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Index Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start. [1]

431 relations: Abortion, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Adriaan Vlok, Africa Hinterland, African National Congress, African National Congress Youth League, African Political Organization, Afrikaans, Afrikaner Calvinism, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, Afrikaners, Albertina Sisulu, Allan Boesak, Alwyn Schlebusch, American Legislative Exchange Council, André Beaufre, Anglo American plc, Angola, Angolan Civil War, Anti-Apartheid Movement, Apartheid in popular culture, Apartheid legislation, Apartheid Museum, Apportionment (politics), Archie Gumede, Arms embargo, Asian South Africans, Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, 1946, Atlantic Charter, Autonomy, Azanian People's Liberation Army, Baasskap, Bantu Authorities Act, 1951, Bantu Education Act, 1953, Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act, 1970, Bantu Investment Corporation Act, 1959, Bantu peoples, Bantu peoples in South Africa, Bantustan, Basil D'Oliveira, Battle of Blood River, Belhar Confession, Bernard Ingham, Bisho massacre, Black Consciousness Movement, Black nationalism, Black Sash, Bloemfontein, Boer Republics, Boipatong massacre, ..., Bophuthatswana, Born a Crime, Botswana, Boycott, British Empire, Brussels, C. R. Swart, Cape Colony, Cape Malays, Cape Town, Car bomb, Carnation Revolution, Cecil Rhodes, Central African Republic, Chinese South Africans, Chris Barnard (executioner), Chris Hani, Ciskei, Civil Cooperation Bureau, Cloud cuckoo land, Cold War, Colin Coleman, Colin Eglin, Colonialism, Coloureds, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Communism, Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act, Conservative Party (South Africa), Constructive engagement, Containment, Crime, Crime of apartheid, Crimes against humanity, Cuba, D. F. Malan, Dag Hammarskjöld, Day of Reconciliation, Death squad, Democracy Now!, Democratic Party (United States), Desmond Tutu, Die Stem van Suid-Afrika, Disinvestment from South Africa, District Six, Dominant minority, Dominant-party system, Dominion, Don Bradman, Dotdash, Doug Booth, Drakenstein Correctional Centre, Durban, Dutch Empire, Dutch people, Eastern Cape, Economic sanctions, Education in South Africa, Elsevier, English law, Entrenched clause, Equity (British trade union), Ethnic groups in Europe, Ex Unitate Vires, F. W. de Klerk, FIFA, Flag of South Africa, Flagellation, Foot washing, Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid, Franchise and Ballot Act, Frank Chikane, Free Press (publisher), Free World, Freedom Day (South Africa), Freedom of the press, Frontline States, Garfield Sobers, Gauteng, Gazankulu, George P. Shultz, Germans, Glen Grey Act, Gleneagles Agreement, Graaff-Reinet, Greenwood Publishing Group, Groote Schuur, Group Areas Act, Harold Macmillan, Harper (publisher), Harry Schwarz, Hastings Banda, Helen Joseph, Helen Suzman, Hendrik Verwoerd, Herenigde Nasionale Party, Homosexuality, Honorary whites, House of Assembly of South Africa, Huguenots, Ideocracy, Illegal immigration, Immorality Act, Indentured servitude, India, Indian South Africans, Inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, Inkatha Freedom Party, Internal resistance to apartheid, International Court of Justice, International Labour Organization, International Olympic Committee, International sanctions, International Table Tennis Federation, Israel, Israel and the apartheid analogy, Ivory Coast, J. B. M. Hertzog, J. G. Strijdom, Jan Smuts, Janusz Waluś, Japan, Jim Crow laws, Johannesburg, John Vorster, KaNgwane, Kenneth Kaunda, Keynote, Khoikhoi, Khoisan, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, KwaZulu-Natal, Landdrost, Latin, Lebowa, Leon Wessels, Les Payne, Lesotho, Leverage (negotiation), Liberation before education, Liberia, Library of Congress, Liquor, London Recruits (book), Los Angeles Times, Lucas Mangope, Lusaka, Lusaka Manifesto, Lyal S. Sunga, Macmillan Publishers, Madagascar, Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, Malawi, Malay race, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Margaret Thatcher, Maritz rebellion, Marlon Brando, Marthinus van Schalkwyk, Marxism, Mauritius, Māori people, Meadowlands, Gauteng, Miscegenation, Mozambican Civil War, Mozambique, MPLA, Music in the movement against apartheid, Namibia, Natal (province), Nation state, National Party (South Africa), Natives Land Act, 1913, NATO, Necklacing, Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Neocolonialism, Netherlands, New Zealand national rugby union team, Nigeria, Nkomati Accord, Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika, Nobel Peace Prize, Nordic countries, Northern Sotho language, Ohio University Press, Oliver Tambo, Olof Palme, Operation Savannah (Angola), Organisation of African Unity, Oscar Mpetha, Overseas Indonesians, Oxford University Press, P. W. Botha, Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, Paramount chief, Parliament of South Africa, Parliamentary system, Pass laws, People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola, People's Liberation Army of Namibia, Philadelphia Daily News, Point of no return, Poles, Political Geography (journal), Pollsmoor Prison, Pontypool, Pope John Paul II, Population Registration Act, 1950, Portugal, Pretoria, Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, 1951, Progressive Federal Party, Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, Public holidays in South Africa, QwaQwa, Race (human categorization), Racial segregation, Radio navigation, Raid on Gaborone, RENAMO, Republic, Republican Party (United States), Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, 1953, Residential segregation in the United States, Right to property, Robert Lacour-Gayet, Robert Mugabe, Roman-Dutch law, Ronald Reagan, Ruth First, Sabotage, Safe house, Saint James Church massacre, Samora Machel, Sandra Laing, Sauer Commission, Saul Dubow, Second Boer War, Second-class citizen, Self-governance, Senate of South Africa, Senegal, Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951, Sex education, Sexism, Seychelles, Shanty town, Sharpeville, Sharpeville massacre, Shimon Peres, Slavery, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Slum clearance, Social conservatism, Social movement, Sophiatown, Soshangane, Sotho language, Sotho people, South Africa, South Africa and weapons of mass destruction, South Africa national rugby union team, South African apartheid referendum, 1992, South African Broadcasting Corporation, South African Communist Party, South African Defence Force, South African English, South African Football Association, South African general election, 1948, South African general election, 1994, South African Press Association, South African rand, South African Republic, South African republic referendum, 1960, South Korea, South West Africa, Southern Ndebele people, Soweto, Soweto uprising, Special forces, Sri Lanka, State of emergency, State President of South Africa, State Security Council, Steve Biko, Stockholm, Storming of Kempton Park World Trade Centre, Suffrage, Supply and demand, Suppression of Communism Act, 1950, Supreme Court of the United States, SWAPO, Swazi people, Swaziland, Sweden, Swellendam, Swiss–South African Association, Switzerland, Taiwan, Television, Television in South Africa, Terrorism, Thabo Mbeki, The Boston Globe, The Crown, The Guardian, The Journal of Politics, The New York Times, The Reverend, The State of Africa, The Washington Post, Thembu people, Thomas Sowell, Time (magazine), Torture, Township (South Africa), Transkei, Transvaal (province), Tricameral Parliament, Truth and reconciliation commission, Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), Tswana language, Tswana people, Umkhonto we Sizwe, Union of South Africa, UNITA, Unitary state, United Democratic Front (South Africa), United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, United Nations Security Council Resolution 392, United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, United Party (South Africa), United States Congress, Universal suffrage, University of Durban-Westville, University of Fort Hare, University of Limpopo, University of the Western Cape, University of Zululand, Venda, Venda language, Venda people, Vereeniging, Vice State President of South Africa, Warsaw Pact, Western Cape, White Australia policy, White South Africans, White supremacy, Wind of Change (speech), Witwatersrand, World Conference against Racism, World War II, Writers' Guild of Great Britain, Xhosa language, Xhosa people, Zaire, Zambia, Zed Books, Zimbabwe, Zulu language, Zulu people, 1964 Summer Olympics, 1968 Summer Olympics, 1978 Commonwealth Games, 1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt, 1981 South Africa rugby union tour of New Zealand and the United States, 1986 Commonwealth Games, 1986 Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 crash, 1994 Bophuthatswana crisis, 1995 Rugby World Cup. Expand index (381 more) »


Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, KBE (December 1912 – 15 January 1966) was a Nigerian politician, and the first prime minister of an independent Nigeria.

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Adriaan Vlok

Adriaan Johannes Vlok (born 11 December 1937) is a South African politician.

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Africa Hinterland

Africa Hinterland was an overland travel company set up in the UK in the early 1980s to smuggle arms into South Africa for the military struggle against the apartheid system.

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African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.

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African National Congress Youth League

The African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) is the youth wing of the African National Congress.

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African Political Organization

The African Political Organization, later known as the African People's Organization (APO), was a coloured political organisation in early-20th-century South Africa.

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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Afrikaner Calvinism

Afrikaner Calvinism is a theoretical cultural and religious development among Afrikaners that combined elements of seventeenth-century Calvinist doctrine with a "chosen people" ideology similar to that espoused by proponents of the Jewish nation movement.

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Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging

The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement, commonly known by its abbreviation AWB is a South African neo-Nazi separatist political and paramilitary organisation, often described as a white supremacist group.

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Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Albertina Sisulu

Nontsikelelo Albertina Sisulu (21 October 1918 – 2 June 2011) was a South African anti–apartheid activist, and the wife of fellow activist Walter Sisulu (1912–2003).

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Allan Boesak

Allan Aubrey Boesak (born 23 February 1946) is a South African Dutch Reformed Church cleric and politician and anti-apartheid activist.

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Alwyn Schlebusch

Alwyn Louis Schlebusch (16 September 1917 – 7 January 2008) was a South African politician, the only holder of the title Vice State President of South Africa from 1 January 1981 to 14 September 1984.

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American Legislative Exchange Council

The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is a nonprofit organization of conservative state legislators and private sector representatives who draft and share model state-level legislation for distribution among state governments in the United States.

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André Beaufre

André Beaufre (25 January 1902 – 13 February 1975) was a French Army officer and military strategist who attained the rank of Général d'Armée (Army General) before his retirement in 1961.

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Anglo American plc

Anglo American plc is a multinational mining company based in Johannesburg, South Africa and London, United Kingdom.

