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Antiphospholipid syndrome

Index Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. [1]

100 relations: Adrenal insufficiency, Annexin A5, Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies, Anti-cardiolipin antibodies, Antibody, Anticoagulant, Antithrombin, Apolipoprotein H, Artery, Asian people, Aspirin, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Black people, Blood plasma, Blood test, Cardiolipin, Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, Cell membrane, Coagulation, Complement system, Deep vein thrombosis, Dilute Russell's viper venom time, ELISA, Eponym, Factor IX, Factor V, Factor V Leiden, Factor VIII, Factor X, Factor XI, Factor XII, Genetic marker, Glycoprotein, Headache, Heparin, Hispanic, HLA-B8, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR7, Immunology, In vitro, In vivo, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Intrauterine growth restriction, Kaolin clotting time, Laboratory, Livedo reticularis, London, ..., Low molecular weight heparin, Lupus anticoagulant, Menstrual cycle, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Micrograph, Migraine, Miscarriage, Neisseria meningitidis, Oscillopsia, Partial thromboplastin time, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipid, Placenta, Placental infarction, Plasmapheresis, Plasmin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Preventive healthcare, Protein C, Protein S, Prothrombin G20210A, Prothrombin time, Race (human categorization), Recurrent miscarriage, Renal biopsy, Rheumatology, St Thomas' Hospital, Stillbirth, Stroke, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy, Teratology, The International League of Dermatological Societies, Thrombin, Thrombocytopenia, Thromboplastin, Thrombosis, Thrombotic microangiopathy, Thrombus, Tissue plasminogen activator, Trophoblast, United Kingdom, Valvular heart disease, Vein, Warfarin, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome. Expand index (50 more) »

Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

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Annexin A5

Annexin A5 (or annexin V) is a cellular protein in the annexin group.

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Anti-apolipoprotein antibodies

In autoimmune disease, anti-apolipoprotein H (AAHA) antibodies, also called anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies, comprise a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant.

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Anti-cardiolipin antibodies

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.

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Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.

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Apolipoprotein H

Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), previously known as β2-glycoprotein I and beta-2 glycoprotein I, is a 38 kDa multifunctional apolipoprotein that in humans is encoded by the APOH gene.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Black people

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3’-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition.

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Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), also known as Asherson's syndrome, is an acute and complex biological process that leads to occlusion of small vessels of various organs.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Dilute Russell's viper venom time

Dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) is a laboratory test often used for detection of lupus anticoagulant (LA).

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.

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Factor IX

Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1.

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Factor V

Factor V (pronounced factor five) is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor.

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden (rs6025) is a variant (mutated form) of human factor V (one of several substances that helps blood clot), which causes an increase in blood clotting (hypercoagulability).

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Factor VIII

Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).

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Factor X

Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart–Prower factor, is an enzyme of the coagulation cascade.

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Factor XI

Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecedent is the zymogen form of factor XIa, one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade.

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Factor XII

Coagulation factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a plasma protein.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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HLA-B8 (B8) is an HLA-B serotype.

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HLA-DR2 (DR2) of the HLA-DR serotype system, is a broad antigen serotype that is now preferentially covered by HLA-DR15 and HLA-DR16 serotype group.

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HLA-DR3 is composed of the HLA-DR17 and HLA-DR18 split 'antigens' serotypes.

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HLA-DR7 (DR7) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*0701 to *0705 gene products.

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Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

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Kaolin clotting time

Kaolin clotting time (KCT) is a sensitive test to detect lupus anticoagulants.

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Livedo reticularis

Livedo reticularis is a common skin finding consisting of a mottled reticulated vascular pattern that appears as a lace-like purplish discoloration of the skin.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Low molecular weight heparin

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications.

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Lupus anticoagulant

Lupus anticoagulant (also known as lupus antibody, LA, LAC, or lupus inhibitors) is an immunoglobulin that binds to phospholipids and proteins associated with the cell membrane.

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Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.

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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Neisseria meningitidis

Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.

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Oscillopsia is a visual disturbance in which objects in the visual field appear to oscillate.

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Partial thromboplastin time

The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that characterizes blood coagulation, also known as clotting.

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Periodic acid–Schiff stain

Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Placental infarction

A placental infarction results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the placenta, causing its cells to die.

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Plasmapheresis (from the Greek πλάσμα—plasma, something molded, and ἀφαίρεσις—aphairesis, taking away) is the removal, treatment, and return or exchange of blood plasma or components thereof from and to the blood circulation.

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Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots.

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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Protein C

Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.

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Protein S

Protein S (also known as S-Protein) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver.

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Prothrombin G20210A

Prothrombin G20210A is a genetic condition that increases the risk of blood clots including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

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Prothrombin time

The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Recurrent miscarriage

Recurrent miscarriage, habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses.

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Renal biopsy

Renal biopsy (also kidney biopsy) is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope.

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Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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St Thomas' Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England.

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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy

For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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The International League of Dermatological Societies

The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS) is a non-governmental organization that works closely with the World Health Organization.

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Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Thromboplastin (TPL) is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through catalyzing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Thrombotic microangiopathy

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles, due to an endothelial injury.

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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.

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Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis.

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APLA syndrome, Anti-phospholipid antibodies, Anti-phospholipid antibody, Antibodies, antiphospholipid, Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, Antiphospholipid antibodies, Antiphospholipid antibody, Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Antiphospholipid-Antibody Syndrome (APL), Hughes syndrome, Hughes' syndrome, New bloody syndrome, Sticky blood, Sticky blood syndrome, Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated antiphospholipid syndrome.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiphospholipid_syndrome

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