282 relations: Acatalasia, Acetylcysteine, Actinomycetales, Active site, Adhesive, Adverse effect, Algae, Allantoin, Allopurinol, Aluminium foil, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Antinutrient, Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Antiozonant, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arthritis Research & Therapy, Ascorbate peroxidase, Atherosclerosis, Aviation fuel, Bacillithiol, Bacteria, Bean, Beta-Carotene, Bioavailability, Biology, Blood plasma, Body fluid, Butylated hydroxyanisole, Butylated hydroxytoluene, By-product, CA (journal), Cabbage, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calcium, Calorie restriction, Cancer, Carbon–carbon bond, Cardiovascular disease, Carotene, Carotenoid, Catalase, Catalysis, Catechol, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell signaling, ..., Chain reaction, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemotherapy, Chloroplast, Cochrane (organisation), Cocoa bean, Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, Coenzyme Q10, Cofactor (biochemistry), Collagen, Colorectal cancer, Corrosion, Cyanobacteria, Cysteine, Cytosol, Denaturation (biochemistry), Detoxification, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary supplement, Disulfide, DNA, DNA repair, Double bond, Drosophila melanogaster, Electron donor, Electron transport chain, Electrophile, Enzyme, Enzyme kinetics, Essential oil, Eugenol, Eukaryote, Evolution, Extracellular fluid, Fenton's reagent, Fermentation in food processing, Ferritin, Flavoprotein, Flowering plant, Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, Food additive, Food science, Fouling, Free-radical theory of aging, Fuel, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, Glutamic acid, Glutaredoxin, Glutathione, Glutathione peroxidase, Glutathione reductase, Glutathione S-transferase, Glutathione-ascorbate cycle, Glycine, Gout, GPX4, Gram-positive bacteria, Grease (lubricant), Hemolytic anemia, Homocysteine, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrophile, Hydroxyl radical, Hydroxyproline, Hyperoxia, Hypochlorous acid, In vitro, In vivo, Inflammation, Internal combustion engine, Iodide, Iron, Iron-binding proteins, Irradiance, Isozyme, Jet fuel, Jurassic, Kinetoplastida, Legume, Life, Lipid, Lipid peroxidation, Lipoic acid, Lipophilicity, List of gasoline additives, Low-density lipoprotein, Low-density polyethylene, Lubricant, Manganese, Maximum life span, Mechanism of action, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Metabolite, Mevalonate pathway, Mineral (nutrient), Mitochondrion, Moisturizer, Molar concentration, Molecule, Monosaccharide, Mortality rate, Motor neuron disease, Mutation, Mycothiol, N,N'-Di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), Natural rubber, Neurodegeneration, Neuron, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nucleophile, Nut (fruit), Oil of clove, Old age, Oregon State University, Organic peroxide, Organism, Oxalic acid, Oxidation state, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Ozone, Ozonolysis, P-Phenylenediamine, Paradox, Parkinson's disease, Pathogen, Peptide, Peroxide, Peroxiredoxin, Peroxisome, Peroxynitrite, Photoinhibition, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Phytic acid, Phytochemical, Polybutadiene, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polymer stabilizers, Polymerization, Polyphenol, Polypropylene, Preservative, Primate, Pro-oxidant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proline, Propyl gallate, Proteasome, Protein, Protein disulfide-isomerase, Purine, Radiation therapy, Radical (chemistry), Rancidification, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Regulation of gene expression, Respiration (physiology), Retinol, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rhubarb, Salmonella enterica, Salting (food), Scavenger (chemistry), Seed, Selenium, Sequence motif, Smoking (cooking), Spinach, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfenic acid, Sulfiredoxin, Sulfur, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, Supersaturation, Synergy, Systematic review, Tannin, Tert-Butylhydroquinone, Thiol, Thioredoxin, Thioredoxin reductase, Tirilazad, Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, Transferrin, Transformer oil, Transition metal, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Trypanothione, Turnip, Ubiquinol, Ultraviolet, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Unsaturated fat, Urate oxidase, Uric acid, Urine, UV degradation, Vegetable oil, Vertebrate, Vicinal (chemistry), Virulence factor, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vulcanization, Wax, Whole grain, World Cancer Research Fund International, Xanthine, Xanthine oxidase, Yeast, Zinc, 2,4-Dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol. Expand index (232 more) » « Shrink index
Acatalasia (also called acatalasemia, or Takahara's disease) is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder caused by low levels of the enzyme catalase.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allantoin is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3.
Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.
Aluminium foil (or aluminum foil), often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than; thinner gauges down to are also commonly used.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research.
An antiozonant, also known as anti-ozonant, is an organic compound that prevents or retards the degradation of material caused by ozone (ozone cracking).
