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Index Aphrodite

Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. [1]

468 relations: Abdominal obesity, Abraham River, Academic art, Achilles, Acrocorinth, Acropolis of Athens, Adonia, Adonis, Adrestia, Adultery, Aeacus, Aeneas, Aeneid, Aglaea, Alexandre Cabanel, Alexandria, Alicia Ostriker, Amathus, Amy Lowell, Anaïs Nin, Anatidae, Anchises, Ancient Canaanite religion, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Egyptian deities, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Macedonian language, Anemone, Angelos (mythology), Animal sacrifice, Annibale Carracci, Annulet (architecture), Anointing, Anteros, Antoninus Liberalis, Antu (goddess), Anu, Apelles, Aphrodisia, Aphrodite Areia, Aphrodite Heyl, Aphrodite of Knidos, Aphrodite of Menophantos, Aphrodite of the Gardens, Aphrodite Pandemos, Aphrodite Urania, Aphrodite: mœurs antiques, Aphroditus, Apollo, ..., Apollonius of Rhodes, Apotropaic magic, Archaic Greece, Archimedes, Ares, Argonautica, Argonauts, Arrhephoria, Arsinoe II, Art of Europe, Artemis, Aryballos, Ascanius, Asclepeion, Ashkelon, Asia, Astarte, Atalanta, Atargatis, Athena, Athenaeus, Athens, Attic calendar, Attica, Augustus, Aulis (ancient Greece), Aurora (mythology), Édouard Manet, Baptism, Barley, Beard, Beauty, Beroe (mythology), Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Birth control, Brill Publishers, Bronzino, Bulgaria, Butes, Buttocks, C. S. Lewis, Canaanite languages, Castration, Catamaran, Cattle, Chariot racing, Charis (name), Charites, Child abandonment, Chryselephantine sculpture, Church of Aphrodite, Cicero, Cinyras, Claude Cahun, Cleopatra II of Egypt, Cleopatra III of Egypt, Cognate, Columbidae, Comparative mythology, Contrapposto, Corinth, Cornelis Holsteyn, Crete, Cronus, Cross-dressing, Crouching Venus, Cybele, Cyclops, Cypria, Cyprus, Dafni, Attica, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Deception of Zeus, Deimos (deity), Demigod, Demodocus (Odyssey character), Desecration, Diego Velázquez, Dike (mythology), Diodorus Siculus, Diomedes, Dione (Titaness), Dionysia, Dionysus, Dodona, Dolphin, Duel, Dumuzid, Early Christianity, Early Middle Ages, East Semitic languages, Eastern Christianity, Egypt (Roman province), Eileithyia, Eirene (goddess), Ekphrasis, Eleusis, Elis, Enyo, Eos, Ephebic Oath, Epic Cycle, Epithet, Epitome, Erinyes, Eris (mythology), Eros, Eros (concept), Erotes, Ersa, Eryx, Etiology, Etruscan language, Etymologicum Magnum, Eunomia, Euphrosyne, Euripides, Europe, Eurynome (Oceanid), Eve, Fairy tale, Female body shape, Feminism, Fennel, Figurine, Folk etymology, François Lemoyne, Frederic Leighton, Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, Fulgentius of Ruspe, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Galley, Genealogia Deorum Gentilium, George Moore (novelist), Giants (Greek mythology), Gilgamesh, Giorgio Vasari, Giovanni Boccaccio, Girdle, Glaucus (son of Sisyphus), Gleb Botkin, Golden apple, Golgos, Greece, Greek mythology, Greeks, Harmonia, Hathor, Hausos, Hebe (mythology), Hecatoncheires, Helen of Troy, Helios, Hellenism (religion), Hellenistic period, Hemera, Henryk Siemiradzki, Hephaestus, Hera, Heracles, Herma, Hermaphroditus, Hermes, Herodorus, Hesiod, Hesperides, Hesychius of Alexandria, Hetaira, Heterosexuality, Hippolytus (play), Hippolytus (son of Theseus), Hippomenes, Historische Sprachforschung, Hittites, Homer, Homeric Hymns, Horae, Idyll, Iliad, Inanna, Incantation, Indo-European languages, Indra, Interpretatio graeca, Isabel Allende, Isidore of Seville, Isis, Italian Renaissance, Jacques-Louis David, Jason, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jesse Mitchell, Judgement of Paris, Julius Caesar, Kantharos, Kitsch, Knidos, Kos, Kumarbi, Kylix, Kythira, La Vénus d'Ille, Laconia, Lebanon, Leda (mythology), Lely Venus, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lettuce, Levant, Lipari, Litae, Livy, Locri, Louvre, Love, Lucian, Luck, Ludovisi Throne, Lust, Lyric poetry, Magna Graecia, Marble sculpture, Mars Being Disarmed by Venus, Martin Litchfield West, Mary, mother of Jesus, Masterpiece, Maurus Servius Honoratus, Meliae, Menelaus, Mesopotamia, Metamorphoses, Middle Ages, Minos, Mirror, Modern Paganism, Moirai, Monte Erice, Mother goddess, Mount Ida, Mount Ida (Turkey), Mount Olympus, Mural, Muses, Myrrh, Myrrha, Myrtus, Mysticism, Mytheme, Napoleon III, Narrative poetry, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Nationalmuseum, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neoplatonism, Nereid, Nymph, Oceanid, Ode to Aphrodite, Odyssey, Olympia (Manet), On the Syrian Goddess, Orans, Orientalizing period, Orpheus, Ovid, Pan (god), Pandia, Pandora, Panel painting, Paphos, Parody, Paul Kretschmer, Pausanias (geographer), Pearl, Peitho, Peleus, Pelias, Peloponnese, Peplos, Persephone, Perseus, Pervigilium Veneris, Peter Paul Rubens, Petra tou Romiou, Phaedra (mythology), Phaethon (son of Eos), Phallus, Phanagoria, Phaon, Phidias, Philae, Philostephanus, Phobos (mythology), Phoenicia, Phrygia, Phryne, Pierre Louÿs, Pindar, Pistoxenos Painter, Plato, Pleasure, Pliny the Elder, Poliziano, Polyphonte, Pomegranate, Pompeii, Poseidon, Pottery of ancient Greece, Praxiteles, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Priapus, Primavera (painting), Procuring (prostitution), Prophecy, Prosper Mérimée, Prostitution in ancient Greece, Proto-Indo-European religion, Prytaneis, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy IV Philopator, Ptolemy VIII Physcon, Pygmalion (mythology), Queen of heaven (antiquity), Raphael, Red hair, Red-figure pottery, Relief, Renaissance, Reproduction, Rhadamanthus, Rhodos, Richard Barnfield, Richard Garnett (writer), Rigveda, Rigvedic deities, Rokeby Venus, Rose, Running, Sacred prostitution, Salon (Paris), Samuel Butler (poet), Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Sandro Botticelli, Sappho, Scallop, Scholia, Semitic languages, Sexual slavery, Sicily, Skolion, Sofia, Sparrow, Sparta, Stockholm, Street prostitution, Stufetta del cardinal Bibbiena, Suicide note, Sumer, Sumerian religion, Susa, Swan, Symposium (Plato), Syncretism, Taman Peninsula, Teshub, Tessarakonteres, Thalia (Grace), Théophile Gautier, The Birth of Venus, The Birth of Venus (Bouguereau), The Birth of Venus (Cabanel), The Death of Adonis (Rubens), The Source (Ingres), The Twilight of the Gods and Other Tales, Themis, Theocritus, Theogony, Theomachy, Thetis, Thit Jensen, Thomas Anstey Guthrie, Thorns, spines, and prickles, Thracians, Titan (mythology), Titian, Tortoise, Trojan language, Trojan War, Troy, Uranus (mythology), Ushas, Venus, Venus (mythology), Venus Anadyomene, Venus Anadyomene (Ingres), Venus Anadyomene (Titian), Venus and Adonis (Shakespeare poem), Venus and Adonis (Titian), Venus Callipyge, Venus de Milo, Venus of Urbino, Venus Verticordia, Venus with a Mirror, Venus, Adonis and Cupid, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, Vritra, Walter Burkert, Western literature, Wheat, White ground technique, Wicca, Wiccan views of divinity, Wild boar, William Shakespeare, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Works and Days, Zeus. Expand index (418 more) »

