237 relations: Abingdon-on-Thames, Absolute (philosophy), Abstraction, Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani, Acts of the Apostles, Adi Shankara, Adjective, Advaita Vedanta, Agnosticism, Albany, New York, Allah, Allegory of the Cave, Analogy, Anatta, Angel, Areopagus sermon, Aristotelianism, Aryeh Kaplan, Ashʿari, Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Ātman (Hinduism), Śūnyatā, Bahya ibn Paquda, Basil of Caesarea, Being, Bernard Lonergan, Bhartṛhari, Bloomington, Indiana, Bloomsbury Publishing, Book of Revelation, Books of Kings, Boydell & Brewer, Brahma Sutras, Brahman, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Brill Publishers, Buddhism, Buddhist philosophy, Burning bush, C. S. Lewis, Cappadocian Fathers, Cataphatic theology, Catechesis, Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chovot HaLevavot, Christian contemplation, Christian meditation, ..., Church Fathers, Clement of Alexandria, Collegeville, Minnesota, Conceptions of God, Confessions (Augustine), Cyril of Jerusalem, Dark Night of the Soul, David Bentley Hart, Difference (philosophy), Divine simplicity, Dogma in the Catholic Church, Downers Grove, Illinois, Dyad (Greek philosophy), Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern philosophy, Ecstasy (philosophy), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Elijah, Enchiridion symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epiphany (feeling), Essence, Essence–energies distinction, Eugene, Oregon, Existence of God, Fideism, Form of the Good, Fourth Council of the Lateran, Georges Florovsky, Gnosticism, God, God in Islam, Google Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Great chain of being, Greco-Roman mysteries, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory Palamas, Guardian Media Group, Hadith, Harold Coward, Henosis, Heraclitus, Herman Dooyeweerd, Herodotus, Hesiod, Hesychasm, Hindu philosophy, Hoboken, New Jersey, Homer, Homily, Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), Immanence, Indian philosophy, Indiana University Press, Ineffability, Infinite qualitative distinction, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, InterVarsity Press, Islam, Islamic schools and branches, Isma'ilism, Ivan Illich, Jacques Derrida, Jefferson, North Carolina, Jinul, Jiyuan Yu, John Chrysostom, John Meyendorff, John of Damascus, John of the Cross, John Romanides, John Scotus Eriugena, John Wiley & Sons, Kalam, Karen Armstrong, Karl Barth, Kayseri, Lanham, Maryland, Latin, Leiden, Leo Strauss, Limit-experience, Madhyamaka, Magisterium, Mahwah, New Jersey, Maimonides, Maturidi, Maximus the Confessor, McFarland & Company, Meister Eckhart, Michael J. Buckley, Middle Platonism, Miracles (book), Monad (philosophy), Monism, Moses, Mount Horeb, Muʿtazila, Mukhya Upanishads, Mysticism, Nagarjuna, Names of God, Negation, Neoplatonism, Neti neti, Nous, Nyssa (Cappadocia), Online Etymology Dictionary, Origen, Ousia, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Para Brahman, Parmenides, Parmenides (dialogue), Paul the Apostle, Paulist Fathers, Perception, Philo, Plato, Plotinus, Polemic, Pope Benedict XVI, Postmodern theology, Prajnaparamita, Problem of religious language, Proclus, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Pythagoras, Qajar dynasty, Rajab Ali Tabrizi, Regensburg lecture, Religious text, Republic (Plato), Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Rudolf Otto, Rule of Faith, Sacred tradition, Saint John's Abbey, Collegeville, Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, Samuel ibn Tibbon, Søren Kierkegaard, Scholasticism, Self-enquiry (Ramana Maharshi), Shia Islam, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Subitism, Summa Theologica, SUNY Press, Ta'tili, Tabor Light, Taittiriya Shakha, Tertullian, Tetragrammaton, The Case for God, The Cloud of Unknowing, The Enneads, The Guardian, The Guide for the Perplexed, Theogony, Theology, Theophany, Theory of forms, Theosis (Eastern Christian theology), Thomas Aquinas, Thomism, Timaeus (dialogue), Transcendence (religion), Tzimtzum, University of Notre Dame Press, University of Regensburg, Unknown God, Vipassanā, Vladimir Lossky, Walter de Gruyter, Walter Lowrie (author), Wasil ibn Ata, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Wipf and Stock, Woodbridge, Suffolk, World Digital Library, Xenophanes, Yale University Press, Yeshayahu Leibowitz. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
Abingdon-on-Thames, also known as Abingdon on Thames or just Abingdon, is a historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani (ابو یعقوب سجستانی) (active 971 CE) was a Persian Ismaili missionary and Neo-Platonic philosopher, who died sometime around 971 CE (358 AH).
