the Nations (חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.
Robert Solomon Wistrich (April 7, 1945 – May 19, 2015) was the Erich Neuberger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a populist, agrarian, and nationalist political party and trade union in Poland.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
Sir Simon David Jenkins (born 10 June 1943) is a British author and newspaper columnist and editor.
Simon Jonathan Sebag Montefiore (born 27 June 1965) is a British historian, television presenter and award-winning author of popular history books and novels.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
"Something's Up There" is the seventh episode of the first season of the situation comedy Back to You.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
In the aftermath of the German and Soviet invasion of Poland, which took place in September 1939, the territory of Poland was divided in half between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spa Conference was a meeting between the Supreme War Council and the government of the Weimar Republic in Spa, Belgium on 5–16 July 1920.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.
Stephen Pollard (born 18 December 1964) is a British author and journalist.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
The Super Express is a Polish tabloid published in Warsaw with daily circulation of about 370,000.
A sybirak (plural: sybiracy) is a person resettled to Siberia.
Taras Bulba («Тарас Бульба») is a romanticized historical novella by Nikolai Gogol.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Jewish Chronicle (The JC) is a London-based Jewish weekly newspaper.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
Tomasz Krzysztof Sommer (born 16 October 1972 in Puławy, Poland) is a Polish writer, journalist and publisher, Editor-in-chief of weekly magazine Najwyższy CZAS.
Tomasz Strzembosz (11 September 1930 – 16 October 2004) was a Polish historian and writer who specialized in the history of Poland during World War II.
The Trial of the Sixteen (Proces szesnastu) was a staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Underground State held by the Soviet authorities in Moscow in 1945.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Upper Silesia plebiscite was a plebiscite mandated by the Versailles Treaty and carried out on 20 March 1921 to determine a section of the border between Weimar Germany and Poland.
Vilho Harle (born 1947 in Nilsiä) is a Professor of International Relations at University of Lapland in Finland.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
Vladimir Ivanovich Dal (alternatively transliterated as Dahl; Влади́мир Ива́нович Даль; November 10, 1801 – September 22, 1872) was one of the greatest Russian-language lexicographers and a founding member of the Russian Geographical Society.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
It's estimated that over six million Polish citizens,Project in Posterum, Retrieved 20 September 2013.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
Władysław Bartoszewski (19 February 1922 – 24 April 2015) was a Polish politician, social activist, journalist, writer and historian.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Witold Pilecki (13 May 190125 May 1948;; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a Polish cavalryman and intelligence officer.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Yitzhak Shamir (יצחק שמיר,; born Yitzhak Yezernitsky; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992.
The 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état (Lithuanian: 1926-ųjų perversmas) was a military coup d'état in Lithuania that resulted in the replacement of the democratically elected government with a conservative authoritarian government led by Antanas Smetona.
The 2014 European Aquatics Championships took place from 13 to 24 August 2014 in Berlin, Germany.
Anti Polonism, Anti-Polinism, Anti-Polish, Anti-Polish sentiment in the United Kingdom, Anti-Polonism, Anti-Polonism in Germany, Anti-polonism, Anti-polonsim, AntiPolinism, Antipolonism, Antypolonizm, German Anti-Polonism, Organised persecution of ethnic Poles, Persecution of Poles, Pollack joke, Polonophobe, Polonophobia, Polonophobic, Prejudice against Poles.