Abdominal obesity

Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

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Abraham River

The Abraham River (Nahr Ibrahim) also known as Adonis River, is a small river in the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon, with a length of about.

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Academic art

Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

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In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.

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Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.

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Acropolis of Athens

The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.

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The Adonia (Greek) was a festival celebrated annually by women in ancient Greece to mourn the death of Adonis, the consort of Aphrodite.

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Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.

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Adrestia (Ancient Greek: Ἀδρήστεια) in Greek mythology 'she who cannot be escaped' is the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite and known to accompany her father Ares to war.

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Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

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Aeacus (also spelled Eacus; Ancient Greek: Αἰακός) was a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.

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In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).

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The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Aglaea or Aglaïa (Ἀγλαΐα "splendor, brilliant, shining one") is the name of several figures in Greek mythology, the best known of which is one of the three Charites or Graces.

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Alexandre Cabanel

Alexandre Cabanel (28 September 1823, Montpellier – 23 January 1889) was a French painter.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Alicia Ostriker

Alicia Suskin Ostriker (born November 11, 1937) is an American poet and scholar who writes Jewish feminist poetry.

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Amathus or Amathous (Ἀμαθοῦς) was an ancient city and one of the ancient royal cities of Cyprus until about 300 BC.

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Amy Lowell

Amy Lawrence Lowell (February 9, 1874 – May 12, 1925) was an American poet of the imagist school from Brookline, Massachusetts.

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Anaïs Nin

Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell (February 21, 1903 – January 14, 1977), known professionally as Anaïs Nin, was a French-American diarist, essayist, novelist, and writer of short stories and erotica.

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The Anatidae are the biological family of birds that includes ducks, geese, and swans.

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In Greek mythology, Anchises (Ἀnkhísēs) was the son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, who was son of Tros).

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Ancient Canaanite religion

Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.

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Ancient Corinth

Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.

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Ancient Egyptian deities

Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.

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Ancient Macedonian language

Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.

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Anemone is a genus of about 200 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native to temperate zones.

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Angelos (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Angelos (Ἄγγελος) or Angelia (Ἀγγελία) was a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became known as a chthonic deity.

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Animal sacrifice

Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity.

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Annibale Carracci

Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian painter, active in Bologna and later in Rome.

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Annulet (architecture)

Annulets, in architecture, are small square components in the Doric capital, under the quarter-round.

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Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.

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In Greek mythology, Anteros (Ἀντέρως, Antérōs) was the god of requited love, literally "love returned" or "counter-love" and also the punisher of those who scorn love and the advances of others, or the avenger of unrequited love.

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Antoninus Liberalis

Antoninus Liberalis (Ἀντωνῖνος Λιβεράλις) was an Ancient Greek grammarian who probably flourished between AD 100 and 300.

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Antu (goddess)

In Akkadian mythology, Antu or Antum (add the name in cuneiform please an.

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Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.

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Apelles of Kos (Ἀπελλῆς; fl. 4th century BC) was a renowned painter of ancient Greece.

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The Aphrodisia festival (Ancient Greek: 'Αφροδίσια) was an annual festival held in Ancient Greece in honor of the goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite (Ancient Greek: Ἀφροδίτη Πάνδημος).

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Aphrodite Areia

Areia or Aphrodite Areia (Ἀρεία) or "Aphrodite the Warlike" was a cultic epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, in which she was depicted in full armor like the god Ares.

