123 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Achaeus (general), Aetolian League, Alexander (satrap), Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek religion, Androsthenes of Cyzicus, Antiochis (daughter of Antiochus the Great), Antiochus (son of Antiochus III the Great), Antiochus II Theos, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia, Arsaces I of Parthia, Arsaces II of Parthia, Artabazanes, Babylonia, Bactria, Balkh, Basileus, Battle of Alcácer Quibir, Battle of Magnesia, Battle of Panium, Battle of Raphia, Battle of the Arius, Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), Bel (mythology), Believe as You List, Bithynia, British Newspaper Archive, Cappadocia, Caroline era, Catholic Church, Cleopatra I Syra, Cyprus, Cyrene, Libya, Daily Herald (UK newspaper), Demetrius I of Bactria, Diadochi, Diodotus I, Elymais, Engagement, Eumenes II, Euthydemus I, Fars Province, Gerrha, Great King, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greek language, Greeks, ..., Hannibal, Hanukkah, Harvard University Press, Heir apparent, Hellenistic period, Hermeias, Hermit, Hindu Kush, Hyrcania, India, Iran, John Betjeman, Jordan River, Josephus, Judea, Kabul, Lampsacus, Laodice (wife of Mithridates II of Pontus), Laodice II, Laodice III, Laodice IV, Laodice of Pontus, Lebanon, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Seleucid rulers, List of Syrian monarchs, Lorestan Province, Louvre, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, Lydia, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC), Media (region), Mithridates II of Pontus, Molon, Parthia, Pergamon, Persian Gulf, Philip V of Macedon, Phrygia, Polybius, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IV Philopator, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Qumis, Iran, Regnal name, Roman Republic, Roman–Seleucid War, Sardis, Scopas of Aetolia, Sebastian of Portugal, Seleucia, Seleucia Pieria, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus II Callinicus, Seleucus III Ceraunus, Seleucus IV Philopator, Side, Turkey, Siege of Bactra, Sistan, Smyrna, Sophagasenus, Stoicism, Subversion, Susa, Syria, Taurus Mountains, Thrace, Timeline of Syrian history, Treaty of Apamea, Western Asia, Xerxes of Armenia, Zeuxis (general). Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Achaeus (Ἀχαιός, Akhaios; died 213 BC) was a general and later a separatist ruler of part of the Greek Seleucid kingdom.
The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece.
Alexander (in Greek Αλέξανδρος; died 220 BC) was brother of Molon.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Androsthenes of Cyzicus (Ἀνδρόσθενης) was a Greek from the city of Cyzicus in Asia Minor, who lived around 200 BCE.
Antiochis was a Hellenistic princess from the dynasty of the Seleucids and in the first half of the second century BC queen of Cappadocia.
Antiochus (221 BC–193 BC) was a Seleucid prince, first-born child to the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III, and his father's first heir.
Antiochus II Theos (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Β΄ ὁ Θεός; 286–246 BC) was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
Ariarathes IV, surnamed Eusebes, "the Pious", (Ἀριαράθης Εὐσεϐής, Ariaráthēs Eusebḗs), was the king of Cappadocia in 220–163 BC.
Arsaces I (from Ἀρσάκης; in 𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 Aršak, Persian Ashk اشک) was the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, and after whom all 30+ monarchs of the Arsacid empire officially named themselves.
Arsaces II, also Artabanus I (ارشک يکم), of the Arsacid dynasty was King of Parthia between 211 BC and 185 BC.
Artabazanes of Media Atropatene (flourished 3rd century BC) was a Prince and King of the Persian Atropatene Kingdom.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi) between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Fifth Syrian War.
The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC near modern Rafah between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king and pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire during the Syrian Wars.
The Battle of the Arius was an engagement that was fought in 208 BC between the Seleucid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great.
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Believe as You List is a Caroline era tragedy by Philip Massinger, famous as a case of theatrical censorship.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
The British Newspaper Archive web site provides access to searchable digitised archives of British newspapers.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
The Caroline or Carolean era refers to the era in English and Scottish history during the Stuart period (1603–1714) that coincided with the reign of Charles I (1625–1642), Carolus being Latin for Charles.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cleopatra I Syra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα; c. 204 – 176 BC) was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy V of Egypt, and regent of Egypt during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
The Daily Herald was a British daily newspaper, published in London from 1912 to 1964 (although it was weekly during the First World War).
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Diodotus I Soter (Greek: Διόδοτος Α' ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 285 BC – c. 239 BC) was Seleucid satrap of Bactria, rebelled against Seleucid rule soon after the death of Antiochus II in c. 255 or 246 BC, and wrested independence for his territory, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
Elymais or Elamais (Ἐλυμαΐς, Hellenic form of the more ancient name, Elam) was a semi-independent state of the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD, frequently a vassal under Parthian control, and located at the head of the Persian Gulf in the present-day region of Khuzestan, Iran (Susiana).
