135 relations: Adverse effect, Agonist, Alcoholic beverage, Allergy, Alprazolam, Amitriptyline, Aniracetam, Antidepressant, Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, Antioxidant, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiogenic, Anxiotropic, Autoreceptor, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Beta blocker, BNC210, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, British National Formulary, Bromantane, Bromazepam, Buspirone, Cannabidiol, Cannabinoid, Cannabis (drug), Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis, Cannabis sativa, Central nervous system, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlorphenamine, Choline, CL-218,872, Clonazepam, Clonidine, Clorazepate, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Coriander, Diazepam, Diphenhydramine, Diuretic, Doxepin, Drug tolerance, Duloxetine, Emoxypine, Ethanol, ..., Exposure therapy, Fabomotizole, Fluoxetine, Flurazepam, Fluvoxamine, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, GABA receptor, GABAergic, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Garcinia indica, Generalized anxiety disorder, Guanfacine, Histamine antagonist, Hydroxyzine, Hypnotic, Hypothalamus, Imipramine, Inositol, Interleukin 6, L-838,417, Latvia, Lethal dose, Light therapy, Lorazepam, Major depressive disorder, Mebicar, Melatonin, Menthyl isovalerate, Metabolite, Mirtazapine, Moclobemide, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Niacin, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Off-label use, Oxazepam, Oxprenolol, Palpitations, Panic disorder, Personality disorder, Pharmaceutical drug, Phenelzine, Picamilon, Pregabalin, Prodrug, Propranolol, Psychoactive drug, Pyridoxine, Racetam, Rebound effect, Recreational drug use, Rhinitis, S32212, Salvia elegans, Scutellaria lateriflora, Sedation, Sedative, Selank, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-medication, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, SL-651,498, Sleep, Sleep architecture, Sleep disorder, Social anxiety disorder, Structural analog, Tachycardia, Tandospirone, Temazepam, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Time release technology, Tofisopam, Tranquilizer, Tranylcypromine, Trazodone, Triazolam, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tuftsin, United States, Urticaria, Venlafaxine, 4,16-Androstadien-3β-ol, 5-HT1A receptor. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
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An alcoholic beverage is a drink which contains a substantial amount of the psychoactive drug ethanol (informally called alcohol).
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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.
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Alprazolam or, available as the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class.
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Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Levate, and many others) is the most widely used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
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Aniracetam (Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan) is an ampakine nootropic of the racetam chemical class purported to be considerably more potent than piracetam.
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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
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Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is a condition that can occur following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.
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Antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers) are a class of psychiatric medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, or disordered thought), in particular in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are increasingly being used in the management of non-psychotic disorders (ATC code N05A).
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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.
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Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.
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An anxiogenic or panicogenic substance is one that causes anxiety.
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An anxiotropic agent is one that modifies anxiety, a human emotion that has homologous processes in animals.
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An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
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Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia.
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Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
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Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Beta blockers (β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, or beta adrenergic receptor antagonists) are a class of drugs that are particularly used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, protecting the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention), and, in certain cases, hypertension.
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BNC210 (also known as IW-4123 during its time licensed to Ironwood Pharmaceuticals) is an anxiolytic drug that acts via negative allosteric modulation of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, by Bionomics Limited.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the National Health Service (NHS), including indication(s), contraindications, side effects, doses, legal classification, names and prices of available proprietary and generic formulations, and any other notable points.
Bromantane (brand name Ladasten) is a stimulant drug with anxiolytic properties developed in Russia during the late 1980s, which acts mainly by inhibiting the reuptake of both dopamine and serotonin in the brain, although it also has anticholinergic effects at very high doses.
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Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.
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Buspirone, trade name Buspar, is an anxiolytic psychotropic drug of the azapirone chemical class.
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
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Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors in cells that repress neurotransmitter release in the brain.
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Cannabis, also known as marijuana and by numerous other names, is a preparation of the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine.
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Cannabis indica, formally known as Cannabis sativa forma indica, is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family.
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Cannabis ruderalis is a species of Cannabis originating in central Russia.
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Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous plant in the Cannabis genus, a species of the Cannabaceae family.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chlordiazepoxide, is a sedative/hypnotic drug and benzodiazepine.
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Chlorphenamine (INN), chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN) or piriton (trade name), commonly marketed in the form of chlorphenamine maleate (Chlorphen-12), is a first-generation alkylamine antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
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Choline is a water-soluble nutrient.
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CL-218,872 is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research.
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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
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Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a sympatholytic medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
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Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene and Novo-Clopate), also known as clorazepate dipotassium, is a benzodiazepine.
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy.
Coriander (or; Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medication of the benzodiazepine type that alters the function of the brain.
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Diphenhydramine (abbreviated DPH, sometimes DHM) is a first-generation antihistamine possessing anticholinergic, antitussive, antiemetic, and sedative properties that is mainly used to treat allergies.
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A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine.
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Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant marketed worldwide.
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Drug tolerance is a pharmacology concept where a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is reduced followed repeated use, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect.
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Duloxetine (Cymbalta, and generics) is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) created by Eli Lilly.
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Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an antioxidant manufactured in Russia by Pharmasoft Pharmaceuticals.
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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.
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Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy used to treat anxiety disorders.
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Fabomotizole (brand name Afobazole) is an anxiolytic drug launched in Russia in the early 2000s.
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Fluoxetine (also known by the trade names Prozac, and Sarafem, among others) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
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Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
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Fluvoxamine (brand names: Faverin, Fevarin, Floxyfral, and Luvox) is a medication which functions as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and σ1 receptor agonist.