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Arthritis Research & Therapy, formerly Arthritis Research, is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms of arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
Ascorbate peroxidase (or APX) is a member of the family of heme-containing peroxidases.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
Bacillithiol (BSH or Cys-GlcN-mal) is a thiol compound found in Bacillus species.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published for the American Cancer Society by Wiley-Blackwell.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
The coenzyme Q: cytochrome c – oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain, playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).
Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Eugenol is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous iron as a catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) or Folin's phenol reagent or Folin–Denis reagent, also called the gallic acid equivalence method (GAE), is a mixture of phosphomolybdate and phosphotungstate used for the colorimetric in vitro assay of phenolic and polyphenolic antioxidants.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutaredoxins are small redox enzymes of approximately one hundred amino-acid residues that use glutathione as a cofactor.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.
Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSR gene.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), previously known as ligandins, comprise a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes best known for their ability to catalyze the conjugation of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) to xenobiotic substrates for the purpose of detoxification.
The glutathione-ascorbate cycle is a metabolic pathway that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a reactive oxygen species that is produced as a waste product in metabolism.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Glutathione peroxidase 4, also known as GPX4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPX4 gene.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.
A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.
Hyperoxia occurs when cells, tissues and organs are exposed to an excess supply of oxygen (O2) or higher than normal partial pressure of oxygen.
Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water, and itself partially dissociates, forming ClO-.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron-binding proteins are carrier proteins and metalloproteins which play many important roles in metabolism.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kinetoplastida (or Kinetoplastea, as a class) is a group of flagellated protists belonging to the phylum Euglenozoa, and characterised by the presence of an organelle with a large massed DNA called kinetoplast (hence the name).
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative degradation of lipids.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A motor neuron disease (MND) is any of several neurodegenerative disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycothiol (MSH or AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is an unusual thiol compound found in the Actinobacteria.
N,N-Di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine is an aromatic amine used industrially as an antioxidant to prevent degradation of turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, waxes, and greases.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Oil of clove, also known as clove oil, is an essential oil extracted from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.
p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(NH2)2.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs,; HGNC root symbol PRDX) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that also control cytokine-induced peroxide levels and thereby mediate signal transduction in mammalian cells.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
Peroxynitrite (sometimes called peroxonitrite) is an ion with the formula ONOO−.
Photoinhibition is light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, or cyanobacterium.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Stabilizers are a class of chemical addatives commonly added to polymeric materials, such as plastics, to inhibit or retard their degradation.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either by generating reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant systems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Propyl gallate, or propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate is an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein disulfide isomerase, or PDI, is an enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes and the periplasm of bacteria that catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues within proteins as they fold.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a species of plant in the family Polygonaceae.
Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium and a species of the genus Salmonella.
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt.
A scavenger in chemistry is a chemical substance added to a mixture in order to remove or de-activate impurities and unwanted reaction products, for example oxygen, to make sure that they will not cause any unfavorable reactions.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.
Smoking is the process of flavoring, browning, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
A sulfenic acid is an organosulfur compound and oxoacid with the general formula RSOH.
In enzymology, a sulfiredoxin is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are peroxiredoxin-(S-hydroxy-S-oxocysteine), ATP, and a thiol, whereas its 4 products are peroxiredoxin-(S-hydroxycysteine), ADP, phosphate, and a disulfide.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, tertiary butylhydroquinone) is a synthetic aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thioredoxin is a class of small redox proteins known to be present in all organisms.
Thioredoxin reductases (TR, TrxR) are the only known enzymes to reduce thioredoxin (Trx).
Tirilazad is a drug that has been proposed to treat acute ischaemic stroke.
Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
Tocotrienols are certain members of the vitamin E family.
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
Transformer oil or insulating oil is an oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) measures the antioxidant capacity of a given substance, as compared to the standard, Trolox.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
Ubiquinol is an electron-rich (reduced) form of coenzyme Q10.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
The enzyme urate oxidase (UO), or uricase or factor-independent urate hydroxylase, absent in humans, catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Many natural and synthetic polymers are attacked by ultraviolet radiation, and products using these materials may crack or disintegrate if they are not UV-stable.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In chemistry the descriptor vicinal (from Latin vicinus.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
World Cancer Research Fund International is a not-for-profit association related to cancer prevention research related to diet, weight and physical activity.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes XAO) is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2,4-Dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol is an alkylated phenol used industrially as an antioxidant, e.g. to prevent gumming in fuels, and as an ultraviolet stabilizer.
2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol is an organic compound with the structural formula 2,6-((CH3)3C)2C6H3OH.
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