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Index Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. [1]

273 relations: Adduct, Affimer, Affinity chromatography, Agglutination (biology), Allelic exclusion, Allergen, Allergy, Almroth Wright, Amino acid, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Anti-nuclear antibody, Antibody, Antibody mimetic, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Antimicrobial, Antiserum, Antitoxin, Apoptosis, Aptamer, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune hepatitis, Avidity, B cell, B-cell receptor, Bacteria, Basophil, Bence Jones protein, Beta sheet, Biological immortality, Biological process, Biopharmaceutical, Biotechnology, Bird, Blood, Blood plasma, Blood proteins, Blood test, Blood transfusion, Breast cancer, Cancer, Capsid, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell-mediated immunity, Cellular differentiation, Chemical affinity, Chemotaxis, Chicken, ..., Childbirth, Chondrichthyes, Chromosome 14, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 22, Cirrhosis, Clone (B-cell biology), Cluster of differentiation, Colorectal cancer, Colostrum, Complement membrane attack complex, Complement system, Complementarity-determining region, Coombs test, Coulomb's law, Cross-reactivity, Cysteine, Cytokine, Cytotoxicity, DARPin, Degranulation, Dilution cloning, Diphtheria, Disulfide, DNA, Efficiency, Elasmobranchii, Electrophoresis, ELISA, Enzyme, Eosinophil, Epitope, Epstein–Barr virus, Eutheria, Exon, Extracellular, Faculty of 1000, Fc receptor, Fetus, Flow cytometry, Fluoride, Fluorine-18, Fragment antigen-binding, Fragment crystallizable region, Galactose, Gamma globulin, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genitourinary system, Genome, Gerald Edelman, Globular protein, Glycoprotein, Glycosylation, Goat, Greek alphabet, Hapten, Head and neck cancer, Helminths, Hemolytic anemia, Hemolytic disease of the newborn, Henry Bence Jones, Histamine, Homology (biology), Horse, House dust mite, Humoral immunity, Hybridoma technology, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophobic effect, Hypogammaglobulinemia, IGH@, IGK@, IGL@, Image resolution, Immune complex, Immune network theory, Immune response, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunofluorescence, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin class switching, Immunoglobulin D, Immunoglobulin domain, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin heavy chain, Immunoglobulin light chain, Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin superfamily, Immunoglobulin therapy, Immunoglobulin Y, Immunohistochemistry, Immunology, Immunoprecipitation, Immunosuppressive drug, Impurity, Inflammation, Intracellular, Iota, Isotype (immunology), John Marrack, Kappa, Kimishige Ishizaka, Kitasato Shibasaburō, Lambda, Ligand (biochemistry), Linus Pauling, Liver, Locus (genetics), Lyme disease, Lymphocyte, Lysis, Macrophage, Magnetic immunoassay, Mammal, Mast cell, Medical diagnosis, Memory B cell, Michael Heidelberger, Microantibody, Microorganism, Microscope, Monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Monomer, Mouse, Mucous membrane, Multiple sclerosis, Mutation, N-terminus, Nanometre, Natural killer cell, Nephelometer, Neutralisation (immunology), Neutralizing antibody, Neutrophil, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-homologous end joining, Nucleotide, Opsonin, Oswald Avery, Paratope, Passive immunity, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Paul Ehrlich, Pentamer, Peptide, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Pharmacology, Physical chemistry, Physiology, Placenta, Plasma cell, Point mutation, Polyclonal antibodies, Positron emission tomography, Pre-clinical development, Precipitation (chemistry), Pregnancy, Prenatal care, Prenatal development, Primary and secondary antibodies, Primary biliary cholangitis, Protein, Protein A/G, Protein Data Bank, Protein dimer, Protein domain, Protein engineering, Psoriasis, Rabbit, Rat, Red blood cell, Reptile, Respiratory tract, Rh blood group system, Rh disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rho(D) immune globulin, Rodney Robert Porter, SciCrunch, Secretion, Serology, Serum (blood), Server (computing), Sheep, Side-chain theory, Signal transduction, Single-chain variable fragment, Single-domain antibody, Susumu Tonegawa, T cell, T helper cell, Teleost, Tetanospasmin, Tetrameric protein, Titer, Toxicity, Toxin, Unified atomic mass unit, University of Birmingham, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, University of South Carolina, Van der Waals force, Variable pathlength cell, Vertebrate, Viral disease, Viral hepatitis, Virus, Western blot, Western blot normalization, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, X-ray crystallography, Xenotransplantation, Yolk. Expand index (223 more) »


An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

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Affimer molecules are small, highly stable proteins that bind their target molecules with similar specificity and affinity to that of antibodies.

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Affinity chromatography

Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.

