164 relations: Abortifacient, Affective spectrum, Alkaloid, Amazon Malaria Initiative, Amodiaquine, Anemia, Anorexia (symptom), Anti-inflammatory, Antifolate, Antipyretic, Anxiety disorder, Apicomplexan life cycle, Artemether, Artemether/lumefantrine, Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, Artemotil, Artesunate, Artesunate/amodiaquine, AstraZeneca, Atovaquone, Atovaquone/proguanil, Atrioventricular block, Bacteriostatic agent, Biguanide, Biocrystallization, Blood plasma, Bradycardia, Cardiotoxicity, Carl Warburg, Cell division, Chemoprophylaxis, Chloroquine, Chlorproguanil, Cinchona, Cinchonism, Circulatory system, Clindamycin, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Colitis, Combination therapy, Cycloguanil, Cytotoxicity, Dapsone, Delirium, Diethyl ether, Dihydroartemisinin, Dihydrofolate reductase, Dihydropteroate synthase, Dimethyl ether, ..., Diospyros melanoxylon, Disease, DNA, DNA replication, Doxycycline, Drug resistance, Drug-induced hyperthermia, Endemic (epidemiology), Esophagitis, Evolution, Folate, Gamete, Gametocyte, Ge Hong, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Granulocyte, Half-life, Halofantrine, Heart arrhythmia, Heme, Hemozoin, Hydroxychloroquine, Hypoglycemia, Immunodeficiency, Indoor residual spraying, Infrastructure, Insect repellent, Insecticide, Insulin, Intermittent preventive therapy, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Itch, Kidney failure, Lincomycin, Liver, Long QT syndrome, Lumefantrine, Lupus erythematosus, Maceration (food), Malaria, Malaria prophylaxis, Malaria vaccine, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, Medicines for Malaria Venture, Mefloquine, Metabolite, Model organism, Mosquito net, Motor neuron, Multiple drug resistance, Mutation, Myeloid tissue, Neurotoxicity, Neutropenia, Nucleic acid, Ossification, Oxytetracycline, Papua New Guinea, Parasitemia, Peru, PH, Pharmacokinetics, Phenotypic plasticity, Photosensitivity, Piperaquine, Plasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Point mutation, Pregnancy, Primaquine, Proguanil, Project 523, Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, Protein, Psoriasis, Psychosis, Public health, Purine, Pyrimethamine, Pyrimidine, Pyronaridine, Quinidine, Quinine, Respiratory system, Rheumatoid arthritis, Ribosome, Sesquiterpene lactone, Stereoisomerism, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sulfadoxine, Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Sulfamethoxypyridazine, Sulfonamide (medicine), Synergy, Teratology, Tetracycline, Tinnitus, Toxic encephalopathy, Vacuole, Vagal tone, Vector (epidemiology), Vertigo, Vestibulocochlear nerve, Vietnam War, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Warburg's tincture, Western New Guinea, World Health Organization, 4-Aminobenzoic acid, 4-Aminoquinoline. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.
The affective spectrum is a spectrum of affective disorders (mood disorders).
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) is a regional program that was created in 2001 by several countries sharing the Amazon basin with technical support from PAHO/WHO and financial support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and managed by USAID/Peru as part of its South American Regional Infectious Disease Program (SARI).
Amodiaquine (ADQ) is a medication used to treat malaria, including Plasmodium falciparum malaria when uncomplicated.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Antifolates are a class of antimetabolite medications that antagonise (that is, block) the actions of folic acid (vitamin B9).
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle.
Artemether is a medication used for the treatment of malaria.
Artemether/lumefantrine, sold under the trade name Coartem among others, is a combination of the two medications artemether and lumefantrine.
Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood, sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort or annual wormwood, is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America.
Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Artemotil (INN; also known as β-arteether), is a fast acting blood schizonticide specifically indicated for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant ''Plasmodium falciparum'' malaria and cerebral malaria cases.
Artesunate (AS) is a medication used to treat malaria.
Artesunate/amodiaquine, sold under the trade name Camoquin among others, is a medication used for the treatment of malaria.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
Atovaquone (alternative spelling: atavaquone) is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthoquinones.
The drug combination atovaquone/proguanil (INNs, trade names Malarone, Malanil) is an antimalarial medication used in both the treatment and prevention of malaria.
