133 relations: A-349,821, ABT-239, Acetylcholine, Acne, Acrivastine, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Analgesic, Angiogenesis, Animal allergy, Antiemetic, Antileukotriene, Astemizole, Asthma, Autoreceptor, Azelastine, Benadryl, Benzodiazepine, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Bilastine, Blood–brain barrier, Bromazine, Brompheniramine, Buclizine, Bupropion, Capillary, Carbinoxamine, Catechin, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cetirizine, Chlorphenamine, Cimetidine, Ciproxifan, Clemastine, Clobenpropit, Codeine, Conessine, Cromoglicic acid, Cyclizine, Cyproheptadine, Degranulation, Desloratadine, Dexbrompheniramine, Dexchlorpheniramine, Dimenhydrinate, Dimetindene, Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine, Ebastine, ..., Embramine, Endothelium, Famotidine, Fexofenadine, Gastric acid, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Generic drug, Glutamic acid, H1 antagonist, H2 antagonist, H3 receptor antagonist, Histamine, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Histamine receptor, Histidine decarboxylase, Hives, House dust mite, Hydroxyzine, Immunotherapy, Inner ear, Insomnia, Inverse agonist, Itch, JNJ-7777120, Lafutidine, Levocabastine, Levocetirizine, Loratadine, Lower respiratory tract infection, Mast cell, Meclizine, Medication, Mepyramine, Mirtazapine, Nasal congestion, Nedocromil, Nerve, NF-κB, Nizatidine, Nootropic, Olopatadine, Opioid, Orphenadrine, Over-the-counter drug, Parietal cell, Peptic ulcer disease, Phenindamine, Pheniramine, Phenyltoloxamine, Pollen, Prodrug, Promethazine, Psychoactive drug, Quetiapine, Ranitidine, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Roxatidine acetate, Rupatadine, Sedative, Sinusitis, Smooth muscle tissue, Sneeze, Stimulant, Stomach, Symptom, Terfenadine, Thioperamide, Tissue (biology), Tripelennamine, Triprolidine, Tritoqualine, Tuberomammillary nucleus, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasodilation, Vertigo, VUF-6002, Yonkers, New York. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
A-349,821 is a potent and selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist (or possibly an inverse agonist).
ABT-239 is an H3-receptor inverse agonist developed by Abbott.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
In medicine, animal allergy is hypersensitivity to certain substances produced by animals, such as the proteins in animal hair and saliva.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.
Astemizole (marketed under the brand name Hismanal, developmental code R43512) was a second-generation antihistamine drug that has a long duration of action.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
Azelastine is a potent, second-generation, selective, histamine antagonist (histamine-H1-receptor antagonist) used as a first line therapy of mild intermittent, moderate/severe intermittent and mild persistent rhinitis (new classification system for rhinitis).
Benadryl is a brand name for a number of different antihistamine medications used to treat allergies.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
Bilastine, sold under the brand name Bilaxten among others, is a second-generation antihistamine medication which is used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria (hives).
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bromazine (trade names Ambodryl, Ambrodil and others), also known as bromodiphenhydramine, is an antihistamine and anticholinergic.
Brompheniramine (Bromfed, Dimetapp, Bromfenex, Dimetane, BPN, Lodrane), commonly marketed as its salt brompheniramine maleate, is an antihistamine drug of the propylamine (alkylamine) class.
Buclizine is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbinoxamine (Clistin, Palgic, Rondec, Rhinopront) is a antihistamine and anticholinergic agent.
Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cetirizine, prominently marketed under the brand name Zyrtec among others, is a potent second-generation antihistamine used in the treatment of hay fever, allergies, angioedema, and urticaria.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
Ciproxifan is an extremely potent histamine H3 inverse agonist/antagonist.
Clemastine, also known as meclastin, is an antihistamine and anticholinergic.
Clobenpropit is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Conessine is a steroid alkaloid found in a number of plant species from the Apocynaceae family, including Holarrhena floribunda, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Funtumia elastica.