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Agglutination (biology)

Agglutination is the clumping of particles.

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Allelic exclusion

Allelic exclusion is a process by which only one allele of a gene is expressed while the other allele is silenced.

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An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Almroth Wright

Sir Almroth Edward Wright (10 August 1861 – 30 April 1947) was a British bacteriologist and immunologist.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Anti-mitochondrial antibody

Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.

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Anti-nuclear antibody

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody mimetic

Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally related to antibodies.

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Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.

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Antiserum (plural: antisera) is human or nonhuman blood serum containing polyclonal antibodies and is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases.

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An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Aptamers (from the Latin aptus – fit, and Greek meros – part) are oligonucleotide or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed.

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In biochemistry, avidity refers to the accumulated strength of multiple affinities of individual non-covalent binding interactions, such as between a protein receptor and its ligand, and is commonly referred to as functional affinity.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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B-cell receptor

The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Basophils are a type of white blood cells.

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Bence Jones protein

A Bence Jones protein is a monoclonal globulin protein or immunoglobulin light chain found in the urine, with a molecular weight of 22-24 kDa.

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Beta sheet

The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.

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Biological immortality

Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.

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Biological process

Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.

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A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood proteins

Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell-mediated immunity

Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Chemical affinity

In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.

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Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Chromosome 14

Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 2

Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 22

Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Clone (B-cell biology)

The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity.

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Cluster of differentiation

The cluster of differentiation (also known as cluster of designation or classification determinant and often abbreviated as CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.

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Complement membrane attack complex

The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the host's complement system, and as such is one of the effector proteins of the immune system.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Complementarity-determining region

Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules bind to their specific antigen.

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Coombs test

A Coombs test (also known as antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology.

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Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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Cross-reactivity, in a general sense, applies to the reaction between two different species as opposed to self-reactivity.

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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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DARPins (an acronym for designed ankyrin repeat proteins) are genetically engineered antibody mimetic proteins typically exhibiting highly specific and high-affinity target protein binding.

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Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.

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Dilution cloning

Dilution cloning or cloning by limiting dilution describes a procedure to obtain a monoclonal cell population starting from a polyclonal mass of cells.

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Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.

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Elasmobranchii is a subclass of Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fish, including the sharks (superorder Selachii) and the rays, skates, and sawfish (superorder Batoidea).

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.

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An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.

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Epstein–Barr virus

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.

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Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.

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An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".

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Faculty of 1000

Faculty of 1000 (abbreviated F1000) is a publisher of services for life scientists and clinical researchers.

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Fc receptor

An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.

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Fragment antigen-binding

The antigen-binding (Fab) fragment is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens.

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Fragment crystallizable region

The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.

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Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.

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Gamma globulin

Gamma globulins are a class of globulins, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genitourinary system

The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Gerald Edelman

Gerald Maurice Edelman (July 1, 1929 – May 17, 2014) was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system.

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Globular protein

Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Haptens are minute molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself.

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Head and neck cancer

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.

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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).

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Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a peripartum fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta.

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Henry Bence Jones

Henry Bence Jones FRS (31 December 1813 – 20 April 1873) was an English physician and chemist.

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Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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House dust mite

House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.

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Humoral immunity

Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.

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Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology is a method for producing large numbers of identical antibodies (also called monoclonal antibodies).

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Hypogammaglobulinemia is a type of primary immunodeficiency disease in which not enough gamma globulins exist in the blood (thus hypo- + gamma + globulin + -emia).

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Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains a gene for the heavy chains of human antibodies (or immunoglobulins).

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Immunoglobulin kappa locus, also known as IGK@, is a region on human chromosome 2 that contains genes for the kappa (κ) light chains of antibodies (or immunoglobulins).

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Immunoglobulin lambda locus, also known as IGL@, is a region on human chromosome 22 that contains genes for the lambda light chains of antibodies (or immunoglobulins).

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Image resolution

Image resolution is the detail an image holds.

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Immune complex

An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.

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Immune network theory

The immune network theory is a theory of how the adaptive immune system works, that has been developed since 1974 mainly by Niels Jerne and Geoffrey W. Hoffmann.

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Immune response

The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Immunodiffusion is a diagnostic test which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar which is generally soft gel agar(1%) or agarose(1%), used for the detection of antibodies or antigen.

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Immunoelectrophoresis is a general name for a number of biochemical methods for separation and characterization of proteins based on electrophoresis and reaction with antibodies.

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Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.

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Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.

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Immunoglobulin class switching

Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.

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Immunoglobulin D

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an antibody isotype that makes up about 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of immature B-lymphocytes where it is usually coexpressed with another cell surface antibody called IgM.

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Immunoglobulin domain

The immunoglobulin domain is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer sandwich of 7-9 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets with a Greek key topology, consisting of about 125 amino acids.