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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.

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Anti-Apartheid Movement

The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing the South African apartheid system and supporting South Africa's non-White population who were persecuted by the policies of apartheid.

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Apartheid in popular culture

There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented Apartheid in popular culture.

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Apartheid legislation

The system of racial segregation in South Africa known as apartheid was implemented and enforced by a large number of acts and other laws.

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Apartheid Museum

The Apartheid Museum is a museum in Johannesburg, South Africa illustrating apartheid and the 20th century history of South Africa.

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Apportionment (politics)

Apportionment is the process by which seats in a legislative body are distributed among administrative divisions entitled to representation.

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Archie Gumede

Archibald Jacob Gumede (1914–1998) was a South African anti-apartheid activist, lawyer and politician.

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Arms embargo

An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".

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Asian South Africans

Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.

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Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, 1946

The Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, 1946 (Act No. 28 of 1946; subsequently renamed the Asiatic Land Tenure Act, 1946, and also known as the "Ghetto Act") of South Africa sought to confine Asian ownership and occupation of land to certain clearly defined areas of towns.

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Atlantic Charter

The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941, which defined the Allied goals for the post war world.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Azanian People's Liberation Army

The Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), formerly known as Poqo, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist movement in South Africa.

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Baasskap was a concept referring to white supremacy in South Africa which was used during apartheid.

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Bantu Authorities Act, 1951

The Bantu Authorities Act, 1951 (Act No. 68 of 1951; subsequently renamed the Black Authorities Act, 1951) was to give authority to Traditional Tribal Leader within their traditional tribal homelands in South Africa.

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Bantu Education Act, 1953

The Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a South African segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system passed by the Apartheid regime which was really not on the side of the black community.

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Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act, 1970

The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act, 1970 (Act No. 26 of 1970; subsequently renamed the Black States Citizenship Act, 1970 and the National States Citizenship Act, 1970) was a Self Determination or denaturalization law passed during the apartheid era of South Africa that allocated various tribes/nations of black South Africans as citizens of their traditional black tribal "homelands," or Bantustans.

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Bantu Investment Corporation Act, 1959

The Bantu Investment Corporation Act, Act No 34 of 1959, formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.

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Bantu peoples

The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.

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Bantu peoples in South Africa

Blacks from South Africa were at times officially called "Bantu" by the apartheid regime.

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A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.

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Basil D'Oliveira

Basil Lewis D'Oliveira CBE OIS (4 October 1931 – 19 November 2011) was an England international cricketer of South African Cape Coloured background, whose potential selection by England for the scheduled 1968–69 tour of apartheid-era South Africa caused the D'Oliveira affair.

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Battle of Blood River

The Battle of Blood River (Slag van Bloedrivier; iMpi yaseNcome) is the name given for the battle fought between 470 Voortrekkers ("Pioneers"), led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated "10 000 to 15 000" Zulu on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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Belhar Confession

The Belhar Confession (Belydenis van Belhar) is a Christian statement of belief written in Afrikaans in 1982.

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Bernard Ingham

Sir Bernard Ingham (born 21 June 1932) is a British journalist and former civil servant, best known as Margaret Thatcher's long-serving chief press secretary while she was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990.

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Bisho massacre

The Bisho massacre occurred on 7 September 1992 in Bisho, in the then nominally independent homeland of Ciskei which is now part of the Eastern Cape in South Africa.

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Black Consciousness Movement

The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of the political vacuum created by the jailing and banning of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.

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Black nationalism

Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.

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Black Sash

The Black Sash was a non-violent white women's resistance organization that was founded on 19 May 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair, Ruth Foley, Elizabeth McLaren, Tertia Pybus, Jean Bosazza, and Helen Newton-Thompson.

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Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.

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Boer Republics

The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.

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Boipatong massacre

The Boipatong massacre took place on the night of 17 June 1992 in the township of Boipatong, South Africa.

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Bophuthatswana (meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan ("homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) and nominally independent (independence was recognized only by South Africa) parliamentary democracy in the northwestern region of South Africa.

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Born a Crime

Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood is an autobiographical comedy book written by the South African comedian Trevor Noah.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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C. R. Swart

Charles Robberts Swart, (5 December 1894 – 16 July 1982), nicknamed Blackiehttp://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/charles-robberts-blackie-swart-first-state-president-south-africa-born was a South African politician who served as the last Governor-General of Union of South Africa from 1959 to 1961 and the first State President of the Republic of South Africa from 1961 to 1967.

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Cape Colony

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.

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Cape Malays

Cape Malays are an ethnic group or community in South Africa.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.

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Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chinese South Africans

Chinese South Africans are overseas Chinese who reside in South Africa, including those whose ancestors came to South Africa in the early 20th century until Chinese immigration was banned under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904, Taiwanese industrialists who arrived in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and post-apartheid immigrants to South Africa (predominantly from mainland China), who now outnumber locally-born Chinese South Africans.

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Chris Barnard (executioner)

Chris Barnard (died between 1990 and 2008) was a South African executioner during the Apartheid Era.

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Chris Hani

Chris Hani (28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993), born Martin Thembisile Hani, was the leader of the South African Communist Party and chief of staff of uMkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC).