Atrioventricular block (AV block) is a type of heart block in which the conduction between the atria and ventricles of the heart is impaired.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
Biguanide is the organic compound with the formula HN(C(NH)NH2)2.
Biocrystallization is the formation of crystals from organic macromolecules by living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Carl Warburg (c. 1805–1892), also known as Charles Warburg, was a physician and scientist.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.
Chlorproguanil is an antimalarial drug.
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.
Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition caused by an overdose of quinine or quinidine, or their natural source, cinchona bark.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
Cycloguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, and is a metabolite of the antimalarial drug proguanil; its formation in vivo has been thought to be primarily responsible for the antimalarial activity of proguanil.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Dapsone, also known as diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is an antibiotic commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine for the treatment of leprosy.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Dihydroartemisinin (also known as dihydroqinghaosu, artenimol or DHA) is a drug used to treat malaria.
Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.
Dihydropteroate synthase is an enzyme classified under.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Diospyros melanoxylon, the Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae native to India and Sri Lanka; it has a hard, dry bark.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Drug-induced fever is a symptom of an adverse drug reaction wherein the administration of drugs intended to help a patient causes a hypermetabolic state resulting in fever.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is an inflammation of the esophagus.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametocyte is a eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametids during gametogenesis.
Ge Hong (葛洪; b. 283 - d. 343 or 363) was an Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar, and the author of Essays on Chinese Characters.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme participates in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells (such as erythrocytes) by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Halofantrine is a drug used to treat malaria.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Haemozoin is a disposal product formed from the digestion of blood by some blood-feeding parasites.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria. Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, headache, changes in vision and muscle weakness. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions. It appears to be safe in pregnancy but this use has not been well studied. Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication. Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about $5.40 to 7.44 per month. In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £5.15. In the United States a month of treatment typically costs less than $25.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Indoor residual spraying or IRS is the process of spraying the inside of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoes that spread malaria.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp).
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lincomycin is a lincosamide antibiotic that comes from the actinomycete Streptomyces lincolnensis.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.
Lumefantrine (or benflumetol) is an antimalarial drug.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
In food preparation, maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria.
Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference is a reference book published by Pharmaceutical Press listing some 6,000 drugs and medicines used throughout the world, including details of over 180,000 proprietary preparations.
Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), a not-for-profit public-private partnership, was established as a foundation in Switzerland in 1999.
Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell lineage, or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these senses the terms are usually used synonymously, as for example with chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Oxytetracycline was the second of the broad-spectrum tetracycline group of antibiotics to be discovered.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
Piperaquine is an antiparasitic drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin to treat malaria.
Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans.
Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Primaquine is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat ''Pneumocystis'' pneumonia.
Proguanil, also known as chlorguanide and chloroguanide, is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria.
Project 523 (or task number five hundred and twenty-three) is a code name for the secret military project of the People's Republic of China during and after the Cultural Revolution, for antimalarial medications, which were urged in the Vietnam War.
The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S subunit, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimethamine, sold under the trade name Daraprim, is a medication used with leucovorin to treat toxoplasmosis and cystoisosporiasis.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyronaridine is an antimalarial drug.
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of chemical compounds; they are sesquiterpenoids (built from three isoprene units) and contain a lactone ring, hence the name.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sulfadoxine (also spelled sulphadoxine) is an ultra-long-lasting sulfonamide used in combination with pyrimethamine to treat malaria.
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, sold under the brandname Fansidar, is a combination medication used to treat malaria.
Sulfamethoxypyridazine is a sulfonamide antibacterial.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Toxic encephalopathy is a neurologic disorder caused by exposure to neurotoxic organic solvents such as toluene, following exposure to heavy metals such as manganese; or exposure to extreme concentrations of any natural toxin such as cyanotoxins found in shellfish or freshwater cyanobacteria crusts.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vagal tone refers to activity of the vagus nerve, a fundamental component of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve), known as the eighth cranial nerve, transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is the largest biomedical research facility administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).
Warburg's tincture was a pharmaceutical drug, now obsolete.
Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the number 4 carbon in the benzene ring is also known as the para position) is an organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4CO2H.
4-Aminoquinoline is a form of aminoquinoline with the amino group at the 4-position of the quinoline.
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