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Aphrodite Heyl

The statuette of Aphrodite known as Aphrodite Heyl in the Antikensammlung Berlin (inventory number 31272) is an especially finely worked terracotta statue from the second century BC.

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Aphrodite of Knidos

The Aphrodite of Knidos (or Cnidus) was an Ancient Greek sculpture of the goddess Aphrodite created by Praxiteles of Athens around the 4th century BCE.

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Aphrodite of Menophantos

The Aphrodite of Menophantos is a Roman marble statue of the goddess Venus. Its design takes the form of "Venus Pudica", based on another statue, the Capitoline Venus.

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Aphrodite of the Gardens

Aphrodite of the Gardens (ἐν κήποις) is an epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

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Aphrodite Pandemos

Aphrodite Pandemos (Πάνδημος; "common to all the people"), occurs as an epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

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Aphrodite Urania

Aphrodite Urania (Οὐρανία) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, signifying "heavenly" or "spiritual", to distinguish her from her more earthly aspect of Aphrodite Pandemos, "Aphrodite for all the people".

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Aphrodite: mœurs antiques

Aphrodite: mœurs antiques ("Aphrodite: ancient morals") is an 1896 French-language novel by Pierre Louÿs.

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Aphroditus (Ἀφρόδιτος Aphroditos) was a male Aphrodite originating from Amathus on the island of Cyprus and celebrated in Athens in a transvestite rite.

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Apollonius of Rhodes

Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.

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Apotropaic magic

Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune or averting the evil eye.

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Archaic Greece

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.

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Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

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Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.

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The Argonautica (translit) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC.

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The Argonauts (Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.

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Arrhephoria was a feast among the Athenians, instituted in honor of Athena.

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Arsinoe II

Arsinoë II (Ἀρσινόη, 316 BC – unknown date between July 270 and 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen and co-regent of Ancient Egypt.

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Art of Europe

The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.

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Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.

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An aryballos (Greek: ἀρύβαλλος; plural aryballoi) was a small spherical or globular flask with a narrow neck used in Ancient Greece.

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Ascanius (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus.

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In ancient Greece and Rome, an asclepeion (Ἀσκληπιεῖον Asklepieion; Ἀσκλαπιεῖον in Doric dialect; Latin aesculapīum) was a healing temple, sacred to the god Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine.

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Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.

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Atalanta (Ἀταλάντη Atalantē) is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.

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Atargatis or Ataratheh (italic or italic) was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity.

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Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attic calendar

The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis.

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Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Aulis (ancient Greece)

Ancient Aulis (Αὐλίς) was a Greek port-town, located in Boeotia in central Greece, at the Euripus Strait, opposite of the island of Euboea.

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Aurora (mythology)

Aurora is the Latin word for dawn, and the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology and Latin poetry.

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Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

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Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.

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Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.

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Beroe (mythology)

Beroe (Greek: Βερόη) in Greek mythology is a nymph of Beirut, the daughter of Aphrodite and Adonis, and sister of Golgos.

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Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)

The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Agnolo di Cosimo (November 17, 1503November 23, 1572), usually known as Bronzino ("Il Bronzino" in Italian), or Agnolo Bronzino, was an Italian Mannerist painter, born in Florence.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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In Greek mythology, the name Butes (Ancient Greek: Βούτης, Boútēs) referred to several different people.

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The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles.

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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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Canaanite languages

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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A catamaran (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Chariot racing

Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.

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Charis (name)

Charis (Χάρις) is a given name derived from a Greek word meaning "grace, kindness, and life" In Greek mythology, a Charis is one of the Charites (Χάριτες) or "Graces", goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility; and in Homer's Iliad, Charis is the wife of Hephaestus.

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In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites (Χάριτες) or Graces.

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Child abandonment

Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.

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Chryselephantine sculpture

Chryselephantine sculpture (from Greek χρυσός, chrysós, gold, and ελεφάντινος, elephántinos, ivory) is sculpture made with gold and ivory.

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Church of Aphrodite

The Church of Aphrodite is a Neopagan religious group founded in 1938 by Gleb Botkin (1900–1969), a Russian émigré to the United States.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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In Greek mythology, Cinyras (Κινύρας – Kinyras) was a famous hero and king of Cyprus.

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Claude Cahun

Claude Cahun (25 October 1894 – 8 December 1954), born Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob, was a Jewish-French photographer, sculptor and writer.

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Cleopatra II of Egypt

Cleopatra II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 185 BC – 116/115 BC) was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled from 175 to 116 BC with two successive brother-husbands and her daughter—often in rivalry with her brother Ptolemy VIII.

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Cleopatra III of Egypt

Cleopatra III (Κλεοπάτρα; c.160–101 BC) was a queen of Egypt.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.

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Comparative mythology

Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics.

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Contrapposto is an Italian term that means counterpoise.

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Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.

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Cornelis Holsteyn

Cornelis Holsteyn (1618 – 2 December 1658) was a Dutch Golden Age painter from Haarlem.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.

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Cross-dressing is the act of wearing items of clothing and other accoutrements commonly associated with the opposite sex within a particular society.

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Crouching Venus

The Crouching Venus is a Hellenistic model of Venus surprised at her bath.

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Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.

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A cyclops (Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead.

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The Cypria (Κύπρια Kúpria; Latin: Cypria) is a lost epic poem of ancient Greek literature, which has been attributed to Stasinus and was quite well known in classical antiquity and fixed in a received text, but which subsequently was lost to view.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dafni, Attica

Dafni (Δάφνη) is a suburb of Athens, Greece.

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti

Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family.

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Deception of Zeus

The section of the Iliad that ancient editors called the Dios apate (the "Deception of Zeus") stands apart from the remainder of Book XIV.

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Deimos (deity)

Deimos (Δεῖμος,, meaning “dread”) is the god of terror in Greek mythology.