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Ciskei was a nominally independent state – a Bantustan – in the south east of South Africa.

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Civil Cooperation Bureau

The South African Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a government-sponsored death squad during the apartheid era that operated under the authority of Defence Minister General Magnus Malan.

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Cloud cuckoo land

Cloud cuckoo land is a state of absurdly, over-optimistic fantasy or an unrealistically idealistic state where everything is perfect.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colin Coleman

Colin Coleman (born 1962) is a South African banker and public figure.

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Colin Eglin

Colin Wells Eglin (14 April 1925 – 29 November 2013) was a South African politician best known for having served as national leader of the opposition from 1977–79 and 1986-87.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act

The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 was a law enacted by the United States Congress.

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Conservative Party (South Africa)

The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a right wing party that wished to preserve many aspects of apartheid in the system's final decade, and formed the official opposition in the white-only House of Assembly in the last seven years of minority rule.

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Constructive engagement

Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan administration towards the apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s.

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Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Crime of apartheid

The crime of Apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity "committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime".

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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D. F. Malan

Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959), more commonly known as D. F. Malan, was a South African politician who served as Prime Minister of South Africa from 1948 to 1954.

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Dag Hammarskjöld

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.

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Day of Reconciliation

The Day of Reconciliation is a public holiday in South Africa held annually on 16 December.

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Death squad

A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.

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Democracy Now!

Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.

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Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).

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Desmond Tutu

Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.

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Die Stem van Suid-Afrika

"Die Stem van Suid-Afrika" or "The Call of South Africa" was the national anthem of South Africa from 1957 to 1994, and shared co-national anthem status with "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" until 1997, when a new hybrid song incorporating elements of both songs was adopted as the country's new national anthem.

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Disinvestment from South Africa

Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s.

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District Six

District Six (Afrikaans Distrik Ses) is a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa.

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Dominant minority

A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).

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Dominant-party system

A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.

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Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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Don Bradman

Sir Donald George Bradman, AC (27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), often referred to as "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time.

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Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.

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Doug Booth

Douglas "Doug" Booth (born 1 August 1957) is an Australian academic and former Australian rules footballer who played with St Kilda in the Victorian Football League (VFL).

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Drakenstein Correctional Centre

Drakenstein Correctional Centre (formerly Victor Verster Prison) is a low-security prison between Paarl and Franschhoek, on the R301 road 5 km from the R45 Huguenot Road, in the valley of the Dwars River in the Western Cape of South Africa.

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Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Eastern Cape

The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Education in South Africa

Education in South Africa is governed by two national departments, namely the department of Basic Education (DBE), which is responsible for primary and secondary schools, and the department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), which is responsible for tertiary education and vocational training.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Entrenched clause

An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible.

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Equity (British trade union)

Equity, formerly officially titled the British Actors' Equity Association (although Equity was always its common name), is the trade union for actors, stage managers and models in the United Kingdom.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Ex Unitate Vires

Ex Unitate Vires (literally "from unity, strength") is a Latin phrase formerly used as the national motto of South Africa.

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F. W. de Klerk

Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.

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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.

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Flag of South Africa

The flag of South Africa was designed in March 1994 and adopted on 27 April 1994, at the beginning of South Africa's 1994 general election, to replace the flag that had been used since 1928.

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Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.

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Foot washing

Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations.

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Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid

Foreign relations of South Africa during apartheid are studied as the foreign relations of South Africa between 1948 and 1993.

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Franchise and Ballot Act

The Franchise and Ballot Act (1892) was an act of the Cape Colony Parliament, driven by Prime Minister Cecil Rhodes, which raised the property franchise qualification, thus disenfranchising a large proportion of the Cape's non-white voters, and a number of poor white voters.

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Frank Chikane

Frank Chikane (born 3 January 1951 in Bushbuckridge, Transvaal) is a South African civil servant, writer and cleric.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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Free World

The term Free World is a politically-charged propaganda term that was used during the Cold War to refer to the Western Bloc.

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Freedom Day (South Africa)

Freedom Day is a public holiday in South Africa celebrated on 27 April.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Frontline States

The Frontline States (FLS) were a loose coalition of African countries from the 1960s to the early 1990s committed to ending apartheid and white minority rule in South Africa and Rhodesia.

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Garfield Sobers

Sir Garfield St Aubrun Sobers, AO, OCC (born 28 July 1936), also known as Gary or Garry Sobers, is a former cricketer who played for the West Indies between 1954 and 1974, and is widely considered to be cricket's greatest all-rounder.

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Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.

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Gazankulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Tsonga people.

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George P. Shultz

George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Glen Grey Act

The Glen Grey Act is an 1894 act of the parliament of the Cape Colony, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes, which established a system of individual (rather than communal) land tenure, and created a labour tax to force Xhosa men into employment on commercial farms or in industry.

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Gleneagles Agreement

In the Gleneagles Agreement, in 1977, Commonwealth Presidents and Prime Ministers agreed, as part of their support for the international campaign against apartheid, to discourage contact and competition between their sportsmen and sporting organisations, teams or individuals from South Africa.

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Graaff-Reinet is a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Groote Schuur

Groote Schuur (Dutch for "great granary") is an estate in Cape Town, South Africa.

