309 relations: Acer negundo, Acorn, Agave, Agave americana, Alaska, Allan Houser, Allium, Amaranthus albus, Anadarko, Oklahoma, Andropogon gerardi, Anthropologist, Anthropology, Apache Wars, Apache, Oklahoma, Apacheria, Archaeological culture, Arizona, Arizona's 1st congressional district, Aspen, Athabaskan languages, Baishan (Apache), Band society, Battle of Apache Pass, Battle of Cieneguilla, Bighorn sheep, Bison, Black River (Arizona), Bob Haozous, Bow and arrow, Camp Grant massacre, Canada, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Celtis, Chato (Apache), Cheilanthes, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium berlandieri, Chicano, Chilcotin language, Chili pepper, Chiricahua, Chlorogalum, Christianity, Clan, Coahuila, Cochise, Colorado, Colorado River (Texas), Comanche, Comparative method, ..., Consonant, Cota (plant), Cotton, Cottontail rabbit, Cousin, Coyote (mythology), Crataegus, Culture hero, Cylindropuntia, Cymopterus glomeratus, Cyperaceae, Dahteste, Dasylirion wheeleri, Deer blood, Dene, Dialect, Dime novel, Diospyros texana, Dismal River culture, Dog, Douglas Miles, Dulce, New Mexico, Durango, El Paso, Texas, Endangered language, English language, Euphorbia, Exonym and endonym, Extinct language, Fasting, Flatbread, Florida, Fort Apache (film), Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Fort Pickens, Fort Sill, Fort Sill Apache Tribe, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Gary Witherspoon, Geronimo, Gila River, Gouyen, Grandparent, Great Plains, Greenville Goodwin, Grenville Goodwin, Gulf of Mexico, Hare, Harry Hoijer, Helianthus, Heredity, Hesperoyucca whipplei, Hispanic, Historical fiction, Hogan, Hopi, Hops, Hualapai, Indian reservation, Indiana University, Ipomoea lacunosa, Iroquois, Iroquois kinship, James Mooney, Jay Tavare, Jicarilla Apache, Jicarilla language, Joanelle Romero, John Peabody Harrington, Juan de Oñate, Juniper berry, Juniperus deppeana, Juniperus monosperma, Kansas, Keith H. Basso, Kinship terminology, Kiowa, Leaf vegetable, Levirate marriage, Lipan Apache people, Lipan language, List of federally recognized tribes, List of Native American Medal of Honor recipients, Llanero, Llano River, Loco (Apache), Lozen, Mahonia trifoliolata, Maize, Mammillaria, Mangas Coloradas, Mary Kim Titla, Matrilineality, Medal of Honor, Medicine man, Mentha pulegium, Mescalero, Mescalero, New Mexico, Mescalero-Chiricahua language, Mesquite, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Mezcal, Michael E. Krauss, Mildred Cleghorn, Mogollon culture, Mogollon Mountains, Mohave people, Monarda, Morris Edward Opler, Morus (plant), Mythology, Na-Dene languages, Naiche, Nana (chief), Native American Church, Native Americans in the United States, Navajo, Navajo language, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nolina, Nomad, Northern Athabaskan languages, O'odham language, Oak, Oenothera, Oklahoma, Opuntia, Organ Mountains (New Mexico), Oxalis, Pacific Northwest, Pack rat, Parallel and cross cousins, Pawnee people, Pecos River, Phratry, Pine nut, Pinus ponderosa, Pinyon pine, Pitaya, Plains Apache, Plains Apache language, Portulaca oleracea, Pound (mass), Prefix, Prisoner of war, Proboscidea (plant), Pronghorn, Prosopis pubescens, Proto-language, Prunus virginiana, Psoralea esculenta, Pueblo, Quercus emoryi, Quercus gambelii, Quercus turbinella, Querecho Indians, Raoul Trujillo, Rarámuri, Raton Mesa, Red River of the South, Rhus trilobata, Ribes, Ribes leptanthum, Ribes pinetorum, Richard Aitson, Rio Chama, Rio Conchos, Rio Grande, Rio Salado (New Mexico), Robinia neomexicana, Rocky Mountains, Ronnie Lupe, Rootstock, Rosa arkansana, Sabal, Sacred, Saguaro, Salinero Apaches, Salt River (Arizona), Salvia, Sambucus nigra, San Antonio, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, San Juan River (Colorado River tributary), San Saba River, Sandpainting, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Rita Mountains, Scalping, Schoenoplectus acutus, Seed bead, Shepherd, Sibling, Sioux, Skeleton Canyon, Slavey language, Smithsonian Institution, Solanum jamesii, Sonora, Sororate marriage, Sound change, Southern Athabaskan languages, Southwestern United States, Spain, Spanish language, Sporobolus, Stephen Plog, Stolen Generations, Syllable, Tamaulipas, Tammie Allen, Taza (Chiricahua leader), Texas, Texas Panhandle, The Hague, Tipi, Tiswin, Tone (linguistics), Tonto Apache, Trans-cultural diffusion, Travois, Tribal chief, Tribe, Tribe (Native American), Trickster, Tuber, Tucson, Arizona, Typha, United States Army, University of Arizona, University of Cebu, University of Chicago Press, University of New Mexico, University of New Mexico Press, University of Oklahoma Press, Vanessa Jennings, Vicia, Victorio, Vitis, Warrior, Water dog, Western Apache language, Western Apache people, Western white pine, White Americans, Wigwam, William Alchesay, Word stem, Xerophyllum tenax, Yavapai, Yavapai language, Yavapai-Apache Nation, Yucca, Yucca angustissima, Yucca baccata, Zuni, Zuni language. Expand index (259 more) » « Shrink index
Acer negundo is a species of maple native to North America.
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Agave americana, common names sentry plant, century plant, maguey or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, native to Mexico, and the United States in New Mexico, Arizona and Texas.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Allan Capron Houser or Haozous (June 30, 1914 – August 22, 1994) was a Chiricahua Apache sculptor, painter and book illustrator born in Oklahoma.
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives.
Amaranthus albus is an annual species of flowering plant.
Anadarko is a city in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
Andropogon gerardi, known commonly as big bluestem, turkeyfoot, tall bluestem,Uchytil, R. J. 1988.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the southwest between 1849 and 1886, though minor hostilities continued until as late as 1924.
Apache is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, USA.
Apacheria was the term used to designate the region inhabited by the Apache people.
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arizona's 1st congressional district is a congressional district located in the U.S. state of Arizona.
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section ''Populus'', of the Populus genus.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Baishan, Spanish name Cuchillo Negro (Black Knife) (c. 1796 – May 24, 1857), was a Tchihende (Mimbres) Apache chieftain, of the Warm Springs Apache Band during the 1830s to 1850s.
A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.
The Battle of Apache Pass was fought in 1862 at Apache Pass, Arizona, in the United States, between Apache warriors and the Union volunteers of the California Column as it marched from California to capture Confederate Arizona and to reinforce New Mexico's Union army.
The Battle of Cieneguilla (pronounced sienna-GEE-ya; English: small swamp) was an engagement of the Jicarilla War involving a group of Jicarilla Apaches, possibly their Ute allies, and the American 1st Cavalry Regiment on March 30, 1854 near what is now Pilar, New Mexico.
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
The Black River is a river in the White Mountains of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Bob Haozous is a Chiricahua Apache sculptor from Santa Fe, New Mexico.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
The Camp Grant massacre, on April 30, 1871, was an attack on Pinal and Aravaipa Apaches who surrendered to the United States Army at Camp Grant, Arizona, along the San Pedro River.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capsella bursa-pastoris, known by its common name shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae that grows up to tall.
Celtis, commonly known as hackberries or nettle trees, is a genus of about 60–70 species of deciduous trees widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and southern and central North America, south to central Africa, and northern and central South America.
Chato (1854 – 13 August 1934) was a Chiricahua Apache subchief who carried out several raids on settlers in Arizona in the 1870s.
Cheilanthes (lip ferns) is a genus of about 180 species of rock-dwelling ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution in warm, dry, rocky regions, often growing in small crevices high up on cliffs.
Chenopodium album is a fast-growing weedy annual plant in the genus Chenopodium.
Chenopodium berlandieri, also known by the common names pitseed goosefoot, huauzontle, lamb's quarters, and lambsquarters is an annual herbaceous plant in the goosefoot family.