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
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A GABAergic agent (or drug) is a chemical that functions to directly modulate the GABA system in the body or brain.
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γ-Aminobutyric acid (or GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Garcinia indica, a plant in the mangosteen family (Clusiaceae), commonly known as kokum, is a fruit-bearing tree that has culinary, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Guanfacine (brand name Estulic, Tenex and the extended release Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and hypertension.
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A histamine antagonist, commonly called an antihistamine, is a pharmaceutical drug class which,, includes two types of drugs: histamine H1-receptor antagonists and histamine H2-receptor antagonists.
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Hydroxyzine (sold as Vistaril, Atarax) is a first-generation antihistamine of the diphenylmethane and piperazine class.
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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
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The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, "room, chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
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Imipramine (G 22355), sold as Tofranil and also known as melipramine, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) of the dibenzazepine group.
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Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula 6126 or (-CHOH-)6, a six-fold alcohol (polyol) of cyclohexane.
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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
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L-838,417 is an anxiolytic drug used in scientific research.
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Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.
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In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation.
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Light therapy or phototherapy (classically referred to as heliotherapy) consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
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Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication often used to treat anxiety disorders.
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.
Mebicar (mebicarum) is an anxiolytic medication produced by Latvian pharmaceutical company Olainfarm and sold in Latvia and the Russian Federation under the brand name Adaptol.
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Melatonin, chemically N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a substance found in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria.
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Menthyl isovalerate, also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid.
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Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism.
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Mirtazapine (brand names: Avanza, Axit, Mirtaz, Mirtazon, Remeron, Zispin) is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) introduced by Organon International in the United States in 1996, and is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
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Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are chemicals which inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family.
Niacin (also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid) is an organic compound with the formula and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients.
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Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, have certain thoughts repeatedly, or feel they need to perform certain routines repeatedly.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
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Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
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Oxprenolol (Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
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Palpitation is a perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of heart muscle contractions in the chest: hard beats, fast beats, irregular beats, and/or pauses.
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Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, causing a series of intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks.
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Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture.
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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
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Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
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Picamilon (also known as nicotinoyl-GABA, pycamilon, and pikamilon) is a drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and GABA.
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Pregabalin, also called β-isobutyl-γ-aminobutyric acid and isobutyl-GABA, is a medication used for epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
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A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
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Propranolol (INN) is a sympatholytic nonselective beta blocker.
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A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness.
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Pyridoxine is one form of vitamin B6.
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Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.
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The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.
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Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention to alter the state of consciousness (through alteration of the central nervous system) in order to create positive emotions and feelings.
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Rhinitis or coryza is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
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S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine.
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Salvia elegans, commonly called pineapple sage or tangerine sage, is a perennial shrub native to Mexico and Guatemala.
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Scutellaria lateriflora, known commonly as blue skullcap and mad dog skullcap, NatureServe.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
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A sedative or tranquilizer (or tranquilliser, see American and British English spelling differences) is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
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Selank (Russian: Cеланк) is a nootropic, anxiolytic peptide based drug developed by the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
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Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
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Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), also known as serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are a class of antidepressant drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other mood disorders.
SL-651,498 is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug used in scientific research, with a chemical structure most closely related to β-carboline derivatives such as abecarnil and gedocarnil.
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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
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Sleep architecture describes the structure and pattern of sleep and encompasses several variables.
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A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterised by an intense fear in one or more social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Structural analogs (structural analogue or simply analog) are models or representations that keep each other certain "structural similarity".
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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
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Tandospirone (Sediel), also known as metanopirone, is an anxiolytic and antidepressant used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma.
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Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or more precisely its main isomer (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ((6aR,10aR)-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), is the principal psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid) of cannabis.
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Time release technology (also known as sustained-release, extended-release, controlled-release, and other synonyms) is a mechanism used in pill tablets or capsules to dissolve a drug over time in order to be released slower and steadier into the bloodstream while having the advantage of being taken at less frequent intervals than immediate-release (IR) formulations of the same drug.
Tofisopam (Emandaxin, Grandaxin, Sériel) is an anxiolytic that is marketed in several European countries.
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A tranquilizer (US), tranquillizer (Oxford spelling), or tranquilliser (UK; see spelling differences), is a drug that induces tranquility in an individual.
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Tranylcypromine (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand names: Parnate, Jatrosom (which is a brand solely sold in Germany)) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)—it is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).
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Trazodone (sold under the brand names: Depyrel (IL†), Desyrel (CA, US†), Mesyrel (TW†), Molipaxin (IE, ZA, UK), Oleptro (US), Trazodil (IL), Trazorel (CA), Trialodine (US), Trittico (AT, HK, IL†, SG, RU)) is an antidepressant of the serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI) class.
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Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.
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Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are chemical compounds used primarily as antidepressants.
Tuftsin is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg) produced by enzymatic cleavage of the Fc-domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin G. It is produced primarily in the spleen.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, "nettle" from urere, "to burn"), commonly referred to as hives, is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps.
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Venlafaxine — brand names: Effexor, Effexor XR, Lanvexin, and Trevilor — is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
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4,16-Androstadien-3β-ol (code name PH94B, commercial name Aloradine or Aloradine IN) is a pherine which is under development by Pherin Pharmaceuticals in a nasal spray formulation for the acute (p.r.n.) treatment of social anxiety disorder in women.
The 5-HT1A receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
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