Cromoglicic acid (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN), cromoglycate (former BAN), or cromoglicate) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate or cromolyn sodium.
Cyclizine, sold under a number of brand names, is a medication used to treat and prevent nausea, vomiting and dizziness due to motion sickness or vertigo.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Desloratadine (trade name Clarinex in the US and Aerius in Europe and Canada) is a tricyclic H1-antihistamine that is used to treat allergies.
Dexbrompheniramine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria.
Dexchlorpheniramine (trade name Polaramine) is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Dimetindene (trade name Fenistil; other name dimethindene maleate) is an antiallergic drug.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.
Ebastine (trade names Evastin, Atmos, Kestine, Ebastel, Aleva, Ebatrol) is a H1 antihistamine with low potential for causing drowsiness.
Embramine (a.k.a. Mebryl, Bromadryl) is an antihistamine and anticholinergic.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Famotidine, sold under the trade name Pepcid among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
The histamine receptors are a class of G protein–coupled receptors which bind histamine as their primary endogenous ligand.
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the decarboxylation of histidine to form histamine.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.
Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
JNJ-7777120 is a drug being developed by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development which acts as a potent and selective antagonist at the histamine H4 receptor.
Lafutidine (INN) is a second generation histamine H2 receptor antagonist having multimodal mechanism of action and used to treat gastrointestinal disorders.
Levocabastine (trade name Livostin) is a selective second-generation H1 receptor antagonists which was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1979.
Levocetirizine (as levocetirizine dihydrochloride) is a third-generation, non-sedating antihistamine, developed from the second-generation antihistamine cetirizine.
Loratadine, sold under the brand name Claritin among others, is a medication used to treat allergies.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Meclizine (INN, or meclozine) is an antihistamine of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group considered to be an antiemetic.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mepyramine, also known as pyrilamine, is a first generation antihistamine, targeting the H1 receptor.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
Nedocromil sodium is a medication considered as mast cell stabilizer which act to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, and other breathing problems caused by asthma.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nizatidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Olopatadine is an antihistamine (as well as anticholinergic and mast cell stabilizer), sold as a prescription eye drop manufactured by Alcon in one of three strengths: 0.7% solution or Pazeo in the United States, 0.2% solution or Pataday (also called Patanol S in some countries), and 0.1% or Patanol (also called Opatanol in some countries; Olopat in India).
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Phenindamine (Nolahist, Thephorin) is an antihistamine and anticholinergic closely related to cyproheptadine.
Pheniramine (INN, trade name Avil, among others) is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria.
Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Ranitidine, sold under the trade name Zantac among others, is a medication which decreases stomach acid production.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Roxatidine acetate is a specific and competitive histamine H2 receptor antagonist drug that is used to treat gastric ulcers, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome, erosive esophagitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and gastritis.
Rupatadine is a second generation antihistamine and PAF antagonist used to treat allergies.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Terfenadine is an antihistamine formerly used for the treatment of allergic conditions.
Thioperamide is a potent HRH4 antagonist and selective HRH3 antagonist capable of crossing the blood–brain barrier.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tripelennamine, sold under the brand name Pyribenzamine by Novartis, is a drug that is used as an antipruritic and first-generation antihistamine.
Triprolidine is an over-the-counter antihistamine with anticholinergic properties.
Tritoqualine, also known as hypostamine, is an inhibitor of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase and therefore an atypical antihistamine, used for the treatment of urticaria and allergic rhinitis with no known adverse effects.
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
VUF-6002 (JNJ-10191584) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist at the histamine H4 receptor.
Yonkers is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of New York, behind New York City, Buffalo, and Rochester.
Allergy medicine, Anti-histamine, Anti-histamine drug, Antiallergen, Antihistaminergic, Antihistamines, Antihistaminic, H1 receptor antagonist, Histamine antagonist, Histamine antagonists, Histamine receptor antagonist, Non-sedating antihistamines, Sedating antihistamines.