95 relations: Acetic acid, Aciclovir, Adverse drug reaction, Adverse effect, Alexander Fleming, Alternative medicine, Amoeba, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek medicine, Antibiotic, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Antifungal, Antimicrobial chemotherapy, Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiseptic, Athlete's foot, Bacteria, Bactericide, Bacteriostatic agent, Biocide, Bleach, Candidiasis, Cathode ray, Cell (biology), Cestoda, Chemical synthesis, Citric acid, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Cobalt-60, Commonly used gamma-emitting isotopes, Cross-resistance, Dermatophytosis, Disinfectant, Escherichia coli, Essential oil, Eukaryote, Fecal microbiota transplant, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Flora, Food irradiation, Fruit preserves, Fungus, Gut flora, Health, Herbalism, Herpes labialis, Herpesviridae, HIV, Hydrogen peroxide, ..., Indoor mold, Influenza A virus, Influenzavirus B, Kastus, Lactic acid, Louis Pasteur, Management of HIV/AIDS, Metagenomics, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Microbicide, Microorganism, Mold, Nematode, Neuraminidase inhibitor, Nitroglycerin, Nucleoside analogue, Organic acid, Oseltamivir, Oven, Parasitism, Pasteurization, Pathogenic bacteria, Penicillin, Penicillium chrysogenum, Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacotherapy, Probiotic, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Protozoa, Quinolone antibiotic, Respiratory tract infection, Retrovirus, Secondary metabolite, Society for Applied Microbiology, Sodium bicarbonate, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Sulfonamide (medicine), Terpenoid, Trematoda, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Viral hepatitis, Virucide, Virus, X-ray. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the prevention of infection complications using antimicrobial therapy (most commonly antibiotics).
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
Antimicrobial chemotherapy is the clinical application of antimicrobial agents to treat infectious disease.
Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces can prevent frequently touched surfaces from serving as reservoirs for the spread of pathogenic microbes.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Radionuclides which emit gamma radiation are valuable in a range of different industrial, scientific and medical technologies.
Cross-resistance is the tolerance to a usually toxic substance as a result of exposure to a similarly acting substance.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is a United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Mold (American English) or mould (British English) is part of the natural environment.
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae.
Kastus Technologies is an Irish multinational nanotechnology company which specializes in patented visible light activated, photocatalytic, antimicrobial coatings and additives.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
A microbicide is any biocidal compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, such as viruses or bacteria.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Penicillium chrysogenum or P. notatum (formerly) is a species of fungus in the family Trichocomaceae.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
The Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM) is the voice of applied microbiology and oldest microbiology society in the UK founded in 1931.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
A virucide (pronounced /ˈvī-rə-ˌsīd/ and alternatively spelled viricide and viruscide) is an agent (physical or chemical) that deactivates or destroys viruses.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.