271 relations: Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, Acne, ADAPT Act, Adherence (medicine), Adipogenesis, Agar plate, Alexander Fleming, Alfred Bertheim, Alkaloid, Allergy, Allies of World War II, Aminoglycoside, Anaphylaxis, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek medicine, Anthelmintic, Antibacterial soap, Antibiotic misuse, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Antibiotic use in livestock, Antibody, Antifungal, Antimalarial medication, Antimicrobial, Antimicrobial resistance, Antioxidant, Antiprotozoal, Antiviral drug, Appendicitis, Arsphenamine, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Avibactam, Axis powers, Bacillus anthracis, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bactericide, Bacteriophage, Bacteriostatic agent, Bayer, Benzylpenicillin, Beta-lactam, Birth control, Blue cheese, Brilacidin, Broad-spectrum antibiotic, Caister Academic Press, Cancer, Candida (fungus), ..., Carbapenem, Cefamandole, Cefmenoxime, Cefoperazone, Ceftaroline fosamil, Ceftazidime, Ceftolozane, Cellulitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cephalosporin, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chloramphenicol, Chlortetracycline, Clavulanic acid, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Coccus, Cold War, Colistin, Combination therapy, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Common cold, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Contact dermatitis, Corticosteroid, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Current Pharmaceutical Design, Daptomycin, Dental antibiotic prophylaxis, Diarrhea, Dietary supplement, Disinfectant, Disk diffusion test, Disulfiram, Dorothy Hodgkin, Drug, Drug interaction, Drug of last resort, Drug pipeline, Ear drop, Edward Abraham, Efflux (microbiology), Empiric therapy, Enterobacteriaceae, Eravacycline, Ernest Duchesne, Ernst Chain, Erythromycin, Escherichia coli, Estrogen, Ethinylestradiol, Evolution, Eye drop, Fidaxomicin, Fitness (biology), Flavonoid, Food and Drug Administration, Furazolidone, Fusidic acid, Gastric acid, Gene, Genome, Genomics, Gerhard Domagk, Glycylcycline, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Gramicidin, Grape seed extract, Greek language, Gut flora, Health Protection Agency, HIV, Hoechst AG, Horizontal gene transfer, Howard Florey, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypersensitivity, IG Farben, Imipenem, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunodeficiency, Immunology, Immunosuppressive drug, In vitro, Industrial fermentation, Infection, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Infective endocarditis, Inflammation, Influenza, Inoculation, Insulin, Intravenous therapy, Irregular menstruation, Β-lactam antibiotic, Β-Lactamase inhibitor, Jean Paul Vuillemin, John Innes Centre, John Tyndall, Lantibiotics, Latamoxef, Lincosamides, Linezolid, Lipopeptide, Liver, Louis Pasteur, Luria–Delbrück experiment, Macrocycle, Macrolide, Macrophage, Magic bullet (medicine), Mayo Clinic, Mechanism of action, Medication, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Metabolism, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Metronidazole, Microorganism, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Mold, Molecular mass, Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, National Academy of Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natural Resources Defense Council, Natural selection, Neutropenia, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1, New Drug Application, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norman Heatley, Obesity, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Otitis externa, Parasitic disease, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Paul Ehrlich, Penicillin, Penicillium, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glaucum, Perseus Project, Phage therapy, Pharmacokinetics, Photodermatitis, Plasmid, Plazomicin, Pneumonia, Polymyxin, Polyphenol, Preventive healthcare, Priority review, Probiotic, Prontosil, Protein synthesis inhibitor, Protozoan infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Quinolone antibiotic, Red wine, René Dubos, Respiratory tract infection, Rifampicin, Rifamycin, Robert Koch, Route of administration, Sahachiro Hata, Self-medication, Selman Waksman, Semisynthesis, Serum (blood), Side effect, Small molecule, Spirochaeta, Spore, Staphylococcus aureus, Sulbactam, Sulfonamide, Sulfonamide (medicine), Surgery, Surgical incision, Synergy, Syphilis, Systemic disease, Tannin, Tazobactam, Tendon, Terpenoid, Tetracycline, Tetracycline antibiotics, Therapy, Tigecycline, Tinidazole, Traditional medicine, Trypanosomiasis, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, Tyrocidine, Tyrothricin, Unified atomic mass unit, United States, Vaccine, Vaginal flora, Vancomycin, Vincenzo Tiberio, Virus, Weaning, Wiesbaden, William Roberts (physician), World Health Organization, World War II, Yeast, 2-Oxazolidone. Expand index (221 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
The Antibiotic Development to Advance Patient Treatment (ADAPT) Act of 2013 was introduced in the U.S. Congress on 12 December 2013.