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Group Areas Act

Group Areas Act was the title of three acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa.

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Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.

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Harper (publisher)

Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.

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Harry Schwarz

Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, statesman and long-time political opposition leader against apartheid in South Africa, who eventually served as the South African Ambassador to the United States during the country's transition to majority rule.

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Hastings Banda

Hastings Kamuzu Banda (15 February 1898 – 25 November 1997) was the leader of Malawi from 1961 to 1994 (for the first three years of his rule, until it achieved independence in 1964, Malawi was the British protectorate of Nyasaland).

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Helen Joseph

Helen Beatrice Joseph (née Fennell) (8 April 1905 – 25 December 1992) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.

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Helen Suzman

Helen Suzman, DBE (7 November 1917 – 1 January 2009) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and liberal politician.

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Hendrik Verwoerd

Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 – 6 September 1966), also commonly referred to as H. F. Verwoerd and Dr.

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Herenigde Nasionale Party

The Herenigde Nasionale Party (Reunited National Party) was a political party in South Africa during the 1940s.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Honorary whites

Honorary whites is a term that was used by the apartheid regime of South Africa to grant almost all of the rights and privileges of whites.

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House of Assembly of South Africa

The House of Assembly (known in Afrikaans as the Volksraad, or "People's Council") was the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa from 1910 to 1981, the sole parliamentary chamber between 1981 and 1984, and latterly the white representative house of the Tricameral Parliament from 1984 to 1994, when it was replaced by the current National Assembly.

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Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

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Ideocracy (a portmanteau word combining "ideology" and kratos, Greek for "power") is "governance of a state according to the principles of a particular (political) ideology; a state or country governed in this way".

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Immorality Act

Immorality Act was the title of two acts of the Parliament of South Africa which prohibited, amongst other things, sexual relations between white people and people of other races.

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Indentured servitude

An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian South Africans

Indian South Africans are citizens and residents of South Africa of Indian descent.

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Inequality in post-apartheid South Africa

President Nelson Mandela's democratic election in 1994 marked the end of apartheid in South Africa, a system of widespread racially based segregation to enforce almost complete separation of the different races in South Africa.

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Inkatha Freedom Party

The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa.

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Internal resistance to apartheid

Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

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International sanctions

International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.

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International Table Tennis Federation

The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) is the governing body for all national table tennis associations.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel and the apartheid analogy

The Israeli apartheid analogy compares Israel's treatment of Palestinians to South Africa's treatment of non-whites during its apartheid era within the context of the crime of apartheid.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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J. B. M. Hertzog

General James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog or J. B. M. Hertzog (6 April 1866 – 21 November 1942), was a South African politician and soldier.

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J. G. Strijdom

Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom, (also spelled Strydom) commonly called Hans Strydom (14 July 1893 – 24 August 1958), nicknamed the Lion of the North, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 30 November 1954 to 24 August 1958.

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Jan Smuts

Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.

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Janusz Waluś

Janusz Waluś (born 14 January 1953) is a Polish convicted murderer.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jim Crow laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.

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Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.

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John Vorster

Balthazar Johannes "B.

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KaNgwane was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Swazi people.

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Kenneth Kaunda

Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.

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A keynote in public speaking is a talk that establishes a main underlying theme.

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The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.

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Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).

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KwaNdebele was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Ndebele people.

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KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people.

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KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.

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Landdrost was the title of various officials with local jurisdiction in the Netherlands and a number of former territories in the Dutch Empire.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lebowa was a bantustan ("homeland") located in the Transvaal in north eastern South Africa.

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Leon Wessels

Leon Wessels (born 19 April 1946) is a South African lawyer, politician, and activist who served in the white minority National Party government during the apartheid years and was one of very few Afrikaner politicians to show public contrition for the acts of that government.

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Les Payne

Leslie "Les" Payne (July 12, 1941 – March 19, 2018) was an American journalist.

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Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

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Leverage (negotiation)

In negotiation, leverage is the power that one side of a negotiation has to influence the other side to move closer to their negotiating position.

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Liberation before education

Liberation before education was a slogan of some activists in South Africa from 1976 in rejecting the education offered black children in Apartheid-era South Africa.

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Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.

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London Recruits (book)

London Recruits: The Secret War Against Apartheid is a 2012 book edited and compiled by Ken Keable, with an introduction by Ronnie Kasrils and a foreword by Pallo Jordan.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lucas Mangope

Kgosi Lucas Manyane Mangope (27 December 1923 – 18 January 2018) was the leader of the Bantustan (homeland) of Bophuthatswana.

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Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.

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Lusaka Manifesto

The Lusaka Manifesto (originally the Manifesto on Southern Africa) is a document created by the Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States which took place between 14 and 16 April 1969 in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia.

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Lyal S. Sunga

Lyal S. Sunga is a well-known specialist on international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith

The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith was a statement of core principles laid down by South African political leaders Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz on 4 January 1974.

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Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Malay race

The concept of a Malay race was originally proposed by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840), and classified as a brown race.

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Mangosuthu Buthelezi

Mangosuthu Buthelezi (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu bantustan until 1994.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Maritz rebellion

The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellionGeneral De Wet publicly unfurled the rebel banner in October, when he entered the town of Reitz at the head of an armed commando.

