156 relations: Adherence (medicine), Agoraphobia, Alcohol, Alcoholism, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Psychiatric Association, Amygdala, Anemia, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aromatherapy, Art therapy, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Beta blocker, Biomarker (medicine), Brainstem, Breathing, Bullying, Buspirone, Caffeine, Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Cardiovascular disease, Cell membrane, Cerebellum, Child abuse, Chronic condition, Cingulate cortex, Clonazepam, Coeliac disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Compulsive behavior, Coping (psychology), Corticosterone, Dementia, Dendrite, Depression (mood), Developmental psychology, Diabetes mellitus, Diazepam, DSM-5, Eating disorder, Edvard Munch, ..., Elizabeth DeLong, Endocrine system, Ethanol, Evolutionary medicine, Evolutionary mismatch, Executive functions, Family therapy, Fatigue, Fear, Fixation (psychology), Flashback (psychology), Folate, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Generalized anxiety disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, Grey matter, Hallucinogen, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Headache, Heart arrhythmia, Heredity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hostage, Huntington's disease, Hypericum perforatum, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypervigilance, Hypochondriasis, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Inflammatory bowel disease, Inhalant, Inositol, Insular cortex, International Review of Psychiatry, Kai von Klitzing, Kava, KCNN2, Liebowitz social anxiety scale, Major depressive disorder, Meditation, Mental disorder, Multiple sclerosis, Neurotransmitter, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norwegians, Opioid, Painting, Palpitations, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Parabrachial nuclei, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Passiflora, Patient Health Questionnaire, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, Personality disorder, Perspiration, Pheochromocytoma, Phobia, Play therapy, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Poverty, Prefrontal cortex, Pregabalin, Psychiatry, Psychological stress, Psychotherapy, Quetiapine, Riboflavin, Sedative, Selective mutism, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensory processing, Separation anxiety disorder, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sexual dysfunction, Shyness, Smoking, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Solvent, Spasm, Specific phobia, Speech, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Stimulant, Stress (biology), Substance abuse, Substance use disorder, Symptom, Tachycardia, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, The Scream, Tobacco, Transcendental Meditation, Valerian (herb), Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), created by Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of anxiety in children and adults.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder that can be present in people susceptible to panic attacks and anxiety.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Compulsive behavior is defined as performing an act persistently and repetitively without it necessarily leading to an actual reward or pleasure.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Edvard Munch (12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter and printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th century.
Elizabeth Ray DeLong is an American biostatistician.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.
Evolutionary mismatch, also known as mismatch theory or evolutionary trap, is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to evolved traits that were once advantageous but became maladaptive due to changes in the environment.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.
A flashback, or involuntary recurrent memory, is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) is a self-reported questionnaire for screening and severity measuring of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) is a psychological questionnaire used by clinicians to rate the severity of a patient's anxiety.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was originally developed by Zigmond and Snaith (1983) and is commonly used by doctors to determine the levels of anxiety and depression that a patient is experiencing.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect activity.
Hypochondriasis or hypochondria is a condition in which a person is excessively and unduly worried about having a serious illness.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).
Kai von Klitzing (born 23 November 1954 in Aachen) is a German child and adolescent psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and professor at the University Hospital Leipzig.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2, also known as KCNN2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the KCNN2 gene.
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is a short questionnaire developed in 1987 by Michael Liebowitz, a psychiatrist and researcher at Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 550 species of flowering plants, the type genus of the family Passifloraceae.
The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a multiple-choice self-report inventory copyrighted by Pfizer Inc, that is used as a screening and diagnostic tool for mental health disorders of depression, anxiety, alcohol, eating, and somatoform disorders.
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
Play therapy is a method of meeting and responding to the mental health needs of children and is extensively acknowledged by experts as an effective and suitable intervention in dealing with children’s brain development.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech cannot speak in specific situations or to specific people.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD), is an anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (e.g., a parent, caregiver, significant other or siblings).
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Shyness (also called diffidence) is the feeling of apprehension, lack of comfort, or awkwardness especially when a person is around other people.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a self-report scale that measures distress when meeting and talking with others that is widely used in clinical settings and among social anxiety researchers.
Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) is a questionnaire developed by the department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of Duke University for screening and measuring severity of social anxiety disorder.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a psychological inventory based on a 4-point Likert scale and consists of 40 questions on a self-report basis.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, often shortened to TMAS, is a test of anxiety as a personality trait, and was created by Janet Taylor in 1953 to identify subjects who would be useful in the study of anxiety disorders.
The Scream (Skrik) is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch between 1893 and 1910.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation called the Transcendental Meditation technique, and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was designed by William W. K. Zung M.D, (1929-1992) a professor of Psychiatry from Duke University, to quantify a patient's level of anxiety.