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A demigod or demi-god is a minor deity, a mortal or immortal who is the offspring of a god and a human, or a figure who has attained divine status after death.

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Demodocus (Odyssey character)

In the Odyssey by Homer, Demodocus (Δημόδoκος, Demodokos) is a poet who often visits the court of Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians on the island of Scherie.

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Desecration is the act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual.

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Diego Velázquez

Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.

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Dike (mythology)

In ancient Greek culture, Dike or Dice (or; Greek: Δίκη, "Justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or) or Diomede (God-like cunning, advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.

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Dione (Titaness)

Dione (Διώνη, Diōnē) was an ancient Greek goddess, an oracular TitanessSmith, William.

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The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.

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Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.

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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.

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A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

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Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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East Semitic languages

The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Eileithyia or Ilithyia (Εἰλείθυια;,Ἐλεύθυια (Eleuthyia) in Crete, also Ἐλευθία (Eleuthia) or Ἐλυσία (Elysia) in Laconia and Messene, and Ἐλευθώ (Eleuthō) in literature) was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwifery.

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Eirene (goddess)

Eirene (Εἰρήνη, Eirēnē,, "Peace"), more commonly known in English as Peace, was one of the Horae, the personification of peace.

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Ekphrasis or ecphrasis, comes from the Greek for the description of a work of art produced as a rhetorical exercise, often used in the adjectival form ekphrastic, is a vivid, often dramatic, verbal description of a visual work of art, either real or imagined.

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Eleusis (Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.

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Enyo (Ancient Greek: Ἐνυώ) was a goddess of war in Classical Greek mythology.

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In Greek mythology, Eos (Ionic and Homeric Greek Ἠώς Ēōs, Attic Ἕως Éōs, "dawn", or; Aeolic Αὔως Aúōs, Doric Ἀώς Āṓs) is a Titaness and the goddess of the dawn, who rose each morning from her home at the edge of the Oceanus.

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Ephebic Oath

The Ephebic Oath was an oath sworn by young men of Classical Athens, typically eighteen-year-old sons of Athenian citizens, upon induction into the military academy, the Ephebic College, graduation from which was required to attain status as citizens.

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Epic Cycle

The Epic Cycle (Ἐπικὸς Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems, composed in dactylic hexameter and related to the story of the Trojan War, including the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony.

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An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.

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An epitome (ἐπιτομή, from ἐπιτέμνειν epitemnein meaning "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form, or an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiments.

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In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).

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Eris (mythology)

Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.

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In Greek mythology, Eros (Ἔρως, "Desire") was the Greek god of sexual attraction.

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Eros (concept)

Eros (or; ἔρως érōs "love" or "desire") is one of the four ancient Greco-Christian terms which can be rendered into English as "love".

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The Erotes are a collective of winged gods associated with love and sexual intercourse in Greek mythology.

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In Greek mythology, Ersa or Herse (Ἔρσα Érsa, Ἕρση Hérsē, literally "dew") is the goddess of dew and the daughter of Zeus and the Moon (Selene), sister of Pandia and half-sister to Endymion's 50 daughters.

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In Greek mythology, Eryx was a king of the city of Eryx in Sicily.

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Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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Etruscan language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.

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Etymologicum Magnum

Etymologicum Magnum (Ἐτυμολογικὸν Μέγα, Ἐtymologikὸn Mέga) (standard abbreviation EM, or Etym. M. in older literature) is the traditional title of a Greek lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople by an unknown lexicographer around 1150 AD.

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Eunomia (Greek: Εὐνομία) was a minor Greek goddess of law and legislation (her name can be translated as "good order", "governance according to good laws"), as well as the spring-time goddess of green pastures (eû means "well, good" in Greek, and νόμος, nómos, means "law", while pasturelands are called nomia).

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Euphrosyne (Εὐφροσύνη), in ancient Greek religion, was one of the Charites, known in English as the "Three Graces".

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Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Eurynome (Oceanid)

Eurynome (Greek: Εὐρυνόμη) was a deity of ancient Greek religion worshipped at a sanctuary near the confluence of rivers called the Neda and the Lymax in classical Peloponnesus.

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Eve (Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

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Fairy tale

A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is folklore genre that takes the form of a short story that typically features entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.

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Female body shape

Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family.

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A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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François Lemoyne

François Lemoyne or François Le Moine (1688 – 4 June 1737) was a French rococo painter.

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Frederic Leighton

Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor.

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Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker

Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (4 November 1784 – 17 December 1868) was a German classical philologist and archaeologist.

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Fulgentius of Ruspe

Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe (462 or 467 – 1 January 527 or 533) was bishop of the city of Ruspe, Roman province of Africa, North Africa in modern day Tunisia, during the 5th and 6th century.

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Gaius Julius Hyginus

Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.

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A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.

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Genealogia Deorum Gentilium

Genealogia deorum gentilium, known in English as On the Genealogy of the Gods of the Gentiles, is a mythography or encyclopedic compilation of the tangled family relationships of the classical pantheons of Ancient Greece and Rome, written in Latin prose from 1360 onwards by the Italian author and poet Giovanni Boccaccio.

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George Moore (novelist)

George Augustus Moore (24 February 1852 – 21 January 1933) was an Irish novelist, short-story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist.

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Giants (Greek mythology)

In Greek and Roman Mythology, the Giants, also called Gigantes (jye-GAHN-tees or gee-GAHN-tees; Greek: Γίγαντες, Gígantes, Γίγας, Gígas) were a race of great strength and aggression, though not necessarily of great size, known for the Gigantomachy (Gigantomachia), their battle with the Olympian gods.

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Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.

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Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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The term girdle, meaning "belt", commonly refers to the liturgical attire that normally closes a cassock in many Christian denominations, including the Anglican Communion, Methodist Church and Lutheran Church.

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Glaucus (son of Sisyphus)

In Greek and Roman mythology, Glaucus (Γλαῦκος, Glaukos) was a son of Sisyphus whose main myth involved his violent death as the result of his horsemanship.