Chicano or Chicana (also spelled Xicano or Xicana) is a chosen identity of some Mexican Americans in the United States.
Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tsilhqut’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia by the Tsilhqot’in people.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chiricahua are a band of Apache Native Americans, based in the Southern Plains and Southwest United States. Culturally related to other Apache peoples, Chiricahua historically shared a common area, language, customs, and intertwined family relations. At the time of European contact, they had a territory of 15 million acres (61,000 km2) in Southwestern New Mexico and Southeastern Arizona in the United States and in Northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today Chiricahua are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes in the United States: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, Oklahoma with a small reservation outside Deming, New Mexico, and the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico. The San Carlos Apache Tribe, Arizona does have Chiricahua Apache people there also.
The common names soap plant, soaproot and amole refer to the genus Chlorogalum.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Cochise (Cheis or A-da-tli-chi, in Apache K'uu-ch'ish "oak"; c. 1805 – June 8, 1874) was leader of the Chihuicahui local group of the Chokonen ("central" or "real" Chiricahua) and principal chief (or nantan) of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Colorado River is an long river in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Cota is a genus belonging to the chamomile tribe within the sunflower family.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cottontail rabbits are among the 20 lagomorph species in the genus Sylvilagus, found in the Americas.
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.
Coyote is a mythological character common to many cultures of the indigenous peoples of North America, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal.
Crataegus (from the Greek kratos "strength" and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species) commonly called hawthorn, thornapple,Voss, E. G. 1985.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
Cylindropuntia is a genus of cacti (family Cactaceae), containing the cholla, native to northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Cymopterus glomeratus (Fendler's spring-parsley, Fendler's cymopterus, plains springparsley), now including Cymopterus acaulis, is a flowering plant.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
Dahteste (circa 1860–1955) was a Choconen Apache woman warrior.
Dasylirion wheeleri (desert spoon, spoon flower, or common sotol) is a species of flowering plant in the asparagus family Asparagaceae, native to arid environments of northern Mexico, in Chihuahua and Sonora and in the southwestern United States, in the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, and also in New Mexico and Texas.
Deer blood is used as a nutritional supplement in some parts of the world, particularly in East Asia.
The Dené people are an aboriginal group of First Nations who inhabit the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Canada.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The dime novel is a form of late 19th-century and early 20th-century U.S. popular fiction issued in series of inexpensive paperbound editions.
Diospyros texana is a species of persimmon that is native to central, south and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, and eastern Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico.
The Dismal River culture refers to a set of cultural attributes first seen in the Dismal River area of Nebraska in the 1930s by archaeologists William Duncan Strong, Waldo Rudolph Wedel and A. T. Hill.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Douglas Miles is a San Carlos Apache-Akimel O'odham painter, printmaker and photographer from Arizona, who founded Apache Skateboards and Apache Skate Team.
Dulce (or; Lóosi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
A flatbread is a bread made with flour, water and salt, and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fort Apache is a 1948 American western film directed by John Ford and starring John Wayne and Henry Fonda.
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in Arizona, United States, encompassing parts of Navajo, Gila, and Apache counties.
Fort Pickens is a pentagonal historic United States military fort on Santa Rosa Island in the Pensacola, Florida, area.
Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City.
The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is the federally recognized Native American tribe of Chiricahua Warm Springs Apache in Oklahoma.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
Gary J. Witherspoon (born 1943) is professor of Native American studies at the University of Washington.
Geronimo (Goyaałé "the one who yawns"; June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe.
The Gila River (O'odham Pima: Keli Akimel or simply Akimel, Quechan: Haa Siʼil) is a tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States.
Gouyen (in Mescalero Góyą́ń, "the one who is wise") (c. 1857-1903), was a 19th-century Apache woman noted for her heroism.
Grandparents are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Grenville Goodwin, born Greenville Goodwin (1907–1940), is best known for his participant-observer ethnology work among the Western Apache in the 1930s in the American Southwest.