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Marlon Brando

Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director.

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Marthinus van Schalkwyk

Marthinus Christoffel Johannes (Kortbroek) van Schalkwyk (born 10 November 1959) is a South African politician, academic, lawyer, and apartheid-era intelligence operative.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Meadowlands, Gauteng

Meadowlands is a suburb of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

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Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.

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Mozambican Civil War

The Mozambican Civil War was a civil war fought in Mozambique from 1977 to 1992.

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Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975.

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Music in the movement against apartheid

The apartheid regime in South Africa began in 1948 and lasted until 1994.

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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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Natal (province)

The Province of Natal (Provinsie Natal), commonly called Natal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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National Party (South Africa)

The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.

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Natives Land Act, 1913

The Natives Land Act, 1913 (subsequently renamed Bantu Land Act, 1913 and Black Land Act, 1913; Act No. 27 of 1913) was an Act of the Parliament of South Africa that was aimed at regulating the acquisition of land.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Necklacing is the practice of summary execution and torture carried out by forcing a rubber tyre, filled with petrol, around a victim's chest and arms, and setting it on fire.

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Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.

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Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

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Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Zealand national rugby union team

The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nkomati Accord

The Nkomati Accord (Official name; Agreement on Non-Aggression and Good Neighbourliness between Mozambique and South Africa) was a non-aggression pact signed on 16 March 1984 between the People's Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of South Africa.

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Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika

"Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" is a hymn originally composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a Xhosa clergyman at a Methodist mission school near Johannesburg.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Northern Sotho language

Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.

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Ohio University Press

Ohio University Press (OUP), founded in 1947, is the largest scholarly press in the state of Ohio.

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Oliver Tambo

Oliver Reginald Kaizana Tambo (27 October 191724 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and revolutionary who served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1967 to 1991.

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Olof Palme

Sven Olof Joachim Palme (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish Social Democratic politician and statesman.

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Operation Savannah (Angola)

Operation Savannah was the South African Defence Force's 1975–1976 covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War.

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Organisation of African Unity

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.

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Oscar Mpetha

Oscar Mafakafaka Mpetha (5 August 1909 - 15 November 1994) was a South African Trade unionist and political activist from Mount Fletcher.

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Overseas Indonesians

Overseas Indonesians people of Indonesian origin who live outside Indonesia.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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P. W. Botha

Pieter Willem Botha, (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P.

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Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (formerly known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Black Nationalist movement that is now a political party.

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Paramount chief

A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a chief-based system.

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Parliament of South Africa

The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Pass laws

In South Africa, pass laws were a form of internal passport system designed to segregate the population, manage urbanisation, and allocate migrant labour.

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People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola

The People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (Forças Armadas Populares de Libertação de Angola) or FAPLA was originally the armed wing of the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) but later (1975–1991) became Angola's official armed forces when the MPLA took control of the government.

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People's Liberation Army of Namibia

The People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) was the military wing of the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO).

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Philadelphia Daily News

The Philadelphia Daily News is a tabloid newspaper that serves Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Point of no return

The point of no return (PNR or PONR) is the point beyond which one must continue on one's current course of action because turning back is physically impossible, prohibitively expensive, or dangerous.

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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Political Geography (journal)

Political Geography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier covering spatial dimensions of politics.

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Pollsmoor Prison

Pollsmoor Prison, officially, Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison is a prison in the Cape Town suburb of Tokai in South Africa.

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Pontypool (Pont-y-pŵl) is a town that is home to approximately 36,000 people in the county borough of Torfaen, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire in South Wales.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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Population Registration Act, 1950

The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with his or her racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.

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Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, 1951

The Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, Act No 52 of 1951, formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.

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Progressive Federal Party

The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) (Progressiewe Federale Party) was a South African political party formed in 1977.

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Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949

The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949, was an apartheid law in South Africa that prohibited marriages between "Europeans" and "non-Europeans".

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Public holidays in South Africa

A list of current public holidays in South Africa: The Public Holidays Act (Act No 36 of 1994) states that whenever a public holiday falls on a Sunday, the Monday following it will be a public holiday.

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QwaQwa was a bantustan ("homeland") in the central eastern part of South Africa.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Racial segregation

Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.

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Radio navigation

Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth.

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Raid on Gaborone

The Raid on Gaborone (called Operation Plecksy by the South African Defence Force) occurred on 14 June 1985 when South African Defence Force troops, under the order of General Constand Viljoen, crossed into Botswana and attacked the offices of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military wing of the African National Congress, in Gaborone.

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The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO; Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a militant organization and political movement in Mozambique.

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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government.

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Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, 1953

The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953, formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.

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Residential segregation in the United States

Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level".

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Right to property

The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.

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Robert Lacour-Gayet

Robert Lacour-Gayet (July 22, 1896 – March 2, 1989) was a French banking official, historian, author, and educator who taught in the United States after World War II.

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Robert Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.

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Roman-Dutch law

Roman-Dutch law (Dutch: Rooms-Hollands recht, Afrikaans: Romeins-Hollandse reg) is an uncodified, scholarship-driven, judge-made legal system based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Ruth First

Ruth First (4 May 1925 – 17 August 1982) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and scholar born in Johannesburg, South Africa.