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage.
Eumenes II (Εὐμένης Βʹ; ruled 197–159 BC) surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.
Euthydemus I (Greek: Εὐθύδημος Α΄; c. 260 BC – 200/195 BC) was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius; he is thought to have originally been a satrap of Sogdiana who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Gerrha (جرهاء) was an ancient city of Eastern Arabia, on the west side of the Persian Gulf.
Great King and the equivalent in many languages is a semantic title for historical titles of monarchs, suggesting an elevated status among the host of Kings and Princes.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hermeias or Hermias (Greek: Ἑρμείας or Ἑρμίας; died 220 BC) was a Carian by birth, who had raised himself to be the favourite and chief minister of Seleucus III Ceraunus (225–223 BC), and was left at the head of affairs in Syria by that monarch when he set out on the expedition across the Taurus Mountains, in the course of which Seleucus met with his death, 223 BC.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: Varkâna,Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Sir John Betjeman (28 August 190619 May 1984) was an English poet, writer, and broadcaster who described himself in Who's Who as a "poet and hack".
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Lampsacus (translit) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad.
Laodice (Λαοδίκη; flourished 3rd century BC) was a Greek Princess of the Seleucid Empire.
Laodice II (Laodíkē; lived in the 3rd century BC), was the wife of Seleucus II Callinicus.
Laodice III (in Greek Λαοδικη) also known as Laodika, was a Princess of Pontus and a Seleucid Queen.
Laodice IV (flourished second half 3rd century BC and first half 2nd century BC) was a Greek Princess, Head Priestess and Queen of the Seleucid Empire.
Laodice (in Greek Λαοδικη; lived in the 3rd century BC), was a princess of Pontus and was one of the daughters of Mithridates II of Pontus and Laodice.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.
The Syrian monarchs ruled Syria as kings and queens regnant.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (3rd century BC–aft. 183 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Manius Acilius Glabrio was a Roman general and consul of the Roman Republic in 191 BC.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
Mithridates II (in Greek Mιθριδάτης; lived 3rd century BC), third king of Pontus and son of Ariobarzanes, whom he succeeded on the throne.
Molon or Molo (Moλων; died 220 BC) was a general and satrap of the Seleucid king Antiochus the Great (223–187 BC).
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); 210–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.
Qumis (قومس; Middle Iranian Kōmiš), also known as Hecatompylos (Ἑκατόμπυλος, in صددروازه Saddarvazeh) was an ancient city of uncertain location which was the capital of the Arsacid dynasty by 200 BCE.
A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Scopas (Σκόπας) was an Aetolian general, who served both his native Aetolian League in the Social War (220–217 BC) and Ptolemaic Egypt against the Seleucids, with mixed success.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
Seleucia in Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια ἐν Πιερίᾳ), also known in English as Seleucia by the Sea, and later named Suedia, was a Hellenistic town, the seaport of Antioch ad Orontes (Syria Prima), the Seleucid capital, modern Antakya (Turkey).
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus II Callinicus Pogon (Σέλευκος Β΄ ὁ Καλλίνικος ὁ Πώγων; Kallinikos means "gloriously triumphant"; Pogon means "the Beard"; 265–225 BCE), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC.
Seleucus III Soter, called Seleucus Ceraunus (Greek: Σέλευκος Γ΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, ὁ Κεραυνός; c. 243 BC – 223 BC), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom, the eldest son of Seleucus II Callinicus and Laodice II.
Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).
Side (Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country.
The Siege of Bactra was a siege of the Hellenistic period that lasted from 208 to 206 BC.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Sophagasenos also spelt Sophagasenus or Sophagasenas (Sanskrit: Subhagasena) was a local Indian king ruling in Kabul and Kapisa valley (Paropamisade of the classical writings) during the last decade of 3rd century BCE.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow) refers to a process by which the values and principles of a system in place are contradicted or reversed, an attempt to transform the established social order and its structures of power, authority, hierarchy, and norm (social).
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
This is a timeline of Syrian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Syria and its predecessor states.
The Treaty of Apamea of 188 BC, was peace treaty between the Roman Republic and Antiochus III, ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Xerxes (Armenian: Շավարշ – Šavarš, Ancient Greek: Ξέρξης - Xerxes, Old Persian: Ḫšayāršā) was satrap of the Seleucid territories of Sophene and Commagene from 228 BCE to 212 BCE, the year of his death.
Zeuxis (Zεῦξις Κυνάγου Μακεδών) was a general and official in the service of the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great at the end of the 3rd century BC.