Grenville W. "Gren" Goodwin (c. 1898 – 27 August 1951) was Mayor of Ottawa for several months in 1951.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 – March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hesperoyucca whipplei (syn. Yucca whipplei) (chaparral yucca, our Lord's candle, Spanish bayonet, Quixote yucca or foothill yucca is a species of flowering plant closely related to, and formerly usually included in, the genus Yucca. It is native to southern California, United States and Baja California, Mexico, where it occurs mainly in chaparral, coastal sage scrub, and oak woodland plant communities at altitudes of 0–2500 m.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
A hogan (or; from Navajo) is the primary, traditional dwelling of the Navajo people.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
The Hualapai (pronounced Wa-la-pie) is a federally recognized Indian tribe in Arizona with over 2300 enrolled members.
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
Ipomoea lacunosa, the whitestar, white morning-glory or pitted morningglory, is a species that belongs to the genus Ipomoea.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system.
James Mooney (February 10, 1861 – December 22, 1921) was an American ethnographer who lived for several years among the Cherokee.
Jay Tavare (b. 1968), is a Native American film actor and blogger for The Huffington Post.
Jicarilla Apache one of several loosely organized autonomous bands of the Eastern Apache, refers to the members of the Jicarilla Apache Nation currently living in New Mexico and speaking a Southern Athabaskan language.
Jicarilla (Abáachi mizaa) is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Jicarilla Apache.
Joanelle Romero is a Native American humanitarian, filmmaker, actress, recording artist and entrepreneur.
John Peabody Harrington (April 29, 1884 – October 21, 1961) was an American linguist and ethnologist and a specialist in the native peoples of California.
Juan de Oñate y Salazar (1550–1626) was a conquistador from New Spain, explorer, and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain.
A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers.
Juniperus deppeana (alligator juniper or checkerbark juniper; Native American names include táscate and tláscal) is a small to medium-sized tree reaching 10–15 m (rarely to 25 m) tall.
Juniperus monosperma (one-seed juniper) is a species of juniper native to western North America, in the United States in Arizona, New Mexico, southern Colorado, western Oklahoma (Panhandle), and western Texas, and in Mexico in the extreme north of Chihuahua.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Keith Hamilton Basso (March 15, 1940 – August 4, 2013) was a cultural and linguistic anthropologist noted for his study of the Western Apaches, specifically those from the community of Cibecue, Arizona.
Kinship terminology is the system used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship.
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains.
Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow.
Lipan Apache are Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) Native Americans whose traditional territory included present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century.
Lipan is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Lipan Apache.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
This is a list of Native Americans awarded the nation's highest military decoration — the Medal of Honor.
A llanero (plainsman) is a Latino herder.
The Llano River is a tributary of the Colorado River, approximately long, in central Texas in the United States.
Loco (1823–2 February 1905) was a Copper Mines Mimbreño Apache chief who was known for seeking peace at all costs with the US Army, despite the outlook of his fellow apaches like Victorio and Geronimo.
Lozen (c. 1840-June 17, 1889) was a female warrior and prophet of the Chihenne Chiricahua Apache.
Mahonia trifoliolata is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, in southwestern North America.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The genus Mammillaria is one of the largest in the cactus family (Cactaceae), with currently 200 known species and varieties recognized.
Mangas Coloradas or Mangus-Colorado (La-choy Ko-kun-noste, alias "Red Sleeve"), or Dasoda-hae ("He Just Sits There") (c. 1793 – January 18, 1863) was an Apache tribal chief and a member of the Mimbreño (Tchihende) division of the Central Apaches, whose homeland stretched west from the Rio Grande to include most of what is present-day southwestern New Mexico.
Mary Kim Titla (born November 24, 1960) is an American publisher, Native American youth advocate, journalist, former TV reporter (notably for KVOA in Tucson, where in 1987 she became the first Native American television journalist in Arizona, and later KPNX in Phoenix), and was a 2008 candidate for Arizona's First Congressional District.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
Mentha pulegium, commonly (European) pennyroyal, or pennyrile, also called squaw mint, mosquito plant and pudding grass, is a species of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae family, or mint family, native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache tribe of Southern Athabaskan Native Americans.
Mescalero is a census-designated place (CDP) in Otero County, New Mexico, United States, located on the Mescalero Apache Reservation.
Mescalero-Chiricahua (also known as Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Mescalero and the Chiricahua tribes in Oklahoma and New Mexico.
Mesquite is a common name for several plants in the genus Prosopis, which contains over 40 species of small leguminous trees.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mezcal (or mescal) is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from any type of agave.
