113 relations: Absence seizure, Acetazolamide, American Academy of Neurology, Amnesia, Anesthesia, Anxiolytic, Apoptosis, ATC code N03, Barbexaclone, Barbiturate, Beclamide, Bipolar disorder, Birth defect, Borderline personality disorder, Breast milk, Breastfeeding, Brivaracetam, Bromide, Calcium channel, Carbamazepine, Catamenial epilepsy, Charles Locock, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Cognitive deficit, Combination therapy, Depressant, Diazepam, Dravet syndrome, Drug tolerance, Epilepsia (journal), Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Epileptogenesis, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Ethadione, Ethosuximide, Ethotoin, Etiracetam, European Medicines Agency, European Union, Felbamate, Focal seizure, Folate, Fosphenytoin, GABA transaminase, Gabapentin, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, H. Houston Merritt, ..., Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, Hypnotic, Intelligence quotient, Ketogenic diet, Lacosamide, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Literature review, Lorazepam, Medication, Mephenytoin, Mesuximide, Metharbital, Methazolamide, Methylphenobarbital, Midazolam, Mood stabilizer, Muscle relaxant, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuron, Neuropathic pain, New Drug Application, Nimetazepam, Nitrazepam, Oral mucosa, Oxcarbazepine, Paraldehyde, Paramethadione, PDF, Perampanel, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, Pharmacology, Phenacemide, Pheneturide, Phenobarbital, Phensuximide, Phenytoin, Placebo, Potassium bromide, Pregabalin, Primidone, Progabide, Pyridoxine, Sedation, Seizure types, Seletracetam, Status epilepticus, Stiripentol, Substance use disorder, Sultiame, SV2A, Temazepam, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Traumatic brain injury, Trimethadione, Vagus nerve stimulation, Valnoctamide, Valproate, Valpromide, Vigabatrin, Vitamin K, Zonisamide. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox among others, is a medication used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and heart failure.
The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is a professional society representing over 34,000 neurologists and neuroscientists.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Barbexaclone (Maliasin) is a salt compound of phenobarbital and levopropylhexedrine.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Beclamide (marketed as Chloracon, Hibicon, Posedrine, Nydrane, Seclar, and other names) is a drug that possesses anticonvulsant activity.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Brivaracetam (trade name Briviact), a chemical analog of levetiracetam, is a racetam derivative with anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) properties.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.
Sir Charles Locock, 1st Baronet (21 April 1799 – 23 July 1875) was an obstetrician to Queen Victoria.
Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Clorazepate, sold under the brand names Tranxene among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dravet syndrome, previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a type of epilepsy with seizures that are often triggered by hot temperatures or fever.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Epilepsia is a peer-reviewed medical journal focusing on all aspects of epilepsy.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.
Eslicarbazepine acetate (trade names Aptiom in North America, Zebinix in Europe, Exalief in Russia, Eslicarba in Egypt), abbreviated as ESL, is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe and the United States as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy (additional therapy) for partial-onset seizures epilepsy.
Ethadione is an anticonvulsant medication in the oxazolidinedione family used mainly to treat seizures.
Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.
Ethotoin (marketed as Peganone by Ovation) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Etiracetam is a chemical compound belonging to the racetam family, which was developed as a nootropic drug.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Felbamate (marketed under the brand name Felbatol by MedPointe) is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Fosphenytoin (fosphenytoin sodium, trade names Cerebyx, Parke-Davis; Prodilantin, Pfizer Holding France) is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug that is administered intravenously to deliver phenytoin, potentially more safely than intravenous phenytoin.
A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Hiram Houston Merritt (January 2, 1902, Wilmington, North Carolina – January 9, 1979 in Boston, Massachusetts) was one of the pre-eminent academic neurologists of his day.
Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, also known as vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), is a coagulation disturbance in newborn infants due to vitamin K deficiency.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.
Lacosamide (INN, formerly known as erlosamide, harkeroside, SPM 927, or ADD 234037), is a medication for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Levetiracetam, marketed under the trade names Keppra among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy.
A literature review or narrative review is one of the two main types of review articles, the other being the systematic review.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mephenytoin (marketed as Mesantoin by Novartis) is a hydantoin, used as an anticonvulsant.
Mesuximide (or methsuximide, methosuximide) is a succinimide anticonvulsant medication.
Metharbital was patented in 1905 by Emil Fischer working for Merck.
Methazolamide (trade name Neptazane) is a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Methylphenobarbital (INN), also known as mephobarbital (USAN, JAN) and mephobarbitone (BAN), marketed under brand names such as Mebaral, Mephyltaletten, Phemiton, and Prominal, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative and is used primarily as an anticonvulsant, but also as a sedative and anxiolytic.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
The Food and Drug Administration's New Drug Application (NDA) is the vehicle in the United States through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing.
Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin and Lavol) is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. There is some evidence for oxcarbazepine as a mood-stabilizing agent and thus, it can be used as add-on therapy for bipolar disorder in patients that have failed or are unable to tolerate approved treatments. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, double vision and trouble with walking. Although not common, anaphylaxis may occur. Due to its structural similarities to carbamazepine there is approximately a 25–30% chance of cross-reactivity between the two medications. Oxcarbazepine is marketed as Trileptal by Novartis and available in some countries as a generic drug. There is also an extended-release formulation marketed as Oxtellar XR by Supernus Pharmaceuticals.
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.
Paramethadione (brand name Paradione) is an anticonvulsant in the oxazolidinedione class developed by the Illinois-based pharmaceutical company Abbott Laboratories (known as AbbVie since January 1, 2013), and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1949 for the treatment of absence seizures, also called partial seizures.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Perampanel (sold under the trade name Fycompa) is an antiepileptic drug developed by Eisai Co. that is used in addition to other drugs to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures for people older than 12 years.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), also known as NR1C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARA gene.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenacemide (INN, BAN) (brand name Phenurone), also known as phenylacetylurea, is an anticonvulsant of the ureide (acetylurea) class.
Pheneturide (INN, BAN) (brand names Benuride, Deturid, Pheneturid, Septotence, Trinuride), also known as phenylethylacetylurea (or ethylphenacemide), is an anticonvulsant of the ureide class.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phensuximide is an anticonvulsant in the succinimide class.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Primidone (INN, BAN, USP) is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class.
Progabide (INN) (trade name Gabrene, Sanofi-Aventis) is an analogue and prodrug of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.
Seletracetam (UCB 44212) is a pyrrolidone-derived drug of the racetam family that is structurally related to levetiracetam (trade name Keppra).
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
Stiripentol (marketed as Diacomit by Laboratoires Biocodex) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Sultiame, also known as sulthiame, is a sulfonamide and inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle protein that in humans is encoded by the SV2A gene.
Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Trimethadione is an oxazolidinedione anticonvulsant.
Vagus nerve stimulation or vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve.
Valnoctamide (INN, USAN) has been used in France as a sedative-hypnotic since 1964.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Zonisamide is a medication used to treat the symptoms of epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
Anti seizure medication, Anti seizure medications, Anti-convulsant, Anti-convulsive, Anti-epileptic, Anti-epileptic drugs, Anti-seizure, Anti-seizure medication, Anti-seizure medications, Anticolvulsive, Anticonvulsant drug, Anticonvulsant medication, Anticonvulsants, Anticonvulsive, Antiepileptic, Antiepileptic drug, Antiepileptic drugs, Antiepileptics, Antiseizure drug, Antiseizure medication, Epilepsy drug, Epilepsy drugs, Seizure drug, Seizure drugs.