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alfred Bertheim (17 April 1879 – 17 August 1914) was a German chemist, best known for his research on arsenic compounds with Paul Ehrlich.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.
Antibacterial soap is a soap which contains chemical ingredients that purportedly assist in killing bacteria.
Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.
Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the prevention of infection complications using antimicrobial therapy (most commonly antibiotics).
Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill (therapeutic), treatment of a batch of animals when at least one is diagnosed as ill (metaphylaxis, similar to the way bacterial meningitis is treated in children), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis) against disease.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor developed by Actavis (now) jointly with AstraZeneca.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Benzylpenicillin, also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
A beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, or blue-grey mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria.
Brilacidin (formerly PMX-30063) an investigational new drug (IND), is a polymer-based antibiotic currently in human clinical trials and represents a completely new class of antibiotics called host defense protein mimetics, host defense peptide mimetics, or HDP-mimetics, which are non-peptide (or peptide?) synthetic small-molecules modeled after host defense peptides (HDP).
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.
Cefamandole (INN, also known as cephamandole) is a second-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic.
Cefmenoxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic.
Cefoperazone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, marketed by Pfizer under the name Cefobid.
Ceftaroline fosamil (INN), brand name Teflaro in the US and Zinforo in Europe, is a fifth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic.
Ceftazidime, sold under the brand names Fortaz among others, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin antibiotic, developed for the treatment of infections with gram-negative bacteria that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics.
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Chlortetracycline (trade name Aureomycin, Lederle) is a tetracycline antibiotic, the first tetracycline to be identified.
Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colistin, also known as polymyxin E, is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
Current Pharmaceutical Design is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers issues related to pharmacology and medicinal chemistry.
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of systemic and life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive organisms.
Dental antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics to a dental patient for prevention of harmful consequences of bacteremia, that may be caused by invasion of the oral flora into an injured gingival or peri-apical vessel during dental treatment.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
The disk diffusion test, or agar diffusion test, or Kirby–Bauer test (disc-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test, disc-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity test, KB test), is a test of the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an adequate response in the patient.
A drug pipeline is the set of drug candidates that a pharmaceutical company has under discovery or development at any given point in time.
Ear drops are a form of medicine used to treat or prevent ear infections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal (otitis externa).
Sir Edward Penley Abraham, (10 June 1913 – 8 May 1999) was an English biochemist instrumental in the development of the first antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporin.
Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for moving compounds, like neurotransmitters, toxic substances, and antibiotics, out of the cell; this is considered to be a vital part of xenobiotic metabolism.
Empiric therapy or empirical therapy is therapy based on experience and, more specifically, therapy begun on the basis of a clinical educated guess in the absence of complete or perfect information.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
Eravacycline (TP-434) is a synthetic halogenated tetracycline class antibiotic in development by Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals.
Ernest Duchesne (30 May 1874 – 12 April 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain molds kill bacteria.
Sir Ernst Boris Chain, FRS (19 June 1906 – 12 August 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
Fidaxomicin (trade names Dificid, Dificlir, and previously OPT-80 and PAR-101) is the first in a new class of narrow spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic drugs. It is a fermentation product obtained from the actinomycete Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subspecies hamdenesis. Fidaxomicin is non-systemic, meaning it is minimally absorbed into the bloodstream, it is bactericidal, and it has demonstrated selective eradication of pathogenic Clostridium difficile with minimal disruption to the multiple species of bacteria that make up the normal, healthy intestinal flora. The maintenance of normal physiological conditions in the colon can reduce the probability of Clostridium difficile infection recurrence. It is marketed by Cubist Pharmaceuticals after acquisition of its originating company Optimer Pharmaceuticals. The target use is for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Fidaxomicin is available in a 200 mg tablet that is administered every 12 hours for a recommended duration of 10 days. Total duration of therapy should be determined by the patient's clinical status. It is currently one of the most expensive antibiotics approved for use. A standard course costs upwards of £1350.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Furazolidone is a nitrofuran antibacterial agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).
Fusidic acid is an antibiotic that is often used topically in creams and eyedrops but may also be given systemically as tablets or injections.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.
Glycylcyclines are a new class of antibiotics derived from tetracycline.
