79 relations: Allele, Allele frequency, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Amphiphile, Amyloid, Amyloid beta, Apolipoprotein, Apolipoprotein C1, Apolipoprotein C2, Astrocyte, Atherosclerosis, Base pair, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Cardiovascular disease, Catabolism, CD1, Central nervous system, Cerebrovascular disease, Cholesterol, Chromosome 19, Chylomicron, Cognition, Exon, Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, Fatty acid, Genetic disorder, Glucose, Hippocampus, HIV, Homeostasis, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophobe, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperlipidemia, Immune system, Inflammation, Intermediate-density lipoprotein, Intron, Kidney, Knockout mouse, LDL receptor, Lipid, Liver, Liver X receptor, Low-density lipoprotein, Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family, Lymphatic system, Macrophage, ..., Malaria, Melanocyte, Metabolism, Microglia, Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, Multiple sclerosis, Natural killer T cell, Neurite, Neuron, Nuclear receptor, Parkinson's disease, Peptide, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, Polymorphism (biology), Protein dimer, Protein isoform, Proteolysis, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Retinoid X receptor, Sleep apnea, Spleen, T cell, Telomere, Traumatic brain injury, Triglyceride, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin, Vitamin D. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.
Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.
Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins.
Apolipoprotein C-I is a protein component of lipoproteins that in humans is encoded by the APOC1 gene.
Apolipoprotein C2 or apolipoprotein C-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC2 gene.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chylomicrons (from the Greek χυλός, chylos, meaning juice (of plants or animals), and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (also known as remnant hyperlipidemia, "remnant hyperlipoproteinaemia", "broad beta disease" and "remnant removal disease") is a condition characterized by increased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and decreased HDL levels.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) belong to the lipoprotein particle family and are formed from the degradation of very low-density lipoproteins as well as high-density lipoproteins.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The liver X receptor (LXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors and is closely related to nuclear receptors such as the PPARs, FXR and RXR.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family codes for a class of structurally related cell surface receptors that fulfill diverse biological functions in different organs, tissues, and cell types.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor also known as class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 32 or bHLHe32 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MITF gene.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid, which is discussed controversially to be of endogenous relevance, and 9-cis-13,14-dihydro-retinoic acid, which is likely to be the major endogenous mammalian RXR-selective agonist.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.