Michael E. Krauss (born August 15, 1934) is an American linguist, professor emeritus, founder and long-time head of the Alaska Native Language Center.
Mildred Cleghorn (December 11, 1910 – April 15, 1997) was first chairperson of the Fort Sill Apache Tribe.
Mogollon culture is an archaeological culture of Native American peoples from Southern New Mexico and Arizona, Northern Sonora and Chihuahua, and Western Texas, a region known as Oasisamerica.
The Mogollon Mountains or Mogollon Range are a mountain range in Grant County and Catron County of southwestern New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States.
Mohave or Mojave (Mojave: 'Aha Makhav) are a Native American people indigenous to the Colorado River in the Mojave Desert.
Monarda is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
Morris Edward Opler (May 3, 1907 – May 13, 1996), American anthropologist and advocate of Japanese American civil rights, was born in Buffalo, New York.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
Chief Naiche (ca. 1857-1919) was the final hereditary chief of the Chiricahua band of Apache Indians.
Kas-tziden ("Broken Foot") or Haškɛnadɨltla ("Angry, He is Agitated"), more widely known by his Mexican-Spanish appellation Nana ("grandma" or "lullaby") (1800? – May 19, 1896), was a warrior and chief of the Chihenne band (better known as Warm Springs Apache) of the Chiricahua Apache.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nolina is a genus of tropical xerophytic flowering plants, with the principal distribution being in Mexico and extending into the southern United States.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Northern Athabaskan is a geographic sub-grouping of the Athabaskan language family spoken by indigenous peoples in the northern part of North America, particularly in Alaska (Alaskan Athabaskans), the Yukon and the Northwest Territories.
O'odham (pronounced) or Papago-Pima is a Uto-Aztecan language of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico, where the Tohono O'odham (formerly called the Papago) and Akimel O'odham (traditionally called Pima) reside.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oenothera is a genus of about 145 species of herbaceous flowering plants native to the Americas.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
The Organ Mountains are a rugged mountain range in southern New Mexico in the Southwestern United States.
Oxalis is a large genus of flowering plants in the wood-sorrel family Oxalidaceae comprising about 570 species.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
A pack rat or packrat, also called a woodrat, can be any of the species in the rodent genus Neotoma.
In discussing consanguineal kinship in anthropology, a parallel cousin or ortho-cousin is a cousin from a parent's same-sex sibling, while a cross-cousin is from a parent's opposite-sex sibling.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
The Pecos River is a river that originates in eastern New Mexico and flows into Texas, emptying into the Rio Grande.
In ancient Greece, a phratry (phratria, φ(ρ)ατρία, "brotherhood", "kinfolk", derived from φρατήρ meaning "brother") was a social division of the Greek tribe (phyle). The nature of these phratries is, in the words of one historian, "the darkest problem among the social institutions." Little is known about the role they played in Greek social life, but they existed from the Greek Dark Ages until the 2nd century BC; Homer refers to them several times, in passages that appear to describe the social environment of his times. In Athens, enrollment in a phratry seems to have been the basic requirement for citizenship in the state before the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. From their peak of prominence in the Dark Ages, when they appear to have been a substantial force in Greek social life, phratries gradually declined in significance throughout the classical period as other groups (such as political parties) gained influence at their cost. Phratries contained smaller kin groups called gene; these appear to have arisen later than phratries, and it appears that not all members of phratries belonged to a genos; membership in these smaller groups may have been limited to elites. On an even smaller level, the basic kinship group of ancient Greek societies was the oikos (household).
Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada.
The pinyon or piñon pine group grows in the southwestern United States, especially in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah.
A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several cactus species indigenous to the Americas.
The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America, in close association with the linguistically unrelated Kiowa nation, and today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma.
The Plains Apache language (or Kiowa Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Plains Apache peoples living primarily in central Oklahoma.
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as verdolaga, red root, or pursley) is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach in height.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Proboscidea is a genus of flowering plant in the family Martyniaceae, some of whose species are known as devil's claw, devil's horn, ram's horn, or unicorn plant.
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America.
Prosopis pubescens, commonly known as screwbean mesquite, is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the southwestern United States (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California, southern Nevada and Utah) and northern Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora).
