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Index Apologetics

Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse. [1]

163 relations: A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Against Apion, Alexandria, Alister McGrath, Alvin Plantinga, Ancient Greek, Apologia Pro Vita Sua, Apology (Plato), Argument, Aristobulus of Alexandria, B. H. Roberts, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Báb, Beatification, Brigham Young University, Buddhism, C. S. Lewis, Cannibalism, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Carthage, Catholic Church, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Christian, Christian apologetics, Christian theology, Church of England, Cognate, Colley Cibber, Comparative religion, Consciousness, Consubstantiality, Cornelius Van Til, Cosmology, Criticism of Christianity, David Bentley Hart, Dawah, Dedication, Deism, Demetrius the Chronographer, Dinesh D'Souza, Doctrine, Douglas Groothuis, Douglas Wilson (theologian), Early modern period, Edward John Carnell, Epistle to the Philippians, Eucharist, Existence of God, FairMormon, ..., Faith, Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, Frances Burney, Francis Schaeffer, Frederick Copleston, Fundamentalism, G. K. Chesterton, Gary Habermas, God in Christianity, Gordon Clark, Great Fire of Rome, Greek language, Greg Bahnsen, Hank Hanegraaff, Herod Agrippa, Hinduism, Hugh Nibley, Hugh Ross (astrophysicist), Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), Incest, Indology, Irenaeus, J. Gordon Melton, J. P. Moreland, James E. Talmage, James White (theologian), Jan N. Bremmer, Jeff Lindsay (engineer), Jews for Judaism, John Henry Newman, John Lennox, John Taylor (Mormon), Josephus, Josh McDowell, Judaism, Justin Martyr, Kalam, Karl Keating, Kitáb-i-Íqán, Koine Greek, Latin, Latin Church, Latter Day Saint movement, Lee Strobel, List of apologetic works, List of early Christian writers, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, Merriam-Webster, Milinda Panha, Mormonism, Native Americans in the United States, Natural religion, Natural theology, Nero, New Testament, Norman Geisler, Old Testament, Ontology, Orson Scott Card, Ousia, Oxford Movement, Oxford University Press, Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Pantheism, Parley P. Pratt, Patrick Madrid, Paul the Apostle, Paul Tillich, Persona, Peter Kreeft, Philo, Philosophy, Physics, Porcius Festus, Preface, Ptolemy VI Philometor, Quantum mechanics, R. C. Sproul, Ravi Zacharias, Red Jacket, Religion, Religion in Japan, Robert Barron (bishop), Roman Empire, Ronald Knox, Rowman & Littlefield, Sanskrit, Scott Hahn, Seneca people, Socrates, Sri Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda, Tacitus, Teleological argument, Tertullian, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Theism, Theodicy, Theology, Theravada, Tovia Singer, Transcendental argument for the existence of God, Trinity, Udo Schaefer, Universal Pantheist Society, Vedas, Walter Ralston Martin, William Congreve, William Lane Craig, World Pantheist Movement, Wout van Bekkum, Yosef Mizrachi. Expand index (113 more) »

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: অভয় চরোনারবীন্দ্র ভক্তিবেদান্তো স্বামী প্রভুপাদ; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Vedic spiritual teacher (guru) and the founder preceptor (Acharya) of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement".

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Against Apion

Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Alister McGrath

Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, Christian apologist and public intellectual.

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Alvin Plantinga

Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Apologia Pro Vita Sua

Apologia Pro Vita Sua (Latin: A defence of one's own life) is John Henry Newman's defence of his religious opinions, published in 1864 in response to Charles Kingsley of the Church of England after Newman quit his position as the Anglican vicar of St.

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Apology (Plato)

The Apology of Socrates (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, Apologia Sokratous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.

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In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.

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Aristobulus of Alexandria

Aristobulus of Alexandria (Ἀριστόβουλος) also called Aristobulus the Peripatetic (fl. 181–124 B.C.E.) and once believed to be Aristobulus of Paneas, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher of the Peripatetic school, though he also used Platonic and Pythagorean concepts.