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Gramicidin is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14%, respectively, all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D. Gramicidin D contains linear pentadecapeptides, that is chains made up of 15 amino acids.
Grape seed extract (GSE) is an industrial derivative of whole grape seeds.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, (24 September 189821 February 1968) was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the development of penicillin.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
Imipenem (Primaxin) is an intravenous β-lactam antibiotic discovered by Merck scientists Burton Christensen, William Leanza, and Kenneth Wildonger in the mid-1970s.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) is a medical association representing physicians, scientists and other health care professionals who specialize in infectious diseases.
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures.
Beta-lactamases are a family of enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.
Jean Paul Vuillemin (13 February 1861 – 25 September 1932 in Malzéville) was a French mycologist born in Docelles.
The John Innes Centre (JIC), located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, is an independent centre for research and training in plant and microbial science.
John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.
Lantibiotics are a class of polycyclic peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine or methyllanthionine, as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid.
Latamoxef (or moxalactam) is an oxacephem antibiotic usually grouped with the cephalosporins.
Lincosamides are a class of antibiotics which include lincomycin, clindamycin, and pirlimycin.
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
A lipopeptide is a molecule consisting of a lipid connected to a peptide.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
The Luria–Delbrück experiment (1943) (also called the Fluctuation Test) demonstrates that in bacteria, genetic mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.
Macrocycles are often described as a molecule containing twelve or more atoms with at least one large ring.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The magic bullet was a scientific concept developed by a German Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich in 1900.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical which prevents visible growth of a bacterium.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications (drugs), isoniazid and rifampin.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics.
The Food and Drug Administration's New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle in the United States through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norman George Heatley OBE (10 January 1911 – 5 January 2004) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is inflammation of the ear canal.
A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Penicillium chrysogenum or P. notatum (formerly) is a species of fungus in the family Trichocomaceae.
Penicillium glaucum is a mold that is used in the making of some types of blue cheese, including Bleu de Gex, Rochebaron, and some varieties of Bleu d'Auvergne and Gorgonzola.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Photodermatitis, sometimes referred to as sun poisoning or photoallergy, is a form of allergic contact dermatitis in which the allergen must be activated by light to sensitize the allergic response, and to cause a rash or other systemic effects on subsequent exposure.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Plazomicin (INN, ZEMDRI) is a next-generation aminoglycoside ("neoglycoside") antibacterial derived from sisomicin by appending a hydroxy-aminobutyric acid (HABA) substituent at position 1 and a hydroxyethyl substituent at position 6'.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polymyxins are antibiotics.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Priority review is a mechanism used by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the review process for drugs that are expected to have a particularly great impact on the treatment of a disease.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Prontosil is an antibacterial drug discovered in 1932 by a research team at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany.
A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.
Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
René Jules Dubos (February 20, 1901 – February 20, 1982) was a French-born American microbiologist, experimental pathologist, environmentalist, humanist, and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction for his book So Human An Animal.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica or artificially.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who assisted in developing the Arsphenamine drug in 1909 in the laboratory of Paul Ehrlich.
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
Selman Abraham Waksman (July 22, 1888 – August 16, 1973) was a Ukrainian-born, Jewish-American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition promoted the discovery of streptomycin and several other antibiotics.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Spirochaeta is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetes.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Sulbactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor.
In chemistry, the sulfonamide functional group (also spelled sulphonamide) is -S(.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
In surgery, a surgical incision is a cut made through the skin and soft tissue to facilitate an operation or procedure.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Tazobactam is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of bacterial β-lactamases, especially those belonging to the SHV-1 and TEM groups.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics whose general usefulness has been reduced with the onset of antibiotic resistance.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Tigecycline is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Tinidazole is a drug used against protozoan infections.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Tyrocidine is a mixture of cyclic decapeptides produced by the bacteria Bacillus brevis found in soil.
Tyrothricin is a cyclic polypeptide-antibiotic mixture from Bacillus brevis.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vaginal flora or vaginal microbiota are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Vincenzo Tiberio (May 1, 1869 – January 7, 1915) was an Italian researcher and medical officer of the Medical Corps of the Italian Navy and physician at the University of Naples.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Sir William Roberts FRS (18 March 1830 – 16 April 1899) was a Welsh physician in Manchester, England.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
2-Oxazolidone is a heterocyclic organic compound containing both nitrogen and oxygen in a 5-membered ring.
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