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
The Areopagus sermon refers to a sermon delivered by Apostle Paul in Athens, at the Areopagus, and recounted in Acts 17:16-34.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (אריה משה אליהו קפלן.; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi and author known for his knowledge of physics and kabbalah.
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda (also: Pakuda, Bakuda, Hebrew:, بهية بن باكودا) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived at Zaragoza, Al-Andalus (now Spain) in the first half of the eleventh century.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Bernard Joseph Francis Lonergan (17 December 1904 – 26 November 1984) was a Canadian Jesuit priest, philosopher, and theologian, regarded by many as one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century.
Bhartṛhari (Devanagari: भर्तृहरि; also romanised as Bhartrihari; fl. c. 5th century CE) is a Sanskrit writer to whom are normally ascribed two influential Sanskrit texts.
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
The Cappadocian Fathers, also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are Basil the Great (330–379), who was bishop of Caesarea; Basil's younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335 – c. 395), who was bishop of Nyssa; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329–389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople.
Cataphatic theology or kataphatic theology is theology that uses "positive" terminology to describe or refer to the divine – specifically, God – i.e. terminology that describes or refers to what the divine is believed to be, in contrast to the "negative" terminology used in apophatic theology to indicate what it is believed the divine is not.
Catechesis (from Greek: κατήχησις, "instruction by word of mouth", generally "instruction") is basic Christian religious education of children and adults.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chovot HaLevavot, or Ḥobot HaLebabot (italic; English: Duties of the Heart), is the primary work of the Jewish rabbi and philosopher, Bahya ibn Paquda, full name Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda.
Christian contemplation, from contemplatio (Latin; Greek θεωρία, Theoria), refers to several Christian practices which aim at "looking at", "gazing at", "being aware of" God or the Divine.
Christian meditation is a form of prayer in which a structured attempt is made to become aware of and reflect upon the revelations of God.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
Collegeville is an unincorporated community in St. Wendel Township, Stearns County, Minnesota, United States, near St. Joseph.
Conceptions of God in monotheist, pantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction.
Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by Saint Augustine of Hippo, written in Latin between AD 397 and 400.
Cyril of Jerusalem (italic; Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus) was a distinguished theologian of the early Church (313 386 AD).
Dark Night of the Soul (La noche oscura del alma) is a poem written by the 16th-century Spanish mystic and poet St. John of the Cross.
David Bentley Hart (born 1965) is an American Orthodox Christian philosophical theologian, cultural commentator and polemicist.
Difference is a key concept of philosophy, denoting the process or set of properties by which one entity is distinguished from another within a relational field or a given conceptual system.
In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts.
In the Catholic Church, a dogma is a definitive article of faith (de fide) that has been solemnly promulgated by the college of bishops at an ecumenical council or by the pope when speaking in a statement ex cathedra, in which the magisterium of the Church presents a particular doctrine as necessary for the belief of all Catholic faithful.
Downers Grove is a village in DuPage County, Illinois, United States.
The Dyad is a title used by the Pythagoreans for the number two, representing the principle of "twoness" or "otherness".
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Ecstasy (from the Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ekstasis, "to be or stand outside oneself, a removal to elsewhere" from ek- "out," and stasis "a stand, or a standoff of forces") is a term used in Ancient Greek, Christian and Existential philosophy.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
The Enchiridion is a compendium of all the basic texts on Catholic dogma and morality since the Apostolic Age.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An epiphany (from the ancient Greek ἐπιφάνεια, epiphaneia, "manifestation, striking appearance") is an experience of sudden and striking realization.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
The essence–energies distinction is an Eastern Orthodox theological concept that states that there is a distinction between the essence (ousia) and the energies (energeia) of God.
Eugene is a city of the Pacific Northwest in the U.S. state of Oregon.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
Plato describes the "Form of the Good", or more literally "the idea of the good" (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα), in his dialogue the Republic (508e2–3), speaking through the character of Socrates.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Georges Vasilievich Florovsky (Russian: Гео́ргий Васи́льевич Флоро́вский; September 9, 1893 – August 11, 1979) was an Orthodox Christian priest, theologian, historian and ecumenist.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
Mystery religions, sacred mysteries or simply mysteries were religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for which participation was reserved to initiates (mystai).
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen (Γρηγόριος Νύσσης; c. 335 – c. 395), was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death.
Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359) was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period.
Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Harold Coward (born 1936) is a Canadian scholar of bioethics and religious studies.
Henosis (ἕνωσις) is the classical Greek word for mystical "oneness", "union" or "unity." In Platonism, and especially Neoplatonism, the goal of henosis is union with what is fundamental in reality: the One (Τὸ Ἕν), the Source, or Monad.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Herman Dooyeweerd (7 October 1894, Amsterdam – 12 February 1977, Amsterdam) was a Dutch juridical scholar by training, who by vocation was a philosopher and a co-founder of the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea with Dirk Vollenhoven.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.
Hypostasis (Greek: ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Ineffability is concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words (or language in general), often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term.
The infinite qualitative distinction (den uendelige kvalitative forskel; unendliche qualitative Unterschied), sometimes translated as infinite qualitative difference, is a concept coined by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
InterVarsity Press (IVP) was founded in 1947 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA as a publisher of evangelical Christian books.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ivan Illich (4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was a Croatian-Austrian philosopher, Roman Catholic priest, and critic of the institutions of modern Western culture, who addressed contemporary practices in education, medicine, work, energy use, transportation, and economic development.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jefferson is a town in Ashe County, North Carolina, United States.
Bojo Jinul (1158–1210), often called Jinul or Chinul for short, was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon (Zen) Buddhism.
Jiyuan Yu (July 5, 1964 – November 3, 2016) was a moral philosopher noted for his work on virtue ethics.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
John Meyendorff (February 17, 1926 – July 22, 1992) was a leading theologian of the Orthodox Church of America as well as a writer and teacher.
Saint John of Damascus (Medieval Greek Ἰωάννης ὁ Δαμασκηνός, Ioánnis o Damaskinós, Byzantine; Ioannes Damascenus, يوحنا الدمشقي, ALA-LC: Yūḥannā ad-Dimashqī); also known as John Damascene and as Χρυσορρόας / Chrysorrhoas (literally "streaming with gold"—i.e., "the golden speaker"; c. 675 or 676 – 4 December 749) was a Syrian monk and priest.
John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz; 1542 – 14 December 1591) was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest, who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile.
John Savvas Romanides (Ιωάννης Σάββας Ρωμανίδης; 2 March 1927, Piraeus1 November 2001, Athens) was an Orthodox Christian priest, author and professor who had a distinctive influence on post-war Greek Orthodox theology.
John Scotus Eriugena or Johannes Scotus Erigena (c. 815 – c. 877) was an Irish theologian, neoplatonist philosopher, and poet.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karl Barth (–) was a Swiss Reformed theologian who is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.
Kayseri is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
A limit-experience (expérience limite) is a type of action or experience which approaches the edge of living in terms of its intensity and its seeming impossibility.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
The magisterium of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings.
Mahwah is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
In Islam, a Maturidi (ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is a school of theology within Sunni Islam.
Maximus the Confessor (Ὁμολογητής), also known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople (c. 580 – 13 August 662), was a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Eckhart von Hochheim (–), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now central Germany) in the Holy Roman Empire.
Professor Emeritus Michael J. Buckley, S.J. (born 1931) is the retired Bea Professor of Theology at Santa Clara University.
Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.
Miracles is a book written by C. S. Lewis, originally published in 1947 and revised in 1960.
Monad (from Greek μονάς monas, "singularity" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"), refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity, or the totality of all beings.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mount Horeb, Hebrew: חֹרֵב, Greek in the Septuagint: χωρηβ, Latin in the Vulgate: Horeb, is the mountain at which the book of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew Bible states that the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God.
Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are the most ancient, widely studied Upanishads of Hinduism.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being.The English word "God" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "god" and "God".
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
In Hinduism, and in particular Jnana Yoga and Advaita Vedanta, neti neti (नेति नेति) is a Sanskrit expression which means "not this, not this", or "neither this, nor that" (is sandhi from "not so").
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
Nyssa (Νύσσα) was a small town and bishopric in Cappadocia, Asia Minor.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Ousia (οὐσία) is analogous to the English concepts of being and ontic used in contemporary philosophy.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Para Brahman (Sanskrit:परब्रह्मन्) (IAST) is the "Highest Brahman" that which is beyond all descriptions and conceptualisations.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
Parmenides (Παρμενίδης) is one of the dialogues of Plato.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, better known as the Paulist Fathers, is a Roman Catholic society of apostolic life for men founded in New York City in 1858 by Servant of God Isaac Thomas Hecker in collaboration with George Deshon, Augustine Hewit, and Francis A. Baker.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Postmodern theology—also known as the continental philosophy of religion—is a philosophical and theological movement that interprets theology in light of post-Heideggerian continental philosophy, including phenomenology, post-structuralism, and deconstruction.