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B. H. Roberts

Brigham Henry Roberts (March 13, 1857 – September 27, 1933) was a Mormon leader, historian, and politician.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسین‌علی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.

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Brigham Young University

Brigham Young University (BYU, sometimes referred to colloquially as The Y) is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, Utah, United States completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.

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Cardinal (Catholic Church)

A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu ((also transliterated Caitanya Mahāprabhu); 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534) was a Vedic spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian apologetics

Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.

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Christian theology

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Colley Cibber

Colley Cibber (6 November 1671 – 11 December 1757) was an English actor-manager, playwright and Poet Laureate.

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Comparative religion

Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Consubstantial (Latin: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin Christian christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios.

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Cornelius Van Til

Cornelius Van Til (May 3, 1895 – April 17, 1987) was a Dutch Christian philosopher and Reformed theologian, who is credited as being the originator of modern presuppositional apologetics.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Criticism of Christianity

Criticism of Christianity has a long history stretching back to the initial formation of the religion during the Roman Empire.

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David Bentley Hart

David Bentley Hart (born 1965) is an American Orthodox Christian philosophical theologian, cultural commentator and polemicist.

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(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.

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Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, temple, church, or other sacred building.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Demetrius the Chronographer

Demetrius the Chronographer (or Demetrius the Chronicler; Δημήτριος) was a Jewish chronicler (historian) of the late 3rd century BCE, who lived probably in Alexandria and wrote in Greek.

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Dinesh D'Souza

Dinesh Joseph D'Souza (born April 25, 1961) is an Indian American conservative political commentator, author and filmmaker who has been described as far-right.

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Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.

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Douglas Groothuis

Douglas R. Groothuis (born January 3, 1957) is Professor of Philosophy at Denver Seminary.

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Douglas Wilson (theologian)

Douglas James Wilson (born 18 June 1953) is a conservative Reformed and evangelical theologian, pastor at Christ Church in Moscow, Idaho, faculty member at New Saint Andrews College, and prolific author and speaker.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Edward John Carnell

Edward John Carnell (28 June 1919 – 25 April 1967) was a prominent Christian theologian and apologist, was an ordained Baptist pastor, and served as President of Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California.

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Epistle to the Philippians

The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, often referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament.

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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Existence of God

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.

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FairMormon, formerly known as the Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research (FAIR), is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization that specializes in Mormon apologetics and responds to criticism of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

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In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.

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Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies

The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) was an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Latter-day Saint historical scholarship.

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Frances Burney

Frances Burney (13 June 17526 January 1840), also known as Fanny Burney and after her marriage as Madame d'Arblay, was an English satirical novelist, diarist and playwright.

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Francis Schaeffer

Francis August Schaeffer (January 30, 1912 – May 15, 1984) was an American Evangelical Christian theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor.

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Frederick Copleston

Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).

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Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.

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G. K. Chesterton

Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.

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Gary Habermas

Gary Robert Habermas (born 1950) is an American historian, New Testament scholar, philosopher of religion, and Christian apologist who frequently writes and lectures on the resurrection of Jesus.

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God in Christianity

God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.

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Gordon Clark

Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902 – April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian.

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Great Fire of Rome

The Great Fire of Rome was an urban fire in the year AD 64.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greg Bahnsen

Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an American Calvinist philosopher, apologist, and debater.

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Hank Hanegraaff

Hendrik "Hank" Hanegraaff (born 1950), also known as the "Bible Answer Man", is an American Christian author and radio talk-show host.

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Herod Agrippa

Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod or Agrippa I (11 BC – 44 AD), was a King of Judea from 41 to 44 AD.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hugh Nibley

Hugh Winder Nibley (March 27, 1910 – February 24, 2005) was an American scholar and Mormon apologist who was a professor at Brigham Young University (BYU) for nearly 50 years.

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Hugh Ross (astrophysicist)

Hugh Norman Ross (born July 24, 1945) is a Canadian Christian apologist, and old Earth creationist.

