34 relations: Arab citizens of Israel, Arabic, Arabic literature, Athol Fugard, Dario Fo, David Avidan, Edward Albee, Elias Khoury, Emile Habibi, English language, Fassuta, French language, German language, Haaretz, Haifa, Harold Pinter, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Italian language, Jerusalem, Language, Mahmoud Darwish, Miriam Yalan-Shteklis, Novel, Palestinian Christians, Salman Masalha, Samuel Beckett, Spanish language, Taha Muhammad Ali, The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist, United States, University of Michigan, Whiting Awards, Yehiel De-Nur.
Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard OIS (born 11 June 1932) is a South African playwright, novelist, actor, and director who writes in South African English.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Dario Fo (24 March 1926 – 13 October 2016) was an Italian actor–playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left-wing and the recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature.
David Avidan (Hebrew: דוד אבידן) (February 21, 1934 – May 11, 1995) was an Israeli "poet, painter, filmmaker, publicist, and playwright" (as he often put it).
Edward Franklin Albee III (March 12, 1928 – September 16, 2016) was an American playwright known for works such as The Zoo Story (1958), The Sandbox (1959), Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962), and A Delicate Balance (1966).
Elias Khoury (إلياس خوري) (born 12 July 1948) is a Lebanese novelist, playwright, critic, and prominent public intellectual.
Imil (Emile) Shukri Habiby (إميل حبيبي, אמיל חביבי, 28 January 1922 – 2 May 1996) was an Israeli Arab writer of Arabic literature and a politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the communist parties Maki and Rakah.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Fassuta is an Arab local council on the northwestern slopes of Mount Meron in the Northern District of Israel, south of the Lebanese border.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Harold Pinter (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Mahmoud Darwish (maḥmūd darwīsh, 13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.
Miriam Yalan-Shteklis (sometimes translated Miriam Yalan-Stekelis) (מרים ילן-שטקליס) (21 September 1900 – 9 May 1984) was an Israeli writer and poet famous for her children's books.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
Salman Masalha (سلمان مصالحة, סלמאן מצאלחה; born November 4, 1953) is a poet, writer, essayist and translator.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Taha Muhammad Ali (طه محمد علي) (born 1931 in Saffuriyya, Galilee – October 2, 2011 in Nazareth) was a Palestinian poet.
The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist (الوقائع الغريبة في اختفاء سعيد أبي النحس المتشائل) is a 1974 satirical fiction book by Emile Habibi.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The Whiting Award is an American award presented annually to ten emerging writers in fiction, nonfiction, poetry and plays.
Yehiel De-Nur, Dinoor or Dinur ('De-Nur' means 'of the fire' in Aramaic), also known by his pen name Ka-Tsetnik 135633, born Yehiel Feiner (16 May 1909 – 17 July 2001), was a Jewish writer and Holocaust survivor, whose books were inspired by his time as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.