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Index Apomixis

In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization. [1]

79 relations: Agave, Allium, Amelanchier, Animal, Antennaria, Asexual reproduction, Asteraceae, Blumea, Botany, Bramble, Bryophyte, Bulb, Chromosome, Citrus, Clade, Cloning, Crataegus, Crepis, Cupressus dupreziana, Cytomixis, Dactylorhiza maculata, Elymus (plant), Embryo, Endosperm, Eragrostis, Euphorbia, Evolution, Family (biology), Fern, Flora (publication), Fragaria, Gametophyte, Garcinia, Göte Turesson, Genus, Gymnosperm, Hans Winkler, Henry Ford, Hieracium, Hierarchy, Ixeris, Jens Clausen, Klepton, Lilium, Lycopodiophyta, Mangifera indica, Megaspore mother cell, Meiosis, Microspore, Nardus, ..., Nicotiana, Nicotiana tabacum, Nucellar embryony, Ovule, Panicum, Parthenocarpy, Parthenogenesis, Photoperiodism, Plant reproductive morphology, Plantlet, Ploidy, Poa, Poaceae, Pollination, Polystichum, Pseudogamy, Rosaceae, Rowan, Rubus, Sexual reproduction, Solanum nigrum, Sorbus, Species, Species complex, Sporophyte, Stamen, Taraxacum, Whitebeam, Zoology. Expand index (29 more) »


Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.

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Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives.

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Amelanchier, also known as shadbush, shadwood or shadblow, serviceberry or sarvisberry, or just sarvis, juneberry, saskatoon, sugarplum or wild-plum, and chuckley pearA Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador Vascular Plants: is a genus of about 20 species of deciduous-leaved shrubs and small trees in the Rose family (Rosaceae).

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antennaria is a genus of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Asteraceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with one species (A. chilensis) in temperate southern South America; the highest species diversity is in North America.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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Blumea is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Asteraceae family.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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In British English, a "bramble" is any rough (usually wild) tangled prickly shrub—specifically the blackberry bush (Rubus fruticosus)—or any hybrid of similar appearance, with thorny stems.

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Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.

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In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Crataegus (from the Greek kratos "strength" and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species) commonly called hawthorn, thornapple,Voss, E. G. 1985.

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Crepis, commonly known in some parts of the world as hawksbeard or hawk's-beard (but not to be confused with the related genus Hieracium with a similar common name), is a genus of annual and perennial flowering plants of the family Asteraceae superficially resembling the dandelion, the most conspicuous difference being that Crepis usually has branching scapes with multiple heads (though solitary heads can occur).

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Cupressus dupreziana

Cupressus dupreziana, the Saharan cypress, Moroccan cypress, or tarout, is a very rare coniferous tree native to the Tassili n'Ajjer mountains in the central Sahara desert, southeast Algeria, where it forms a unique population of trees hundreds of kilometres from any other trees.

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Cytomixis is migration of the nuclei from one plant cell to another through intercellular channels of a special type (cytomictic channels), differing from plasmodesmata in their structure and size.

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Dactylorhiza maculata

Dactylorhiza maculata, known as the heath spotted-orchid or moorland spotted orchid, is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae.

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Elymus (plant)

Elymus is a genus of perennial plants with approximately 150 species in the grass family, related to rye, wheat, and other widely grown cereal grains.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.

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Eragrostis is a large and widespread genus of plants in the grass family, found in many countries on all inhabited continents and many islands.

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Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Flora (publication)

A Flora is a book or other work which describes the plant species occurring in an area or time period, often with the aim of allowing identification.

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Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits.

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A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Garcinia is a plant genus of the family Clusiaceae native to Asia, America, Australia, tropical and southern Africa, and Polynesia.

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Göte Turesson

Göte Wilhelm Turesson (6 April 1892 – 30 December 1970) was a Swedish evolutionary botanist who made significant contributions to ecological genetics, and coined the terms ecotype and agamospecies.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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Hans Winkler

Hans Karl Albert Winkler (23 April 1877 – 22 November 1945) was a German botanist.

