130 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Action potential, Adenosine, Alkaloid, Alpha-GPC, Alzheimer's Society, Antisialagogue, Asthma, Ataxia, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, Axon, Benzatropine, Biperiden, Brugmansia, Bupropion, Caffeine, CBS News, Central nervous system, Chlorphenamine, Choline, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CNN, Codeine, Curare, Cyclizine, Cycloplegia, Datura, Delirium, Dextromethorphan, Diarrhea, Dicycloverine, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine, Diphenoxylate, Dipipanone, Diplopia, Diverticulitis, Dizziness, Doxacurium chloride, Doxepin, Doxylamine, Dysphoria, Euphoria, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Form constant, Ganglionic blocker, Garrya, Gastrointestinal tract, ..., Glaucoma, Glycopyrronium bromide, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Hexamethonium, Hydrocodone, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, Hyoscyamus niger, Ileus, Insomnia, Intraocular pressure, Ipratropium bromide, JAMA (journal), Lung, Mandragora officinarum, Mecamylamine, Medicine, Motion sickness, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic antagonist, Mydriasis, Myoclonus, Nausea, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nicotinic antagonist, Orphenadrine, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxitropium bromide, Oxybutynin, Parasympathetic nervous system, Peptic ulcer disease, Peripheral nervous system, Perspiration, Pethidine, Photophobia, Physostigmine, Piracetam, Promethazine, Propantheline bromide, Prostatitis, Pylorus, Racetam, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Science Daily, Sinus bradycardia, Skeletal muscle, Smoking cessation, Smooth muscle tissue, Solanaceae, Solifenacin, Spasm, Tachycardia, Thermoregulation, Throat, Time (magazine), Tiotropium bromide, Tolterodine, Tooth decay, Train of thought, Trihexyphenidyl, Tropane alkaloid, Tropicamide, Tubocurarine chloride, Ulcerative colitis, Urethritis, Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention, Urinary system, Urinary tract infection, Vagus nerve, Vertigo, Visual snow, Vomiting, Xerostomia. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain.
Alzheimer's Society is a United Kingdom care and research charity for people with dementia and their carers.
Antisialagogues are substances that decrease the production of saliva and their effect is opposite to that of sialagogues.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Benzatropine, also known as benztropine, is an anticholinergic marketed under the trade name Cogentin which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, and dystonia.
Biperiden, sold under the brandname Akineton among others, is a medication used to treat Parkinson disease and certain drug-induced movement disorders.
Brugmansia is a genus of seven species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Cyclizine, sold under a number of brand names, is a medication used to treat and prevent nausea, vomiting and dizziness due to motion sickness or vertigo.
Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.
Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dicycloverine, also known as dicyclomine, is a prescription medication that relieves muscle spasms in the gastrointestinal tract through an apparent mechanism of nonselective smooth muscle relaxation, and that presents a range of anticholinergic side effects.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
Dipipanone (Pipadone) is a strong opioid analgesic drug, used for very severe pain in cases where other analgesics are unsuitable, for instance where morphine is indicated but cannot be used due to the patient being allergic to morphine.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Doxacurium chloride (formerly recognized as BW938U80 or BW A938U) is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).
Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
A form constant is one of several geometric patterns which are recurringly observed during hallucinations and altered states of consciousness.
A ganglionic blocker (or ganglioplegic) is a type of medication that inhibits transmission between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the Autonomic Nervous System, often by acting as a nicotinic receptor antagonist.
Garrya is a genus of flowering plants in the family Garryaceae, native to Mexico, the western United States, Central America and the Greater Antilles.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Glycopyrronium bromide is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Hexamethonium is a non-depolarising ganglionic blocker, a nicotinic nACh (NN) receptor antagonist that acts in autonomic ganglia by binding mostly in or on the NN receptor, and not the acetylcholine binding site itself.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.
Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Mandragora officinarum is the type species of the plant genus Mandragora.
Mecamylamine (INN, BAN; or mecamylamine hydrochloride (USAN); brand names Inversine, Vecamyl) is a non-selective, non-competitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was introduced in the 1950s as an antihypertensive drug.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Oxitropium bromide (trade names Oxivent, Tersigan) is an anticholinergic used as a bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Oxybutynin (brand names Ditropan, Lyrinel XL, Lenditro (ZA), Driptane (RU), Uripan (Middle East)) is an anticholinergic medication used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties, including frequent urination and inability to control urination (urge incontinence), by decreasing muscle spasms of the bladder.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
Physostigmine (also known as eserine from éséré, the West African name for the Calabar bean) is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Propantheline bromide (INN) is an antimuscarinic agent used for the treatment of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines (gut) or bladder, and involuntary urination (enuresis).
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Sinus bradycardia is a sinus rhythm with a rate that is lower than normal.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
Solifenacin (INN, trade name Vesicare) is a medicine of the antimuscarinic class and was developed for treating contraction of overactive bladder with associated problems such as increased urination frequency and urge incontinence.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tiotropium bromide, originally marketed as Spiriva, is a long-acting, 24-hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Tolterodine (trade names Detrol, Detrusitol) is an antimuscarinic drug that is used for symptomatic treatment of urinary incontinence.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
The train of thought or track of thought refers to the interconnection in the sequence of ideas expressed during a connected discourse or thought, as well as the sequence itself, especially in discussion how this sequence leads from one idea to another.
Trihexyphenidyl (Artane, Apo-Trihex, Parkin, Pacitane), also known as benzhexol, Artane, and trihex, is an antiparkinsonian agent of the antimuscarinic class.
Tropane alkaloids are a class of bicyclic alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure.
Tropicamide, sold under the brand name Mydriacyl among others, is a medication used to dilate the pupil and help with examination of the eye.
Tubocurarine (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
Visual snow, also known as visual static, is a proposed condition in which people see white or black dots in parts or the whole of their visual fields.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Acetylcholine antagonist, Acetylcholine receptor antagonist, Anti-cholinergic, Anticholergenic, Anticholerinergic, Anticholerinergics, Anticholinergic agent, Anticholinergic agents, Anticholinergic alkaloid, Anticholinergic drug, Anticholinergic effect, Anticholinergic syndrome, Anticholinergic toxicity, Anticholinergics, Choline inhibitor, Cholinergic antagonists.