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Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.

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Safe house

A safe house is, in a generic sense, a secret place for sanctuary or suitable to hide persons from the law, hostile actors or actions, or from retribution, threats or perceived danger.

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Saint James Church massacre

The Saint James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated on St James Anglican Church in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa, on 25 July 1993 by four terrorists of the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA).

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Samora Machel

Samora Moisés Machel (29 September 1933 – 19 October 1986) was a Mozambican military commander, politician and revolutionary.

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Sandra Laing

Sandra Laing (born 1955) is a South African woman who was classified as coloured by authorities during the apartheid era, due to her skin colour and hair texture, although she was the child of at least three generations of ancestors who had been regarded as white.

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Sauer Commission

The Sauer Commission (South Africa), was created in 1947 largely in response to the Fagan Commission.

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Saul Dubow

Saul H. Dubow is a South African historian and academic, specialising in the history of South Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Second-class citizen

A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.

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Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Senate of South Africa

The Senate was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and its abolition from 1 January 1981, and between 1994 and 1997.

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Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951

The Separate Representation of Voters Act No.

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Sex education

Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.

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Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.

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Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Shanty town

A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.

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Sharpeville (also spelled Sharpville) is a township situated between two large industrial cities of Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging in southern Gauteng.

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Sharpeville massacre

The Sharpeville massacre was an event which occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal (today part of Gauteng).

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Shimon Peres

Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Slavery Abolition Act 1833

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.

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Slum clearance

Slum clearance, slum eviction or slum removal is an urban renewal strategy used to transform low income settlements with poor reputation into another type of development or housing.

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Social conservatism

Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.

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Social movement

A social movement is a type of group action.

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Sophiatown, also known as Sof'town or Kofifi, is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa.

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Soshangane kaZikode, born Soshangane Nxumalo, was the founder and self-crowned king of the Gaza Empire, which at the height of its power stretched over modern-day southern Mozambique and all the way to the Limpopo River.

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Sotho language

Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.

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Sotho people

The Basotho are a Bantu ethnic group whose ancestors have lived in southern Africa since around the fifth century.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Africa and weapons of mass destruction

From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.

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South Africa national rugby union team

The South Africa national rugby union team, commonly known as the Springboks, is governed by the South African Rugby Union.

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South African apartheid referendum, 1992

A referendum on ending apartheid was held in South Africa on 17 March 1992.

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South African Broadcasting Corporation

The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state broadcaster in South Africa, and provides 19 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 5 television broadcasts to the general public.

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South African Communist Party

The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party in South Africa.

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South African Defence Force

The South African Defence Force (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994.

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South African English

South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.

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South African Football Association

The South African Football Association or SAFA is the national administrative governing body that controls the sport of football in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and is a member of the Confederation of African Football (CAF).

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South African general election, 1948

The parliamentary election in South Africa on 26 May 1948 represented a turning point in the country's history.

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South African general election, 1994

General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.

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South African Press Association

The South African Press Association, commonly known as SAPA, is the national news agency of South Africa.

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South African rand

The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.

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South African Republic

The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.

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South African republic referendum, 1960

A referendum on becoming a republic was held in South Africa on 5 October 1960.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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South West Africa

South West Africa (Suidwes-Afrika; Zuidwest-Afrika; Südwestafrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was subsumed under South Africa, from 1915 to 1990.

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Southern Ndebele people

The Southern African Ndebele are a Nguni ethnic group native to modern South Africa ethnicities who speak Southern Ndebele.

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Soweto is a township of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng, South Africa, bordering the city's mining belt in the south.

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Soweto uprising

The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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State President of South Africa

The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.

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State Security Council

The State Security Council (SSC) was formed in South Africa in 1972 to advise the government on the country's national policy and strategy concerning security, its implementation and determining security priorities.

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Steve Biko

Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Storming of Kempton Park World Trade Centre

The storming of the Kempton Park World Trade Centre took place in South Africa on 25 June 1993 when approximately three thousand members of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF), Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) and other right-wing Afrikaner paramilitary groups stormed the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, near Johannesburg.

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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

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Suppression of Communism Act, 1950

The Suppression of Communism Act 44 of 1950 (renamed the Internal Security Act in 1976) was legislation of the national government in South Africa, passed on 26 June 1950 (and coming into effect on 17 July) which formally banned the Communist Party of South Africa and proscribed any party or group subscribing to communism according to a uniquely broad definition of the term.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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SWAPO, formerly the South West African People's Organisation (Südwestafrikanische Volksorganisation, SWAVO; Suidwes-Afrikaanse Volk-Organisasie, SWAVO) and officially known as SWAPO Party of Namibia, is a political party and former independence movement in Namibia.

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Swazi people

The Swazi or Swati (Swazi: emaSwati) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa, predominantly inhabiting modern Swaziland and South Africa's Mpumalanga province.

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Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swellendam is the 4th oldest town in the Republic of South Africa, a town with 17,537 inhabitants situated in the Western Cape province.

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Swiss–South African Association

The Swiss–South African Association was an organization based in Switzerland, founded in Zurich in May 1956 to promote relations with South Africa and to function as a Chamber of Commerce.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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Television in South Africa

Television in South Africa was introduced in 1976.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Thabo Mbeki

Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.