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Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.

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Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.

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Immunoglobulin heavy chain

The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin).

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Immunoglobulin light chain

The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin).

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Immunoglobulin M

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.

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Immunoglobulin superfamily

The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in the recognition, binding, or adhesion processes of cells.

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Immunoglobulin therapy

Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.

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Immunoglobulin Y

Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood.

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Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Immunoprecipitation (IP) is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein.

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Immunosuppressive drug

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Isotype (immunology)

In immunology, the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (class) is encoded by the constant region segments of the immunoglobulin gene which form the Fc portion of an antibody.

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John Marrack

Professor John Richardson Marrack, DSO, MC (26 November 1886 – 1976) was the Emeritus Professor of Chemical Pathology in the University of London, visiting professor to the University of Texas and known for his book Antigens and Antibodies (1934).

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Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.

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Kimishige Ishizaka

is a Japanese scientist who discovered the antibody class IgE in 1966.

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Kitasato Shibasaburō

Baron was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the reign of the Empire of Japan, prior to World War 2.

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Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Magnetic immunoassay

Magnetic immunoassay (MIA) is a novel type of diagnostic immunoassay using magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional enzymes (ELISA), radioisotopes (RIA) or fluorescent moieties (fluorescent immunoassays).

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Memory B cell

Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).

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Michael Heidelberger

Michael Heidelberger (April 29, 1888 – June 25, 1991) was an American immunologist.

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A microantibody is an artificial short chain of amino acids copied from a fully functional natural antibody.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Monoclonal antibody therapy

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to certain cells or proteins.

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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid.

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Neutralisation (immunology)

Neutralisation or neutralization in the immunological sense refers to the ability of specific antibodies to block the site(s) on viruses that they use to enter their target cell.

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Neutralizing antibody

A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically.

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Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Non-homologous end joining

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).

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Oswald Avery

Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.

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A paratope, also called an antigen-binding site, is a part of an antibody which recognizes and binds to an antigen.

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Passive immunity

Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pathogenic bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.

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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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A pentamer is an entity composed of five sub-units.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Physical chemistry

Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Plasma cell

Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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Polyclonal antibodies

Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage).

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Pre-clinical development

In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prenatal care

Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Primary and secondary antibodies

Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.

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Primary biliary cholangitis

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein A/G

Protein A/G is a recombinant fusion protein that combines IgG binding domains of both Protein A and Protein G. Protein A/G contains four Fc binding domains from Protein A and two from Protein G, yielding a final mass of 50,460 daltons.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Protein dimer

In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.

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Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

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Protein engineering

Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins.

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Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Rh blood group system

The Rh blood group system is one of thirty-five known human blood group systems.

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Rh disease

Rh disease (also known as rhesus isoimmunisation, Rh (D) disease, rhesus incompatibility, rhesus disease, RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn, rhesus D hemolytic disease of the newborn or RhD HDN) is a type of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rho(D) immune globulin

Rho(D) immune globulin (RhIG) is a medication used to prevent Rh isoimmunization in mothers who are Rh negative and to treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in people who are Rh positive.

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Rodney Robert Porter

Prof Rodney Robert Porter, CH, FRS FRSE HFRCP (8 October 1917 – 6 September 1985) was a British biochemist and Nobel laureate.

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SciCrunch is a collaboratively edited knowledge base about scientific resources, a community portal for researchers and a content management system for data and databases.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.

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Serum (blood)

In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.

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Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Side-chain theory

The side-chain theory (German, Seitenkettentheorie) is a theory proposed by Paul Ehrlich (1854–1915) to explain the immune response in living cells.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Single-chain variable fragment

A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is not actually a fragment of an antibody, but instead is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids.

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Single-domain antibody

A single-domain antibody (sdAb) is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain.

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Susumu Tonegawa

Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 5, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987, for his discovery of the genetic mechanism that produces antibody diversity.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.

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Tetrameric protein

A tetrameric protein is a protein with a quaternary structure of four subunits (tetrameric).

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A titer (or titre) is a way of expressing concentration.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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University of Birmingham

The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of South Carolina

The University of South Carolina (also referred to as UofSC, USC, SC, South Carolina, or simply Carolina) is a public, co-educational research university in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Variable pathlength cell

A variable pathlength cell is a sample holder used for ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or infrared spectroscopy that has a path length that can be varied to change the absorbance without changing the sample concentration.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Viral disease

A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.

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Viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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Western blot normalization

Normalization of Western blot data is an analytical step that is performed to compare the relative abundance of a specific protein across the lanes of a blot or gel under diverse experimental treatments, or across tissues or developmental stages.

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X-linked agammaglobulinemia

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare genetic disorder discovered in 1952 that affects the body's ability to fight infection.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

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Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibody

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