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Hypostasis (philosophy and religion)

Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.

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Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.

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Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.

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Irenaeus (Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy.

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J. Gordon Melton

John Gordon Melton (born September 19, 1942) is an American religious scholar who was the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is currently the Distinguished Professor of American Religious History with the Institute for Studies of Religion at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, where he resides.

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J. P. Moreland

James Porter Moreland (born March 9, 1948), better known as J. P. Moreland, is an American philosopher, theologian, and Christian apologist.

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James E. Talmage

James Edward Talmage (21 September 1862 – 27 July 1933) was an English chemist, geologist, and religious leader who served as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1911 until his death.

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James White (theologian)

James Robert White (born December 17, 1962) is the director of Alpha and Omega Ministries, an evangelical Reformed Christian apologetics organization based in Phoenix, Arizona.

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Jan N. Bremmer

Jan N. Bremmer (born 18 December 1944) is a Dutch academic and historian.

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Jeff Lindsay (engineer)

Jeffrey Dean Lindsay is a former professor, author, apologist, chemical engineer, and patent agent.

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Jews for Judaism

Jews for Judaism is an international organization that focuses on preventing Jews from converting to other faiths and reclaiming those who have already converted.

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John Henry Newman

John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.

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John Lennox

John Carson Lennox (born 7 November 1943) is a Northern Irish mathematician specialising in group theory, a philosopher of science and a Christian apologist.

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John Taylor (Mormon)

John Taylor (November 1, 1808 – July 25, 1887) was an English religious leader who served as the third president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1880 to 1887.

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Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

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Josh McDowell

Joslin "Josh" McDowell (born August 17, 1939) is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.

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ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.

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Karl Keating

Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and former president of Catholic Answers, a lay apostolate of Catholic apologetics and evangelization.

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The Kitáb-i-Íqán (كتاب ايقان, كتاب الإيقان "The Book of Certitude") is one of many books held sacred by followers of the Bahá'í Faith; it is their primary theological work.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin Church

The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.

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Latter Day Saint movement

The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.

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Lee Strobel

Lee Patrick Strobel (born January 25, 1952) is an American Christian author and a former investigative journalist.

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List of apologetic works

This is a list of books in the field of religious apologetics.

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List of early Christian writers

Various Early Christian writers wrote gospels and other books, some of which were canonized as the New Testament canon developed.

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Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma, 12 January 1918 – 5 February 2008) was an Indian guru, known for developing the Transcendental Meditation technique and for being the leader and guru of a worldwide organization that has been characterized in multiple ways including as a new religious movement and as non-religious.

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Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl

Mírzá Muḥammad (ميرزا أبوالفضل), or Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání (1844–1914), was the foremost Bahá'í scholar who helped spread the Bahá'í Faith in Egypt, Turkmenistan, and the United States.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Milinda Panha

The Milinda Pañha ("Questions of Milinda") is a Buddhist text which dates from sometime between 100 BCE and 200 CE.

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Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural religion

Natural religion most frequently means the "religion of nature", in which God, the soul, spirits, and all objects of the supernatural are considered as part of nature and not separate from it.

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Natural theology

Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.

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Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Norman Geisler

Norman Leo Geisler (born July 21, 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian and philosopher.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Orson Scott Card

Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951) is an American novelist, critic, public speaker, essayist, and columnist.

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Ousia (οὐσία) is analogous to the English concepts of being and ontic used in contemporary philosophy.

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Oxford Movement

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pandurang Shastri Athavale

Pandurang Shastri Athavale (प.पू.पांडुरंगशास्त्री आठवले) (19 October 1920 – 25 October 2003), also known as Dadaji (दादाजी), which literally translates as "Elder brother" in Marathi, was an Indian activist philosopher, spiritual leader, social revolutionary and religion reformist, who founded the Swadhyaya Parivar (Swadhyaya Family) in 1954.

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Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.

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Parley P. Pratt

Parley Parker Pratt Sr. (April 12, 1807 – May 13, 1857) was an early leader of the Latter Day Saint movement whose writings became a significant early nineteenth-century exposition of the Latter Day Saint faith.