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The Boston Globe

The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Journal of Politics

The Journal of Politics is a peer-reviewed academic journal of political science established in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Reverend

The Reverend is an honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and ministers.

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The State of Africa

The State of Africa: A History Of Fifty Years Of Independence (republished in 2011 as The State of Africa: A History Of The Continent Since Independence) is a 2005 book by British writer Martin Meredith.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thembu people

The Thembu people are one of the handful of nations and population groups that speak Xhosa in South Africa.

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Thomas Sowell

Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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Township (South Africa)

In South Africa, the terms township and location usually refer to the often underdeveloped segregated urban areas that, from the late 19th century until the end of apartheid, were reserved for non-whites, namely Indians, Africans and Coloureds.

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Transkei (meaning the area beyond the river Kei), officially the Republic of Transkei (iRiphabliki yeTranskei), was an unrecognised state in the southeastern region of South Africa from 1976 to 1994.

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Transvaal (province)

The Province of the Transvaal (Provinsie van die Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until the end of apartheid in 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it.

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Tricameral Parliament

The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994, established by the South African Constitution of 1983.

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Truth and reconciliation commission

A truth commission or truth and reconciliation commission is a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government (or, depending on the circumstances, non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past.

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Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.

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Tswana language

No description.

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Tswana people

The Tswana (Batswana, singular Motswana) are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa.

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Umkhonto we Sizwe

uMkhonto we Sizwe (abbreviated as MK,, meaning "Spear of the Nation") was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), co-founded by Nelson Mandela in the wake of the Sharpeville massacre.

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Union of South Africa

The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.

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The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Democratic Front (South Africa)

The United Democratic Front (UDF) was a major anti-apartheid organisation of the 1980s.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the racist policies of apartheid established by the South African Government.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 181

United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, adopted on August 7, 1963, was concerned with an arms build-up by the Republic of South Africa and fears that those arms might be used to further the racial conflict in that country.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 392

United Nations Security Council Resolution 392, adopted on June 19, 1976, after the killing of black youths by South African police in Soweto and other areas, the Council strongly condemned the South African government for its measures of repression against the African people.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 418

United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, adopted unanimously on 4 November 1977, imposed a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa.

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United Party (South Africa)

The United Party was a political party in South Africa.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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University of Durban-Westville

The University of Durban-Westville (UDW) was a university situated in Westville, Durban, South Africa, which opened in 1972.

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University of Fort Hare

The University of Fort Hare is a public university in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

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University of Limpopo

This article is about the institution formerly known as the University of the North.

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University of the Western Cape

The University of the Western Cape is a public university located in the Bellville suburb of Cape Town, South Africa.

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University of Zululand

The University of Zululand (also known as Unizulu) is the only comprehensive tertiary educational institution north of the Tugela River in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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Venda was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, close to the South African border with Zimbabwe to the north, while to the south and east, it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu.

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Venda language

Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa.

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Venda people

The Venda (Vhavenda or Vhangona) are a Southern African people living mostly near the South African-Zimbabwean border.

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Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River.

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Vice State President of South Africa

The Vice State President of South Africa was a position established between 1981 and 1984.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Western Cape

The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.

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White Australia policy

The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.

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White South Africans

White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).

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White supremacy

White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.

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Wind of Change (speech)

The "Wind of Change" speech was a historically significant address made by the UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town.

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The Witwatersrand (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a, north-facing scarp in South Africa.

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World Conference against Racism

The World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) is a series of international events organized by UNESCO to promote struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Writers' Guild of Great Britain

The Writers' Guild of Great Britain (WGGB), established in 1959, is a trade union for professional writers.

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Xhosa language

Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.

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Xhosa people

The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.

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Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.

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Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zed Books

Zed Books is an independent non-fiction publishing company based in London, UK.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Zulu language

Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.

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Zulu people

The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.

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1964 Summer Olympics

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964.

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1968 Summer Olympics

The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.

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1978 Commonwealth Games

The 1978 Commonwealth Games were held in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada from 3 to 12 August 1978, two years after the 1976 Summer Olympics were held in Montreal, Quebec.

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1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt

The 1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt, sometimes referred to as the Seychelles affair or Operation Angela, was a failed South African-orchestrated mercenary takeover attempt in the country of Seychelles.

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1981 South Africa rugby union tour of New Zealand and the United States

The 1981 South African rugby tour (known in New Zealand as the Springbok Tour, and in South Africa as the Rebel Tour) polarised opinions and inspired widespread protests across New Zealand.

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1986 Commonwealth Games

The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986.

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1986 Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 crash

On 19 October 1986, a Mozambican government Tupolev Tu-134 jetliner carrying president Samora Machel and 43 others from Mbala, Zambia to the Mozambican capital Maputo crashed at Mbuzini, South Africa.

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1994 Bophuthatswana crisis

The 1994 Bophuthatswana crisis was a major political crisis which began after Lucas Mangope, the president of Bophuthatswana, a South African bantustan created under apartheid, attempted to crush widespread labour unrest and popular demonstrations demanding the incorporation of the territory into South Africa pending multiracial elections later that year.

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1995 Rugby World Cup

The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid

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