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Henry Ford

Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

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Hieracium, known by the common name hawkweed and classically as hierakion (from ancient Greek ιεράξ, hierax 'hawk'), is a genus of the sunflower (Helianthus) family Asteraceae), and closely related to dandelion (Taraxacum), chicory (Cichorium), prickly lettuce (Lactuca) and sow thistle (Sonchus), which are part of the tribe Cichorieae. Hawkweeds, with their 10,000+ recorded species and subspecies, do their part to make Asteraceae the second largest family of flowers. Some botanists group all these species or subspecies into approximately 800 accepted species, while others prefer to accept several thousand species. Since most hawkweeds reproduce exclusively asexually by means of seeds that are genetically identical to their mother plant (apomixis or agamospermy), clones or populations that consist of genetically identical plants are formed and some botanists (especially in UK, Scandinavia and Russia) prefer to accept these clones as good species (arguing that it is impossible to know how these clones are interrelated) whereas others (mainly in Central Europe and USA) try to group them into a few hundred more broadly defined species. What is here treated as the single genus Hieracium is now treated by most European experts as two different genera, Hieracium and Pilosella, with species such as Hieracium pilosella, Hieracium floribundum and Hieracium aurantiacum referred to the latter genus. Many members of the genus Pilosella reproduce both by stolons (runners like those of strawberries) and by seeds, whereas true Hieracium species reproduce only by seeds. In Pilosella, many individual plants are capable of forming both normal sexual and asexual (apomictic) seeds, whereas individual plants of Hieracium only produce one kind of seeds. Another difference is that all species of Pilosella have leaves with smooth (entire) margins whereas most species of Hieracium have distinctly dentate to deeply cut or divided leaves.

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A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Ixeris is a genus of Asian flowering plants in the dandelion family.

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Jens Clausen

Jens Christen (Christian) Clausen (March 11, 1891 – November 22, 1969) was a Danish-American botanist, geneticist, and ecologist.

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In biology, a klepton (abbr. kl.) and synklepton (abbr sk.) is a species that requires input from another biological taxon (normally from a species which is closely related to the kleptonic species) to complete their reproductive cycle.

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Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.

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The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.

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Mangifera indica

Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae.

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Megaspore mother cell

A megaspore mother cell, or megasporocyte, is a diploid cell in plants in which meiosis will occur, resulting in the production of four haploid megaspores.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Microspores are land plant spores that develop into male gametophytes, whereas megaspores develop into female gametophytes.

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Nardus is a genus of plants belonging to the grass family, containing the single species Nardus stricta, known as matgrass.

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Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.

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Nicotiana tabacum

Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.

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Nucellar embryony

Nucellar embryony (notated Nu+) is a form of seed reproduction that occurs in certain plant species, including many citrus varieties.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Panicum (panicgrass) is a large genus of about 450 species of grasses native throughout the tropical regions of the world, with a few species extending into the northern temperate zone.

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In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Plant reproductive morphology

Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.

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Plantlets are young or small plants.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Poa is a genus of about 500 species of grasses, native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution.

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Pseudogamy refers to aspects of reproduction.

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Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.

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The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.

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Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Solanum nigrum

Solanum nigrum (European black nightshade) is a species in the genus Solanum, native to Eurasia and introduced in the Americas, Australasia, and South Africa.

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Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the rose family, Rosaceae.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species complex

In biology, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear.

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A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.

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The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.

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Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.

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The whitebeams are members of the family Rosaceae, comprising subgenus Aria of genus Sorbus, and hybrids involving species of this subgenus and members of subgenera Sorbus, Torminaria and Chamaemespilus.

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Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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Addition hybrid, Adventitious embryony, Adventive embryony, Agamospecies, Agamospermous, Agamospermy, Androclinesis, Androgenesis, Androgenetic, Apogamous, Apogamy, Apomeiosis, Apomict, Apomictic, Apomictic seed, Apomixes, Apospory, Autonomous gametophytic apomixis, BIII hybrid, Centrogamy, Diplospory, Generative apospory, Jordanon, Male apomixis, Nonrecurrent apomixis, Paternal apomixis, Pseudogamous gametophytic apomixis, Recurrent apomixis, S1 generation, Somatic apospory, Sporophytic apomixis, Sporophytic budding, Vegetative apomixis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apomixis

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