251 relations: Acepromazine, Adverse effect, African Americans, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Agonist, Agranulocytosis, Akathisia, Allele, American Psychiatric Association, Amisulpride, Amoxapine, Anesthetic, Anorexia (symptom), Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antipsychotic switching, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aplastic anemia, Aripiprazole, Aripiprazole lauroxil, Asenapine, AstraZeneca, Atypical antipsychotic, Autism, Autism spectrum, Benperidol, Benzodiazepine, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Bipolar disorder, Blonanserin, Blood–brain barrier, Borderline personality disorder, Brexpiprazole, British National Formulary, Bromperidol, Cardiovascular disease, Cariprazine, Carpipramine, Caudate nucleus, Central nervous system, Chlorpromazine, Chlorprothixene, Cholinergic, Choosing Wisely, Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Clocapramine, Clopenthixol, ..., Clorotepine, Clotiapine, Clozapine, Complete blood count, Confidence interval, Consumer organization, Creatine kinase, Cyamemazine, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, DailyMed, Death, Deltoid muscle, Delusion, Dementia, Department of Health (Australia), Desmethylclozapine, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Dixyrazine, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopaminergic pathways, Droperidol, DSM-IV codes, Dyskinesia, Dysthymia, Dystonia, Eating disorder, Eli Lilly and Company, Epileptic seizure, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Fluoxetine, Flupentixol, Fluphenazine, Fluspirilene, Food and Drug Administration, Galactorrhea, Gluteal muscles, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Grey matter, Gynecomastia, Hallucination, Haloperidol, Henri Laborit, Histamine H1 receptor, Human brain, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Iloperidone, Insomnia, Intellectual disability, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Involuntary commitment, Jean Delay, Johnson & Johnson, Joseph Biederman, Kickback (bribery), Leukopenia, Levomepromazine, Levosulpiride, List of investigational antipsychotics, List of long term side effects of antipsychotics, Lithium (medication), Lobotomy, Loxapine, Lundbeck, Lurasidone, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Marketing, Medication, Medscape, Melperone, Mesocortical pathway, Mesolimbic pathway, Mesoridazine, Metabolic syndrome, Molindone, Mood disorder, Mood stabilizer, Moperone, Mosapramine, Myalgia, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Mental Health, Nausea, Nemonapride, Nerve, Neurochemistry, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neurology, Neurosis, Neutropenia, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nonbenzodiazepine, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Odds ratio, Olanzapine, Olanzapine/fluoxetine, Omnicare, Outpatient commitment, Paliperidone, Pancreatitis, Paranoia, Paresthesia, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Penfluridol, Perazine, Periciazine, Perospirone, Perphenazine, Personality disorder, Perspiration, Pervasive developmental disorder, Pfizer, Pierre Deniker, Pimavanserin, Pimozide, Pipamperone, Pipotiazine, Placebo, Polypharmacy, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prochlorperazine, Promazine, Promethazine, Prothipendyl, Psychedelic drug, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychosis, Psychotic depression, QT interval, Quetiapine, Randomized controlled trial, Receptor antagonist, Remoxipride, Reserpine, Rhinorrhea, Risperidone, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia, Serotonin, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Sertindole, Social anxiety disorder, Somnolence, Spiperone, Stroke, Sulpiride, Sultopride, Synonym, Tardive dyskinesia, Tardive psychosis, Tendon, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Thioproperazine, Thioridazine, Thought disorder, Tiapride, Timiperone, Tiotixene, Torsades de pointes, Tourette syndrome, Toxicology, Tranquilizer, Treatment-resistant depression, Trifluoperazine, Triflupromazine, Tuberculosis, Tuberoinfundibular pathway, Typical antipsychotic, UGT1A4, Valdecoxib, Valproate, Venous thrombosis, Veralipride, Volume of distribution, Vomiting, WebMD, White blood cell, World Health Organization, Ziprasidone, Zotepine, Zuclopenthixol, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
Acepromazine, acetopromazine or acetylpromazine (more commonly known as ACP, Ace, or by the trade names Atravet or Acezine 2, number depending on mg/ml dose) is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
Amoxapine, sold under the brand name Asendin among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA), though it is often classified as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antipsychotic switching refers to the process of switching out one antipsychotic for another antipsychotic.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Aripiprazole lauroxil (USAN) (brand name Aristada) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic that was developed by Alkermes.