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Prunus virginiana, commonly called bitter-berry, chokecherry, Virginia bird cherry and western chokecherry (also black chokecherry for P. virginiana var. demissa), is a species of bird cherry (Prunus subgenus Padus) native to North America; the natural historic range of P. virginiana includes most of Canada (including Northwest Territories but excluding Yukon, Nunavut, and Labrador), most of the United States (including Alaska but excluding some states in the Southeast) and northern Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Baja California, Durango, Zacatecas, Coahuila and Nuevo León).
Psoralea esculenta, common name prairie turnip, is an herbaceous perennial plant native to prairies and dry woodlands of central North America, which bears a starchy tuberous root edible as a root vegetable.
Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States.
Quercus gambelii, with the common name Gambel oak, is a deciduous small tree or large shrub that is widespread in the foothills and lower mountain elevations of western North America.
Quercus turbinella is a North American species of oak known by the common names Turbinella oak, Arizona shrub live oak, and Gray shrub oak.
The Querechos were a Native American people.
Raoul Maximiano Trujillo de Chauvelon (born May 8, 1955) is an American actor, dancer, and choreographer.
The Rarámuri or Tarahumara are a group of Indigenous people of the Americas living in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico.
Raton Mesa is the collective name of several mesas on the eastern side of Raton Pass in New Mexico and Colorado.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Rhus trilobata is a shrub in the sumac genus (Rhus) with the common names skunkbush sumac, sourberry, skunkbush, and three-leaf sumac.
Ribes is a genus of about 150 known species of flowering plants native throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Ribes leptanthum is a spiny-stemmed, small-leaved species of gooseberry in the genus Ribes commonly called trumpet gooseberry.
Ribes pinetorum, the orange gooseberry, is a plant species native to Arizona and New Mexico.
Richard Aitson (born 1953) is a Kiowa-Kiowa Apache bead artist, curator, and poet from Oklahoma.
The Rio Chama, a major tributary river of the Rio Grande, is located in the U.S. states of Colorado and New Mexico.
The Río Conchos (Conchos River) is a large river in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Rio Salado is a tributary of the Rio Grande in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Robinia neomexicana, the New Mexican, New Mexico, Southwest, Desert, Pink, or rose locust), is a shrub or small tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Ronnie Lupe is an American politician and is currently serving as the Chairman of the White Mountain Apache Tribe.
A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced.
Rosa arkansana, the prairie rose or wild prairie rose, is a species of rose native to a large area of central North America, between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains from Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan south to New Mexico, Texas and Indiana.
Sabal is a genus of New World palms, commonly known as palmettos.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
The saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is an arborescent (tree-like) cactus species in the monotypic genus Carnegiea, which can grow to be over tall.
The Salinero Apaches were an Apache group closely associated with the Mescalero Apaches who lived in the area of what is now western Texas, eastern New Mexico and northern Chihuahua in the 18th century.
The Salt River (O'odham Pima: Onk Akimel, Yavapai: ʼHakanyacha or Hakathi) is a stream in the U.S. state of Arizona.
Salvia is the largest genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, with nearly 1000 species of shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals.
Sambucus nigra is a species complex of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae native to most of Europe and North America.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
The San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, in southeastern Arizona, United States, was established in 1872 as a reservation for the Chiricahua Apache tribe as well as surrounding Yavapai and Apache bands forcibly removed from their original homelands under a strategy devised by General Crook of using an Apache to catch an Apache.
The San Juan River is a major tributary of the Colorado River in the southwestern United States, providing the chief drainage for the Four Corners region of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona.
The San Saba River (San Sabá) is a river in the U.S. state of Texas.
Sandpainting is the art of pouring coloured sands, and powdered pigments from minerals or crystals, or pigments from other natural or synthetic sources onto a surface to make a fixed, or unfixed sand painting.
Santa Fe (or; Tewa: Ogha Po'oge, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The Santa Rita Mountains (O'odham: To:wa Kuswo Doʼag), located about 65 km (40 mi) southeast of Tucson, Arizona, extend 42 km (26 mi) from north to south, then trending southeast.
Scalping is the act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp, with hair attached, from the head of an enemy as a trophy.
Schoenoplectus acutus (syn. Scirpus acutus, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus lacustris subsp. acutus), called tule, common tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, or viscid bulrush, is a giant species of sedge in the plant family Cyperaceae, native to freshwater marshes all over North America.