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης), also known as Pseudo-Denys, was a Christian theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century, who wrote a set of works known as the Corpus Areopagiticum or Corpus Dionysiacum.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Rajab Ali Tabrizi (died in 1670) was an Iranian and Shiat philosopher and mystic of the 17th century.
The Regensburg lecture or Regensburg address was delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany, where he had once served as a professor of theology.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Rudolf Otto (25 September 1869 – 6 March 1937) was an eminent German Lutheran theologian, philosopher, and comparative religionist.
The rule of faith (regula fidei) is the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief.
Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.
Saint John's Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Collegeville Township, Minnesota, United States, affiliated with the American-Cassinese Congregation.
Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (SVOTS) is an Orthodox Christian seminary in Crestwood, Yonkers, New York, in the United States.
Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon (1150 - c. 1230), more commonly known as Samuel ibn Tibbon (שמואל בן יהודה אבן תבון, ابن تبّون), was a Jewish philosopher and doctor who lived and worked in Provence, later part of France.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Self-enquiry, also spelled self-inquiry (Sanskrit vichara, also called jnana-vichara or), is the constant attention to the inner awareness of "I" or "I am" recommended by Ramana Maharshi as the most efficient and direct way of discovering the unreality of the "I"-thought.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The term subitism points to sudden enlightenment, the idea that insight is attained all at once.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Ta'tili is a term used to refer to Muslim individuals and groups accused of "divesting" God of his attributes.
In Eastern Orthodox Christian theology, the Tabor Light (also Light of Tabor, Tabor's Light, Taboric Light; Φῶς του Θαβώρ, also as Ἄκτιστον Φῶς, Uncreated Light, Θεῖον Φῶς, Divine Light; Фаворский свет) is the light revealed on Mount Tabor at the Transfiguration of Jesus, identified with the light seen by Paul at his conversion.
The Taittiriya Shakha is a notable shakha ("rescension") of the Krishna Yajurveda.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Case for God is a 2009 book by Karen Armstrong.
The Cloud of Unknowing (Middle English: The Cloude of Unknowyng) is an anonymous work of Christian mysticism written in Middle English in the latter half of the 14th century.
The Enneads (Ἐννεάδες), fully The Six Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (270).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Guide for the Perplexed (מורה נבוכים, Moreh Nevukhim; دلالة الحائرين, dalālat al-ḥā’irīn, דלאל̈ת אלחאירין) is one of the three major works of Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, primarily known either as Maimonides or RAMBAM (רמב"ם).
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theophany (from Ancient Greek (ἡ) θεοφάνεια theophaneia, meaning "appearance of a god") is the appearance of a deity to a human.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Theosis, or deification, is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
The tzimtzum or tsimtsum (Hebrew צמצום ṣimṣūm "contraction/constriction/condensation") is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah to explain Isaac Luria's doctrine that God began the process of creation by "contracting" his Ein Sof (infinite) light in order to allow for a "conceptual space" in which finite and seemingly independent realms could exist.
The University of Notre Dame Press is a university press that is part of the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana, United States.
The University of Regensburg (Universität Regensburg) is a public research university located in the medieval city of Regensburg, Bavaria, a city that is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Unknown God or Agnostos Theos (Ἄγνωστος Θεός) is a theory by Eduard Norden first published in 1913 that proposes, based on the Christian Apostle Paul's Areopagus speech in Acts, that in addition to the twelve main gods and the innumerable lesser deities, ancient Greeks worshipped a deity they called "Agnostos Theos", that is: "Unknown God", which Norden called "Un-Greek".
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Lossky (Влади́мир Никола́евич Ло́сский; – February 7, 1958) was an Orthodox Christian theologian in exile from Russia.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Walter Lowrie (Philadelphia, April 26, 1868 – Princeton, August 12, 1959) was a Kierkegaardian theologian and translator.
Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ (700–748) (واصل بن عطاء) was an important Muslim theologian and jurist of his time, and by many accounts is considered to be the founder of the Muʿtazilite school of Kalam.
Wipf and Stock is a publisher in Eugene, Oregon, publishing works in theology, biblical studies, history and philosophy.
Woodbridge is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England, about from the sea coast.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Xenophanes of Colophon (Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος; c. 570 – c. 475 BC) was a Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and social and religious critic.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz (ישעיהו ליבוביץ; 29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual, professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a polymath known for his outspoken opinions on Judaism, ethics, religion, and politics.