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Patrick Madrid

Patrick Madrid (born 1960) is an American Catholic author, radio host, apologist, the host of several EWTN television and radio series, and was the publisher of Envoy Magazine.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Paul Tillich

Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century.

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A persona (plural personae or personas), in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor.

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Peter Kreeft

Peter John Kreeft ((b. 16 March 1937) is a professor of philosophy at Boston College and The King's College. He is the author of numerous books as well as a popular writer of Christian philosophy, theology and apologetics. He also formulated, together with Ronald K. Tacelli, SJ, "Twenty Arguments for the Existence of God.".

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Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Porcius Festus

Porcius Festus was procurator of Judea from about AD 59 to 62, succeeding Antonius Felix.

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A preface or proem is an introduction to a book or other literary work written by the work's author.

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Ptolemy VI Philometor

Ptolemy VI Philometor (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Mother"); c. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 164 BC and from 163 to 145 BC.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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R. C. Sproul

Robert Charles Sproul (February 13, 1939 – December 14, 2017) was an American theologian, author, and ordained pastor in the Presbyterian Church in America.

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Ravi Zacharias

Ravi Zacharias (born 26 March 1946) is an Indian-born Canadian-American Christian apologist.

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Red Jacket

Red Jacket (known as Otetiani in his youth and Sagoyewatha Sa-go-ye-wa-tha as an adult because of his oratorical skills) (c. 1750–January 20, 1830) was a Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan, based in western New York.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion in Japan

Religion in Japan is dominated by Shinto (the ethnic religion of the Japanese people) and by Buddhism.

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Robert Barron (bishop)

Robert Emmet Barron (born November 19, 1959) is the founder of Word on Fire Catholic Ministries and Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Ronald Knox

Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (17 February 1888 – 24 August 1957) was an English Catholic priest, theologian and author of detective stories.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Scott Hahn

Scott W. Hahn (born October 28, 1957) is an American Roman Catholic theologian.

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Seneca people

The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.

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Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Sri Aurobindo

Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.

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Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Teleological argument

The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.

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Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.

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Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.

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Tovia Singer

Tovia Singer (born September 20, 1960) is a rabbi, the founder and director of Outreach Judaism.

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Transcendental argument for the existence of God

The Transcendental Argument for the Existence of God (TAG) is the argument that attempts to prove God's existence by arguing that logic, morals, and science ultimately presuppose a supreme being, and that God must be the source of logic and morals.

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Udo Schaefer

Udo Schaefer (born October 19, 1926) is a German lawyer and a Bahá'í author.

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Universal Pantheist Society

The Universal Pantheist Society is one of the world's first official organizations dedicated to the promotion and understanding of modern pantheism.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Walter Ralston Martin

Walter Ralston Martin (September 10, 1928 – June 26, 1989), was an American Baptist Christian minister and author who founded the Christian Research Institute in 1960 as a para-church ministry specializing as a clearing-house of information in both general Christian apologetics and in countercult apologetics.

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William Congreve

William Congreve (24 January 1670 – 19 January 1729) was an English playwright and poet of the Restoration period.

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William Lane Craig

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher and Christian theologian.

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World Pantheist Movement

The World Pantheist Movement (WPM) is the world's largest organization of people associated with pantheism, a philosophy which asserts that spirituality should be centered on nature.

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Wout van Bekkum

Wouter Jacques "Wout" van Bekkum (born 21 May 1954) is a Dutch professor of Middle East Studies at the University of Groningen.

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Yosef Mizrachi

Yosef Mizrachi (יוסף מזרחי) is a Sefardi Haredi rabbi and founder of DivineInformation.com, an Orthodox Judaism outreach organization, based in Monsey, New York.

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Apologete, Apologetic, Apologetical, Apologia (defence), Apologism, Apologist, Apologists, LDS Apologetics, LDS apologetics, LDS apologists, Mormon Apologetics, Mormon apologist, Mormon apologists, Tactics of Apologia.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apologetics

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