Seed beads or rocailles are uniformly shaped, spheroidal beads ranging in size from under a millimeter to several millimeters.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
Skeleton Canyon, called Canon Bonita by the Mexicans, is located northeast of the town of Douglas, Arizona, in the Peloncillo Mountains, which straddle the modern Arizona and New Mexico state line, in the New Mexico Bootheel region.
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Solanum jamesii (common name, wild potato) is a species of nightshade.
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
Sororate marriage is a type of marriage in which a husband engages in marriage or sexual relations with the sister of his wife, usually after the death of his wife or if his wife has proven infertile.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah) and the Mexican state of Sonora, with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sporobolus is a nearly cosmopolitan genus of plants in the grass family.
Stephen Plog is a notable American archaeologist and anthropologist, who specializes in the pre-Columbian cultures of the American Southwest.
The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tammie Allen (born 1964) is a contemporary Native American potter, enrolled in the Jicarilla Apache Nation.
Taza (also Tazi; Tazhe; Tah-ze; Tahzi; Tahzay; Tazhay) (c. 1843 – 26 September 1876) was the son of Cochise, leader of the Chihuicahui local group of the Chokonen and principal chief of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache and his principal wife Dos-teh-seh (“Something-at-the-campfire-already-cooked”), the daughter of Mangus Coloradas, leader of the Copper Mines and last leader of the Mimbreños local groups of the Chihenne band and principal chief of the Chihenne band of the Chiricahua Apache.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
A tipi (also teepee) is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.
Tiswin is an alcoholic beverage brewed from corn.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
A travois (Canadian French, from French travail, a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structure that was used by indigenous peoples, notably the Plains Indians of North America, to drag loads over land.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
In the United States, an Indian tribe, Native American tribe, tribal nation or similar concept is any extant or historical clan, tribe, band, nation, or other group or community of Indigenous peoples in the United States.
In mythology, and in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story (god, goddess, spirit, man, woman, or anthropomorphisation), which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, and uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
The University of Cebu (UC) (Unibersidad sa Sugbo) and (Pamantasan ng Cebu) is an educational institution in Cebu City, Philippines founded in 1964, offering preschool, grade school, junior & senior high school, undergraduate degrees, and post-graduate degrees.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The University of New Mexico Press, founded in 1929, is a university press that is part of the University of New Mexico.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
Vanessa Paukeigope (Santos) (Morgan) Jennings (born October 5, 1952) is a Kiowa-Kiowa Apache-Gila River Pima regalia maker, clothing designer, cradleboard maker, and bead artist from Oklahoma.
Vicia is a genus of about 140 species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family (Fabaceae), and which are commonly known as vetches.
Victorio (Bidu-ya, Beduiat; ca. 1825–October 14, 1880) was a warrior and chief of the Warm Springs band of the Tchihendeh (or Chihenne, usually called Mimbreño) division of the central Apaches in what is now the American states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua.
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae.
A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.
Water dogs are a type of gun dog bred to flush and retrieve game from water, often serving the waterfowl hunter.
The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken among the 14,000 Western Apaches living primarily in east central Arizona as well as Texas and New Mexico.
The Western Apache live primarily in east central Arizona, in the United States.
Western white pine (Pinus monticola) also called silver pine, and California mountain pine, in the family Pinaceae, is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the northern Rocky Mountains.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.
Alchesay (aka William Alchesay and Alchisay, May 17, 1853 – August 6, 1928) was a chief of the White Mountain Apache tribe and an Indian Scout.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Xerophyllum tenax is a North American species of plants in the corn lily family.
Yavapai are a Native American tribe in Arizona.
Yavapai is an Upland Yuman language, spoken by Yavapai people in central and western Arizona.
The Yavapai-Apache Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Verde Valley, Arizona.
Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae.
Yucca angustissima, the narrowleaf yucca, is a plant in the family Agavaceae, known as the "narrow-leaved yucca.
Yucca baccata (datil yucca or banana yucca) is a common species of yucca native to the deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, from southeastern California north to Utah, east to western Texas and south to Sonora and Chihuahua.
The Zuni (A:shiwi; formerly spelled Zuñi) are Native American Pueblo peoples native to the Zuni River valley.
Zuni (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.