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Gleb Botkin

Gleb Yevgenyevich Botkin (Глеб Евге́ньевич Бо́ткин; 30 July 1900 – 15 December 1969) was the son of Dr. Yevgeny Botkin, the court physician who was murdered at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks with Tsar Nicholas II and his family on 17 July 1918.

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Golden apple

The golden apple is an element that appears in various national and ethnic folk legends or fairy tales.

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In Greek mythology Golgos is the son of Aphrodite and Adonis, brother of Beroe, and founder of the Cyprian Golgi.

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No description.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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In Greek mythology, Harmonia (Ἁρμονία) is the immortal goddess of harmony and concord.

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Hathor (or; Egyptian:; in Ἅθωρ, meaning "mansion of Horus")Hathor and Thoth: two key figures of the ancient Egyptian religion, Claas Jouco Bleeker, pp.

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Hausos (h₂éusōs'') is the reconstructed name for the Proto-Indo-European goddess of the dawn.

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Hebe (mythology)

Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).

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The HecatoncheiresDepending on the method of transliteration, the Ancient Greek ἑκατόν may be latinised as and χείρ may be transliterated as, or even.

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Helen of Troy

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.

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Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Hellenism (religion)

Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός, Ἑllēnismós), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), refers to various religious movements that revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, publicly, emerging since the 1990s.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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In Greek mythology Hemera (Ἡμέρα "Day") was the personification of day and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Henryk Siemiradzki

Henryk Hektor Siemiradzki (24 October 1843 – 23 August 1902) was a Polish Rome-based painter, best remembered for his monumental Academic art.

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Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.

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Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.

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Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.

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A herma (ἑρμῆς, pl. ἑρμαῖ hermai), commonly in English herm, is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height.

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In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus or Hermaphroditos (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος) was the son of Aphrodite and Hermes.

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Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).

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Herodorus (also called Herodorus of Heraclea) was a native of Heraclea Pontica and wrote a history on Heracles around 400 BC.

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Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.

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In Greek mythology, the Hesperides (Ἑσπερίδες) are the nymphs of evening and golden light of sunset, who were the "Daughters of the Evening" or "Nymphs of the West".

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Hesychius of Alexandria

Hesychius of Alexandria (Ἡσύχιος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς), a Greek grammarian who, probably in the 5th or 6th century AD, compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words that has survived, probably by absorbing the works of earlier lexicographers.

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Hetaira (plural hetairai, also hetaera (plural hetaerae), (ἑταίρα, "companion", pl. ἑταῖραι) was a type of prostitute in ancient Greece. Traditionally, historians of ancient Greece have distinguished between hetairai and pornai, another class of prostitute in ancient Greece. In contrast to pornai, who provided sex for a large number of clients in brothels or on the street, hetairai were thought to have had only a few men as clients at any one time, to have had long-term relationships with them, and to have provided companionship and intellectual stimulation as well as sex. For instance, Charles Seltman wrote in 1953 that "hetaeras were certainly in a very different class, often highly educated women". More recently, however, historians have questioned the extent to which there was really a distinction between hetairai and pornai. The second edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary, for instance, held that hetaira was a euphemism for any kind of prostitute. This position is supported by Konstantinos Kapparis, who holds that Apollodorus' famous tripartite division of the types of women in the speech Against Neaera ("We have courtesans for pleasure, concubines for the daily tending of the body, and wives in order to beget legitimate children and have a trustworthy guardian of what is at home.") classes all prostitutes together, under the term hetairai. A third position, advanced by Rebecca Futo Kennedy, suggests that hetairai "were not prostitutes or even courtesans". Instead, she argues, hetairai were "elite women who participated in sympotic and luxury culture", just as hetairoi – the masculine form of the word – was used to refer to groups of elite men at symposia. Even when the term hetaira was used to refer to a specific class of prostitute, though, scholars disagree on what precisely the line of demarcation was. Kurke emphasises that hetairai veiled the fact that they were selling sex through the language of gift-exchange, while pornai explicitly commodified sex. She claims that both hetairai and pornai could be slaves or free, and might or might not work for a pimp. Kapparis says that hetairai were high-class prostitutes, and cites Dover as pointing to the long-term nature of hetairai's relationships with individual men. Miner disagrees with Kurke, claiming that hetairai were always free, not slaves. Along with sexual services, women described as hetairai rather than pornai seem to have often been educated, and have provided companionship. According to Kurke, the concept of hetairism was a product of the symposium, where hetairai were permitted as sexually available companions of the male party-goers. In Athenaeus' Deipnosophistai, hetairai are described as providing "flattering and skillful conversation": something which is, elsewhere in classical literature, seen as a significant part of the hetaira's role. Particularly, "witty" and "refined" (αστεία) were seen as attributes which distinguished hetairai from common pornai. Hetairai are likely to have been musically educated, too. Free hetairai could become very wealthy, and control their own finances. However, their careers could be short, and if they did not earn enough to support themselves, they might have been forced to resort to working in brothels, or working as pimps, in order to ensure a continued income as they got older.

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Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.

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Hippolytus (play)

Hippolytus (Ἱππόλυτος, Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus.

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Hippolytus (son of Theseus)

''The Death of Hippolytus'', by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912). In Greek mythology, Hippolytus (Ἱππόλυτος Hippolytos; "unleasher of horses") was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte.

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In Greek mythology, Hippomenes (Ἱππομένης), also known as Melanion (Μελανίων or Μειλανίων), was a son of the Arcadian AmphidamasPseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.

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Historische Sprachforschung

Historische Sprachforschung is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal covering Indo-European historical linguistics.

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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Homeric Hymns

The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.

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In Greek mythology the Horae or Horai or Hours (Ὧραι, Hōrai,, "Seasons") were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time.