Asenapine, sold under the trade names Saphris and Sycrest among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Benperidol is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic (approved by PMDA in January 2008) commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti, is an atypical antipsychotic.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Bromperidol (marketed as Bromidol, Bromodol) is a butyrophenone derivative.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar in the United States and Reagila in Europe, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Carpipramine (Prazinil, Defekton) is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety in France and Japan.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Chlorprothixene, sold under the brand name Truxal among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene group.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Ciba was a chemical company based in and near Basel, Switzerland.
Clocapramine (Clofekton, Padrasen), also known as 3-chlorocarpipramine, is an atypical antipsychotic of the imidobenzyl class which was introduced in Japan in 1974 by Yoshitomi for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Clopenthixol (Sordinol), also known as clopentixol, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class.
Clorotepine (brand names Clotepin, Clopiben), also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the tricyclic group which was derived from perathiepin in 1965 and marketed in the Czech Republic by Spofa in or around 1971 for the treatment of schizophrenic psychosis.
Clotiapine (Entumine) is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine chemical class.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Consumer organizations are advocacy groups that seek to protect people from corporate abuse like unsafe products, predatory lending, false advertising, astroturfing and pollution.
Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
Cyamemazine (Tercian), also known as cyamepromazine, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine class which was introduced by Theraplix in France in 1972 and later in Portugal as well.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
DailyMed is a website operated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) to publish up-to-date and accurate drug labels (also called a "package insert") to health care providers and the general public.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the human shoulder.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion, participation and exercise and other disease prevention activities.
N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dixyrazine, also known as dixypazin (oxalate), sold under the brand names Ansiolene, Esocalm, Esucos, Metronal, and Roscal, is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine group described as a neuroleptic and antihistamine.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Droperidol (Inapsine, Droleptan, Dridol, Xomolix, Innovar) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic (that is, to prevent or treat nausea) and as an antipsychotic.
DSM-IV codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Flupentixol (INN), also known as flupenthixol (former BAN), marketed under brand names such as Depixol and Fluanxol is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class.
Fluphenazine, sold under the brand names Prolixin among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Fluspirilene (Redeptin, Imap, R6218) is a diphenylbutylpiperidine typical antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Henri Laborit (21 November 1914 – 18 May 1995) was a French surgeon, writer and philosopher.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).
Jean Delay (14 November 1907, Bayonne – 29 May 1987, Paris) was a French psychiatrist, neurologist, writer, and a member of the Académie française (Chair 17).
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
Joseph Biederman is Chief of the Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.
A kickback is a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Levomepromazine (INN, BAN, USAN), also known as methotrimeprazine, is a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug. It is sold in many countries under the generic name (levomepromazine) or under brand names such as Nozinan, Levoprome, Detenler, Hirnamin, Levotomin, Neurocil and many more. It is a low-potency antipsychotic (approximately half as potent as chlorpromazine) with strong analgesic, hypnotic and antiemetic properties that is primarily used in palliative care. Serious side effects include tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, abnormalities in the electrical cycle of the heart, low blood pressure and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. As is typical of phenothiazine antipsychotics, levomepromazine is a "dirty drug", that is, it exerts its effects by blocking a variety of receptors, including adrenergic receptors, dopamine receptors, histamine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and serotonin receptors.
Levosulpiride is a substituted benzamide antipsychotic, reported to be a selective antagonist of dopamine D2 receptor activity on both central and peripheral levels.
This is a list of investigational antipsychotics, or antipsychotics that are currently under development for clinical use but are not yet approved.
This is a general list of long-term side effects associated with Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
Loxapine (several trade names worldwide) is a typical antipsychotic medication, used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Melperone (Bunil (PT), Buronil (AT, BE, CZ, DK, FL†, NL†, NO†, SE), Eunerpan (DE)) is an atypical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class, making it structurally related to the typical antipsychotic haloperidol.
The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Mesoridazine (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Molindone, sold under the brand name Moban, is an antipsychotic which is used in the United States in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Moperone (Luvatren, since discontinued) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class.
Mosapramine (Cremin) is an atypical antipsychotic used in Japan.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nemonapride (エミレース, Emilace (JP)) is an atypical antipsychotic approved in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine/fluoxetine (trade name Symbyax, created by Eli Lilly and Company) is a single capsule containing the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine.
Omnicare was an American company working in the health care industry, established in April 1981 as a spinoff of healthcare businesses from Chemed and W. R. Grace and Company.
