223 relations: Acetylcholine receptor, Addiction, Adverse effect, Agomelatine, Agoraphobia, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, American Psychiatric Association, Amineptine, Amitriptyline, Amphetamine, Anatomy of an Epidemic, Anorectic, Anorexia nervosa, Anorgasmia, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressants in Japan, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aripiprazole, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical antidepressant, Atypical antipsychotic, Atypical depression, Avoidant personality disorder, Benzodiazepine, Binge eating disorder, Biology of depression, Bipolar disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Borderline personality disorder, British Journal of Pharmacology, Bryan Molloy, Bulimia nervosa, Bupropion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical structure, Chemical synapse, Chlorpromazine, Chronic pain, Citalopram, Cocaine, Cochrane (organisation), Concentration, Cure, Cyclic compound, Desvenlafaxine, Dextroamphetamine, Diabetic neuropathy, ..., Diamine oxidase, Dopamine, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic cell groups, Drug, Drug action, Drug design, Drug withdrawal, Duloxetine, Dysmenorrhea, Dysphoria, Dysthymia, Eating disorder, Eli Lilly and Company, Emotional lability, Epigenetics, Erectile dysfunction, Escitalopram, Extracellular, Fibromyalgia, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fluoxetine, Food and Drug Administration, Frank Ayd, Generalized anxiety disorder, Germany, Glucocorticoid, Glucuronide, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Hepatotoxicity, Hyperforin, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Hypertensive crisis, Hypnotic, Hypomania, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Imipramine, Indalpine, Infant, Intellectual disability, International Review of Psychiatry, Iproniazid, Irving Kirsch, Irving Selikoff, Isoniazid, JAMA (journal), Klaus Schmiegel, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), List of antidepressants, List of investigational antidepressants, Listening to Prozac, Lithium (medication), Major depressive disorder, Management of depression, Mania, Mechanism of action, Medical prescription, Medication, Melatonin, Membrane protein, Menopause, Meta-analysis, Methylphenidate, Migraine, Milnacipran, Mirtazapine, Moclobemide, Modafinil, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Narcolepsy, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Mental Health, Nefazodone, Neuropathic pain, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Nitric oxide synthase, Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine transporter, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Nortriptyline, Novartis, Obesity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Odds ratio, Olanzapine, Opioid, Over-the-counter drug, Panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, Paroxetine, Partial agonist, Pharmaceutical industry, Phenylpiperazine, Physical dependence, Pirlindole, Placebo, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Pre-eclampsia, Prescription drug, Preventive healthcare, Prognosis, Prolactin, Psychiatric hospital, Psychiatric Times, Psychotherapy, Pulmonology, Quetiapine, Randomized controlled trial, Receptor antagonist, Reduced affect display, Relapse, Reserpine, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Risperidone, Rockland Psychiatric Center, Roland Kuhn, Seaview Hospital, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin modulator and stimulator, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Sex steroid, Sleep disorder, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Social stigma, STAR*D, Staten Island, Stimulant, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Synapse, Tetracyclic antidepressant, Thyroid, Trazodone, Trichotillomania, Tricyclic, Tricyclic antidepressant, Triiodothyronine, Tuberculosis, Tyramine, Venlafaxine, Vertigo, Vilazodone, Vortioxetine, Zimelidine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amineptine, sold under the brand name Survector among others, is an atypical antidepressant of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) family.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America is a book by Robert Whitaker published in 2010 by Crown.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anorgasmia, or Coughlan's syndrome, is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
The number of new psychiatric drugs, and especially antidepressants on the market in Japan, is significantly less than Western countries.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An atypical antidepressant is a type of antidepressant medication which acts in an atypical manner relative to most other antidepressants.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events.
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).
Scientific studies have found that numerous brain areas show altered activity in patients suffering from depression, and this has encouraged advocates of various theories that seek to identify a biochemical origin of the disease, as opposed to theories that emphasize psychological or situational causes.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
Dr Bryan Barnet Molloy (30 March 1939 – 20 May 2004) was a Scottish chemist, known notably for helping to invent the antidepressant Prozac, a name for fluoxetine.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Desvenlafaxine (brand name: Pristiq, Desfax, Ellefore), also known as O-desmethylvenlafaxine, is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class developed and marketed by Wyeth (now part of Pfizer).
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
Diamine oxidase (DAO), also known as histaminase, is an enzyme involved in the metabolism, oxidation, and inactivation of histamine and other polyamines such as putrescine or spermidine in animals.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.
A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a class of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Frank Ayd (October 14, 1920 – March 21, 2008) was an American psychiatrist known for introducing the first antipsychotic medications into US clinical practice, being granted the first permit from the Food and Drug Administration to use Thorazine for schizophrenia.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.
The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), also called the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), abbreviated HAM-D, is a multiple item questionnaire used to provide an indication of depression, and as a guide to evaluate recovery.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).
Hypericum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Hypericaceae (formerly considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae).
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Indalpine (INN, BAN; brand name Upstène; developmental code name LM-5008) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class drug that was briefly marketed.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).
Iproniazid (Marsilid, Rivivol, Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.
Irving Kirsch (born March 7, 1943) is Associate Director of the Program in Placebo Studies and a lecturer in medicine at the Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
Klaus Schmiegel (born June 28, 1939) is most famous for his work in organic chemistry, which led to the invention of Prozac, a widely used antidepressant.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification.
This is a list of investigational antidepressants, or antidepressants that are currently under development for clinical use in the treatment of mood disorders but are not yet approved.
Listening to Prozac: A Psychiatrist Explores Antidepressant Drugs and the Remaking of the Self is a book written by psychiatrist Peter D. Kramer.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Management of depression may involve a number of different therapies: medications, behavior therapy, and medical devices.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) are a class of psychiatric drugs used primarily as antidepressants.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
1-Phenylpiperazine is a simple chemical compound featuring a phenyl group bound to a piperazine ring.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Pirlindole (Lifril, Pyrazidol) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) which was developed and is used in Russia as an antidepressant.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
Psychiatric Times is a medical trade publication written for an audience involved in the profession of psychiatry.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Reduced affect display, sometimes referred to as emotional blunting, is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The Rockland Psychiatric Center in Orangeburg, New York is a psychiatric facility for adults operated by the New York State Office of Mental Health.
Roland Kuhn (4 March 1912 – 10 October 2005) was a Swiss psychiatrist who discovered that the drug imipramine had antidepressant properties.
Seaview Hospital was a historic tuberculosis sanatorium, now a national historic district located at Willowbrook on Staten Island, New York.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs) are a class of drugs used mainly as antidepressants, but also as anxiolytics and hypnotics.
A serotonin modulator and stimulator (SMS), sometimes referred to more simply as a serotonin modulator, is a type of drug with a multimodal action specific to the serotonin neurotransmitter system.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) was a collaborative study on the treatment of depression, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) are a class of antidepressants that were first introduced starting in the 1970s.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
Tricyclics are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected rings of atoms.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Merck KGaA and licensed by Clinical Data, a biotech company purchased by Forest Laboratories in 2011.
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.
Zimelidine (INN, BAN) (brand names Zimeldine, Normud, Zelmid) was one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants to be marketed.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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