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An idyll (British English) or idyl (American English) (or; from Greek εἰδύλλιον, eidullion, "short poem") is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocritus' short pastoral poems, the Idylls.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.

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An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.

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Interpretatio graeca

Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.

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Isabel Allende

Isabel Allende (born August 2, 1942) is a Chilean writer.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Jacques-Louis David

Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.

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Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.

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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.

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Jesse Mitchell

Captain Jesse Mitchell (1812, St. Mary's Whitechapel, Middlesex - July 18, 1872, Madras) was a British army officer who served as Superintendent of the Government Museum, Madras, succeeding Edward Balfour, from 15 May 1859 to 7 August 1872.

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Judgement of Paris

The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, which was one of the events that led up to the Trojan War and (in slightly later versions of the story) to the foundation of Rome.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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A kantharos (κάνθαρος) or cantharus is a type of ancient Greek cup used for drinking.

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Kitsch (loanword from German), also called cheesiness or tackiness, is art or other objects that appeal to popular rather than high art tastes.

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Knidos or Cnidus (Κνίδος) was an ancient Greek city of Caria and part of the Dorian Hexapolis, in south-western Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey.

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Kos or Cos (Κως) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.

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Kumarbi is the chief god of the Hurrians.

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In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix (κύλιξ, pl.; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup.

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Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.

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La Vénus d'Ille

La Vénus d'Ille is a short story by Prosper Mérimée.

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Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Leda (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was an Aetolian princess who became a Spartan queen.

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Lely Venus

The Lely Venus is a marble statue of the crouching Venus type.

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Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.

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Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.

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Litae (Λιταί meaning 'Prayers') are personifications in Greek mythology.

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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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Locri is a town and comune (municipality) in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy.

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The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.

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Luck is the experience of notably positive, negative, or improbable events.

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Ludovisi Throne

The Ludovisi Throne is an ancient sculpted block of white marble hollowed at the back and carved with bas-reliefs on the three outer faces.

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Lust is a craving, it can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, lust for money or the lust for power.

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Lyric poetry

Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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Marble sculpture

Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble.

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Mars Being Disarmed by Venus

Mars Being Disarmed by Venus is the last painting produced by the French artist Jacques-Louis David.

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Martin Litchfield West

Martin Litchfield West, (23 September 1937 – 13 July 2015) was a British classical scholar.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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Maurus Servius Honoratus

Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.

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In Greek mythology, the Meliae (Μελίαι Meliai or Μελιάδες Meliades) were usually considered to be the nymphs of the ash tree, whose name they shared.

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In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.

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A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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In Greek mythology, the Moirai or Moerae or (Μοῖραι, "apportioners"), often known in English as the Fates (Fata, -orum (n)), were the white-robed incarnations of destiny; their Roman equivalent was the Parcae (euphemistically the "sparing ones").

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Monte Erice

Monte Erice, or ancient Greek Mount Eryx, is a mountain of Sicily, in the province of Trapani.

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Mother goddess

A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.

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Mount Ida

In Greek mythology, two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida, the "Mountain of the Goddess": Mount Ida in Crete; and Mount Ida in the ancient Troad region of western Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey) which was also known as the Phrygian Ida in classical antiquity and is the mountain that is mentioned in the Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil.

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Mount Ida (Turkey)

Mount Ida (Kazdağı, pronounced, meaning "Goose Mountain", Kaz Dağları, or Karataş Tepesi) is a mountain in northwestern Turkey, some 20 miles southeast of the ruins of Troy, along the north coast of the.

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Mount Olympus

Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.

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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.

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The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.

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Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.

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Myrrha (Greek: Μύρρα, Mýrra), also known as Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνα, Smýrna), is the mother of Adonis in Greek mythology.

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Myrtus, with the common name myrtle, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, described by Swedish botanist Linnaeus in 1753.

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Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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In structuralism-influenced studies of mythology, a mytheme is a fundamental generic unit of narrative structure (typically involving a relationship between a character, an event, and a theme) from which myths are thought to be constructed — a minimal unit that is always found shared with other, related mythemes and reassembled in various ways ("bundled") or linked in more complicated relationships.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Narrative poetry

Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse.

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National Archaeological Museum, Athens

The National Archaeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity.

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Nationalmuseum (or National Museum of Fine Arts) is the national gallery of Sweden, located on the peninsula Blasieholmen in central Stockholm.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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In Greek mythology, the Nereids (Νηρηΐδες Nereides, sg. Νηρηΐς Nereis) are sea nymphs (female spirits of sea waters), the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites.

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A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.

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In Greek mythology and, later, Roman mythology, the Oceanids or Oceanides (Ὠκεανίδες, pl.) are water nymphs who were the three thousand daughters of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys.

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Ode to Aphrodite

The Ode to Aphrodite (or Sappho fragment 1) is a lyric poem by the archaic Greek poet Sappho, in which the speaker calls on the help of Aphrodite in the pursuit of a beloved.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Olympia (Manet)

Olympia is a painting by Édouard Manet, first exhibited at the 1865 Paris Salon, which shows a nude woman ("Olympia") lying on a bed being brought flowers by a servant.

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On the Syrian Goddess

On the Syrian Goddess (Περὶ τῆς Συρίης Θεοῦ) is the conventional Latin title of a Greek treatise of the second century AD, which describes religious cults practiced at the temple of Hierapolis Bambyce, now Manbij, in Syria.

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Orans, a loanword from Medieval Latin ōrāns translated as one who is praying or pleading, also orant or orante, is a posture or bodily attitude of prayer, usually standing, with the elbows close to the sides of the body and with the hands outstretched sideways, palms up.

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Orientalizing period

The Orientalizing (US) or Orientalising (UK) period was a cultural and art historical period of the Archaic phase of ancient Greek and Greek-inspired art.

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Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς, classical pronunciation) is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Pan (god)

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.