Outpatient commitment—also called Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) or a Community Treatment Order (CTO)—refers to a civil court procedure wherein a judge orders an individual diagnosed with severe a mental disorder who is experiencing a psychiatric crisis that requires intervention to adhere to an outpatient treatment plan designed to prevent further deterioration that is harmful to themselves or others.
Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class of medications.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
Penfluridol (Semap, Micefal, Longoperidol) is a highly potent, first generation diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotic.
Perazine (Taxilan) is a moderate-potency typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class.
Periciazine (INN), also known as pericyazine (BAN) or propericiazine, is a drug that belongs to the phenothiazine class of typical antipsychotics.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family.
Perphenazine is a typical antipsychotic drug.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Pierre Deniker (16 February 1917 in Paris – 17 August 1998) was involved, jointly with Jean Delay and J. M. Harl, in the introduction of chlorpromazine (Thorazine), the first antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia, in the 1950s.
Pimavanserin, sold under the brand name Nuplazid, is an atypical antipsychotic which is approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis and is also under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, agitation, and major depressive disorder.
Pimozide (sold under the brand name Orap) is an antipsychotic drug of the diphenylbutylpiperidine class.
Pipamperone (INN, USAN, BAN), also known as carpiperone and floropipamide or fluoropipamide, and as floropipamide hydrochloride (JAN), is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone family used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Pipotiazine (Piportil), also known as pipothiazine, is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class used in the United Kingdom and other countries for the treatment of schizophrenia.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Polypharmacy is the concurrent use of multiple medications by a patient.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.
Promazine (brand name Sparine) is a medication that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotics.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Prothipendyl (brand names Dominal, Timovan, Tolnate), also known as azaphenothiazine or phrenotropin, is an anxiolytic, antiemetic, and antihistamine of the azaphenothiazine group which is marketed in Europe and is used to treat anxiety and agitation in psychotic syndromes.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Remoxipride (Roxiam) is an atypical antipsychotic (although according to some sources it is a typical antipsychotic) which was previously used in Europe for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute mania but was withdrawn due to toxicity concerns (incidence of aplastic anemia in 1/10,000 patients).
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
Sertindole (brand names: Serdolect and Serlect) is an antipsychotic medication.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spiperone (Spiroperidol; brand name: Spiropitan (JP)) is a typical antipsychotic and research chemical belonging to the butyrophenone chemical class.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulpiride, sold under the brand name Dogmatil among others, is an atypical antipsychotic (although some texts have referred to it as a typical antipsychotic) medication of the benzamide class which is used mainly in the treatment of psychosis associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and sometimes used in low dosage to treat anxiety and mild depression.
Sultopride (trade names Barnetil, Barnotil, Topral) is an atypical antipsychotic of the benzamide chemical class used in Europe, Japan, and Hong Kong for the treatment of schizophrenia.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Tardive psychosis is a term for a hypothetical form of psychosis, proposed in 1978.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
Thioproperazine, sold under the brand name Majeptil, is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine group which is used as a tranquilizer, antiemetic, sedative, and in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Thioridazine (Mellaril or Melleril) is a piperidine typical antipsychotic drug belonging to the phenothiazine drug group and was previously widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis.
Thought disorder (TD) or formal thought disorder (FTD) refers to disorganized thinking as evidenced by disorganized speech.
Tiapride is a drug that selectively blocks D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain.
Timiperone, sold under the brand name Tolopelon, is an antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class which is marketed in Japan.
Tiotixene, or thiothixene, sold under the brand name Navane among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene class which is related to chlorprothixene and is used in the treatment of psychoses like schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Trifluoperazine, sold under a number of brand names, is a typical antipsychotic primarily used to treat schizophrenia.
Triflupromazine (Vesprin) is an antipsychotic medication of the phenothiazine class.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons that project from the arcuate nucleus (the "infundibular nucleus") in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.
Valdecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
Veralipride (Agreal, Agradil) is a benzamide neuroleptic medicine indicated in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with the menopause.
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
Zotepine (brand names: Losizopilon (JP), Lodopin (ID, JP), Setous (JP), Zoleptil (CZ, PT, TR, UK†); where † indicates a formulation that has been discontinued) is an atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for acute and chronic schizophrenia.
Zuclopenthixol (brand names Cisordinol, Clopixol, Acuphase), also known as zuclopentixol, is a medication used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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