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In Greek mythology, the goddess Pandia or Pandeia (Πανδία, Πανδεία, meaning "all brightness") was a daughter of Zeus and the goddess Selene, the Greek personification of the moon.

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In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. "gift", thus "the all-endowed", "all-gifted" or "all-giving") was the first human woman created by the gods, specifically by Hephaestus and Athena on the instructions of Zeus.

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Panel painting

A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.

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Paphos (Πάφος; Baf) is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus and the capital of Paphos District.

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A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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Paul Kretschmer

Paul Kretschmer (2 May 1866 – 9 March 1956) was a German linguist who studied the earliest history and interrelations of the Indo-European languages and showed how they were influenced by non-Indo-European languages, such as Etruscan.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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In Greek mythology, Peitho (Persuasion) is the goddess who personifies persuasion and seduction.

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In Greek mythology, Peleus (Πηλεύς, Pēleus) was a hero whose myth was already known to the hearers of Homer in the late 8th century BC.

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Pelias (Πελίας) was king of Iolcus in Greek mythology.

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The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.

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A peplos (ὁ πέπλος) is a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC (the Classical period).

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In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.

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In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.

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Pervigilium Veneris

Pervigilium Veneris (or The Vigil of Venus) is a Latin poem of uncertain date, variously assigned to the 2nd, 4th or 5th centuries.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.

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Petra tou Romiou

Petra tou Romiou ("Rock of the "Roman") (that is East Roman or Byzantine as Byzantines referred to themselves as either Greeks or Romans until the 1820s), also known as Aphrodite's Rock, is a sea stack in Paphos, Cyprus.

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Phaedra (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Phaedra (Φαίδρα, Phaidra) (or Fedra) is the daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë, wife of Theseus, sister of Ariadne, and the mother of Demophon of Athens and Acamas.

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Phaethon (son of Eos)

In Greek mythology, Phaethon was a son of Eos by Cephalus or Tithonus, born in Syria.

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A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.

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Phanagoria (Phanagóreia) was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

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In Greek mythology, Phaon (Φάων; gen.: Φάωνος) was a boatman of Mitylene in Lesbos.

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Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.

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Philae (Φιλαί, فيله, Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic) is currently an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.

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Philostephanus of Cyrene (Philostephanus Cyrenaeus) was a Hellenistic writer from North Africa, who was a pupil of the poet Callimachus in Alexandria and doubtless worked there during the 3rd century BC.

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Phobos (mythology)

Phobos (Φόβος,, meaning "fear") is the personification of fear in Greek mythology.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.

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Phryne (Φρύνη) (born c. 371 BC) was an ancient Greek courtesan (hetaira), from the fourth century BC.

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Pierre Louÿs

Pierre Louÿs (10 December 1870 – 6 June 1925) was a French poet and writer, most renowned for lesbian and classical themes in some of his writings.

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Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.

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Pistoxenos Painter

The Pistoxenos Painter was an important ancient Greek vase painter of the Classical period.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Angelo Ambrogini (14 July 1454 – 24 September 1494), commonly known by his nickname Poliziano (anglicized as Politian; Latin: Politianus), was an Italian classical scholar and poet of the Florentine Renaissance.

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Polyphonte (Ancient Greek: Πολυφόντη ""slayer of many") is a character in Greek mythology, transformed into an owl.

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The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.

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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Pottery of ancient Greece

Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.

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Praxiteles (Greek: Πραξιτέλης) of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus the Elder, was the most renowned of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC.

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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

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In Greek mythology, Priapus (Πρίαπος, Priapos) was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia.

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Primavera (painting)

Primavera (meaning "Spring"), is a large panel painting in tempera paint by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli made in the late 1470s or early 1480s (datings vary).

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Procuring (prostitution)

Procuring or pandering is the facilitation or provision of a prostitute or sex worker in the arrangement of a sex act with a customer.

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A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.

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Prosper Mérimée

Prosper Mérimée (28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was an important French writer in the school of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story.

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Prostitution in ancient Greece

Prostitution was a common aspect of ancient Greece.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.

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The Prytaneis (πρυτάνεις; sing.: πρύτανις prytanis) were the executives of the boule of ancient Athens.

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Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.

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Ptolemy IV Philopator

Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.

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Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

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Pygmalion (mythology)

Pygmalion (Πυγμαλίων, Pugmalíōn, gen.: Πυγμαλίωνος) is a legendary figure of Cyprus.

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Queen of heaven (antiquity)

Queen of Heaven was a title given to a number of ancient sky goddesses worshipped throughout the ancient Mediterranean and Near East during ancient times.

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Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

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Red hair

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.

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Red-figure pottery

Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting.

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Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus or Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete.

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In Greek mythology, Rhodos/Rhodus or Rhode, was the goddess and personification of the island of Rhodes and a wife of the sun god Helios.

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Richard Barnfield

Richard Barnfield (1574 – 1620) was an English poet.

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Richard Garnett (writer)

Richard Garnett C.B. (27 February 1835 – 13 April 1906) was a scholar, librarian, biographer and poet.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rigvedic deities

There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

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Rokeby Venus

The Rokeby Venus (also known as The Toilet of Venus, Venus at her Mirror, Venus and Cupid, or La Venus del espejo) is a painting by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age.

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A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.

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Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.

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Sacred prostitution

Sacred prostitution, temple prostitution, cult prostitution, and religious prostitution are general terms for a sexual rite consisting of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity performed in the context of religious worship, perhaps as a form of fertility rite or divine marriage (hieros gamos).

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Salon (Paris)

The Salon (Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

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Samuel Butler (poet)

Samuel Butler (baptized 14 February 1613 – 25 September 1680) was a poet and satirist.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.

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Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

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Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Sexual slavery

Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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A skolion (from σκόλιον) (pl. skolia), also scolion (pl. scolia), was a song sung by invited guests at banquets in ancient Greece.

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Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.

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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Street prostitution

Street prostitution is a form of sex work in which a sex worker solicits customers from a public place, most commonly a street, while waiting at street corners or walking alongside a street, but also other public places such as parks, benches, etc.

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Stufetta del cardinal Bibbiena

The Stufetta del cardinal Bibbiena (lit. The Small Heated Room of Cardinal Bibbiena) is a small room in the Vatican, adorned with erotic frescoes painted by Raphael in 1516 and commissioned by Cardinal Bibbiena (1470–1520).

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Suicide note

A suicide note or death note is a message left behind before a person dies, or intends to die, by suicide.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sumerian religion

Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first literate civilization of ancient Mesopotamia.

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Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

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Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.

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Symposium (Plato)

The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Taman Peninsula

The Taman Peninsula (Тама́нский полуо́стров, Tamanskiy poluostrov) is a peninsula in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia, which borders the Sea of Azov to the North, the Strait of Kerch to the West and the Black Sea to the South.

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Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform; hieroglyphic Luwian, read as TarhunzasAnnick Payne (2014), Hieroglyphic Luwian: An Introduction with Original Texts, 3rd revised edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 159.) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm.

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The Tessarakonteres (τεσσαρακοντήρης, "forty-rowed"), or simply "forty" was a very large catamaran galley reportedly built in the Hellenistic period by Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt.

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Thalia (Grace)

Thalia (Θαλία Thalía, "Abundance"), in ancient Greek religion, was one of the three Graces or Charites with her sisters Aglaea and Euphrosyne.

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Théophile Gautier

Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.

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The Birth of Venus

The Birth of Venus (Nascita di Venere) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli probably made in the mid 1480s.

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The Birth of Venus (Bouguereau)

The Birth of Venus (La Naissance de Vénus) is one of the most famous paintings by 19th-century painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau.

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The Birth of Venus (Cabanel)

The Birth of Venus (French: Naissance de Venus) is a painting by the French artist Alexandre Cabanel.

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The Death of Adonis (Rubens)

The Death of Adonis is a c.1614 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

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The Source (Ingres)

The Source (La Source) is an oil painting on canvas by French neoclassical painter Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.

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The Twilight of the Gods and Other Tales

The Twilight of the Gods and Other Tales is a collection of fantasy short stories by Richard Garnett, generally considered a classic in the genre.

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Themis (Ancient Greek: Θέμις) is an ancient Greek Titaness.

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Theocritus (Θεόκριτος, Theokritos; fl. c. 270 BC), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC.

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The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.

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A theomachy is a battle among gods in Greek mythology.

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Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.

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Thit Jensen

Maria Kirstine Dorothea Jensen (Thit Jensen) (19 January 1876 – 14 May 1957) was a Danish novelist, but also author of short stories, plays and society-critical articles.

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Thomas Anstey Guthrie

Thomas Anstey Guthrie (8 August 1856 - 10 March 1934) was an English novelist and journalist, who wrote his comic novels under the pseudonym F. Anstey.

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Thorns, spines, and prickles

In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.

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The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.

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Trojan language

The language spoken by the Trojans in the Iliad is Homeric Greek.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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Uranus (mythology)

Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Ushas (उषस्) is a Vedic goddess of dawn in Hinduism.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Venus (mythology)

Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.

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Venus Anadyomene

Venus Anadyomene (from Greek, "Venus Rising From the Sea") is one of the iconic representations of Aphrodite, made famous in a much-admired painting by Apelles, now lost, but described in Pliny's ''Natural History'', with the anecdote that the great Apelles employed Campaspe, a mistress of Alexander the Great, for his model.

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Venus Anadyomene (Ingres)

Venus Anadyomene is a painting by the French painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.

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Venus Anadyomene (Titian)

Venus Anadyomene (Greek -Venus rising from the sea), is a c. 1520 oil painting by Titian, depicting Venus rising from the sea and wringing her hair, after her birth fully-grown.

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Venus and Adonis (Shakespeare poem)

Venus and Adonis is a narrative poem by William Shakespeare published in 1593.

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Venus and Adonis (Titian)

A composition of Venus and Adonis by the Venetian Renaissance artist Titian has been painted a number of times, by Titian himself, by his studio assistants and by others.

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Venus Callipyge

The Venus Callipyge, also known as the Aphrodite Kallipygos (Ἀφροδίτη Καλλίπυγος) or the Callipygian Venus, all literally meaning "Venus (or Aphrodite) of the beautiful buttocks", is an Ancient Roman marble statue, thought to be a copy of an older Greek original.

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Venus de Milo

Aphrodite of Milos (Αφροδίτη της Μήλου, Aphroditi tis Milou), better known as the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture.

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Venus of Urbino

The Venus of Urbino (also known as Reclining Venus) is an oil painting by the Italian painter Titian, which seems to have been begun in 1532 or 1534, and was perhaps completed in 1534, but not sold until 1538.

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Venus Verticordia

Venus Verticordia ("the changer of hearts") was an epithet of the Roman goddess Venus, alluding to the goddess' ability to change hearts from lust to chastity.

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Venus with a Mirror

Venus with a Mirror (about 1555) is a painting by Titian, now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, and it is considered to be one of the collection's highlights.

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Venus, Adonis and Cupid

Venus, Adonis and Cupid is a painting created c. 1595 by Annibale Carracci.

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Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time

Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (also called An Allegory of Venus and Cupid and A Triumph of Venus) is an allegorical painting by the Florentine artist Agnolo Bronzino.

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In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र,, lit. 'enveloper') is a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra.

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Walter Burkert

Walter Burkert (born 2 February 1931, Neuendettelsau; died 11 March 2015, Zurich) was a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult.

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Western literature

Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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White ground technique

White-ground technique is a style of white ancient Greek pottery and the painting in which figures appear on a white background.

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Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.

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Wiccan views of divinity

Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter.

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Works and Days

The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.

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Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphrodite

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