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Index Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. [1]

181 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Adenoviridae, African clawed frog, Agar, Alastair Currie, Ancient Greek, Andrew Wyllie, Anoikis, APAF1, Apo2.7, Apoptosis-inducing factor, Apoptosome, Apoptotic DNA fragmentation, Arbovirus, Atromentin, Atrophy, Autoimmune disease, Autolysis (biology), Autophagy, Bcl-2, Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2-associated X protein, Bcl-xL, BH3 interacting-domain death agonist, Biochemistry, Bleb (cell biology), BNIP3, British Journal of Cancer, Bunyavirales, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calcium, Calpain, Cancer, Canine distemper, Caspase, Caspase-9, CD4, CED9 (gene), Cell cycle, Cell wall, Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1, Cellular stress response, CFLAR, Cisplatin, Complement membrane attack complex, Consonant cluster, Culicoides paraensis, Cysteine protease, ..., Cytochrome c, Cytokine, Cytosol, Cytotoxicity, Death-inducing signaling complex, Digital object identifier, DNA, DNA fragmentation, DNA laddering, Drug resistance, DU145, Efferocytosis, Electrophoresis, Embryo, Endonuclease, Entosis, Epstein–Barr virus, Etoposide, FADD, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, Flow cytometry, Fly, Fragmentation (cell biology), Frog, Galen, Garland Science, Gel electrophoresis, Gene expression, Gene knockout, Glucocorticoid, H. Robert Horvitz, HeLa, Helicopter, Henrietta Lacks, Hepatitis B virus, Hippocrates, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hypoxia (medical), Immortalised cell line, Immune system, Immunology, Inflammation, Inhibitor of apoptosis, Interferon, Intrinsic apoptosis, Ischemia, John Kerr (pathologist), John Sulston, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Karl Vogt, Karyorrhexis, Lamellipodium, Lepidoptera, Leukemia, Ligand, Lymphoma, Macrophage, Mdm2, Membrane potential, Messenger RNA, Microtubule, Mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel, Mitochondrion, Molecular Biology of the Cell (textbook), Morphology (biology), Multicellular organism, Nature Cell Biology, NCI-60, Necrobiosis, Necrosis, Necrotaxis, NF-κB, Nitric oxide, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear envelope, Oncolytic virus, Oropouche virus, P53, PANX1, Paraptosis, Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipid scramblase, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Plasmolysis, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Precipitation (chemistry), Programmed cell death, Protease, Protein dimer, Protein kinase B, Protein kinase R, Proteolysis, Pseudo amino acid composition, Pseudoapoptosis, Pterodactylus, Ptolemy, Pyknosis, Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy, ROCK1, Science Signaling, Signal transducing adaptor protein, Sydney Brenner, T helper cell, The Journal of Pathology, The Proteolysis Map, Time-lapse microscopy, TRADD, TRAF2, Transcription factor, Transmembrane protein, Transmission electron microscopy, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, U937 (cell line), University of Aberdeen, Vacuole, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Virus, Walther Flemming, Western blot, XIAP, Zoonosis, 1,000,000,000, 14-3-3 protein. Expand index (131 more) »

Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.

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African clawed frog

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.

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Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Alastair Currie

Sir Alastair Robert Currie PRSE FRCPE FRCPGlas FRCP FRCPath LLD (8 October 1921 – 12 January 1994) was a Scottish pathologist, who was Professor of Pathology, at Edinburgh University, 1972–86, and then emeritus.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrew Wyllie

Andrew H. Wyllie FMedSci is a Scottish pathologist.

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Anoikis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in anchorage-dependent cells when they detach from the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).

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Apoptotic protease activating factor 1, also known as APAF1, is a human homolog of C. elegans CED-4 gene.

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Apo2.7 is a protein confined to the mitochondrial membrane.

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Apoptosis-inducing factor

Apoptosis inducing factor is a flavoprotein.

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The apoptosome is a large quaternary protein structure formed in the process of apoptosis.

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Apoptotic DNA fragmentation

Apoptotic DNA fragmentation is a key feature of apoptosis, a type of programmed cell death.

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Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.

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Atromentin is a natural chemical compound found in Agaricomycetes fungi in the orders Agaricales and Thelephorales.

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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autolysis (biology)

In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes.

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Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.

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Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.

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Bcl-2 family

The Bcl-2 Family consists of a number of evolutionarily-conserved proteins that share Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains.

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Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer

Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6.

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Bcl-2-associated death promoter

The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 gene family which is involved in initiating apoptosis.

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Bcl-2-associated X protein

Apoptosis regulator BAX, also known as bcl-2-like protein 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAX gene.

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B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), encoded by the BCL2-like 1 gene, is a transmembrane molecule in the mitochondria.

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BH3 interacting-domain death agonist

The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist, or BID, gene is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bleb (cell biology)

In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge or protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell, human bioparticulate or abscess with an internal environment similar to that of a simple cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology.

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BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP3 gene.

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British Journal of Cancer

The British Journal of Cancer is a twice-monthly professional medical journal of Cancer Research UK (a registered charity in the United Kingdom), published on their behalf by the Nature Publishing Group (a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd).

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Bunyavirales is an order of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Canine distemper

Canine distemper (sometimes termed hardpad disease) is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.

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Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis) and inflammation.

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Caspase-9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CASP9 gene.

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In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

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CED9 (gene)

Cell death abnormality gene 9 (CED-9), also known as apoptosis regulator CED-9, is a gene found in Caenorhabditis elegans that inhibits/represses programmed cell death (apoptosis).

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1

cIAP1 (also named BIRC2) is the abbreviation for a human protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1.

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Cellular stress response

Cellular stress response is the wide range of molecular changes that cells undergo in response to environmental stressors, including extremes of temperature, exposure to toxins, and mechanical damage.

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CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFLAR gene.

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Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.

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Complement membrane attack complex

The membrane attack complex (MAC) or terminal complement complex (TCC) is a structure typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the host's complement system, and as such is one of the effector proteins of the immune system.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Culicoides paraensis

Culicoides paraensis is a species of midge found from the northern United States to Argentina, which acts as the vector of the Oropouche fever virus.

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Cysteine protease

Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.

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Cytochrome c

The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Death-inducing signaling complex

The death-inducing signaling complex or DISC is a multi-protein complex formed by members of the "death receptor" family of apoptosis-inducing cellular receptors.

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Digital object identifier

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA fragmentation

DNA fragmentation is the separation or breaking of DNA strands into pieces.

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DNA laddering

DNA laddering is a feature that can be observed when DNA fragments, resulting from apoptotic DNA fragmentation, are visualized after separation by gel electrophoresis.

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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DU145 (DU-145) is a human prostate cancer cell line.

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In cell biology, efferocytosis (from efferre, Latin for 'to take to the grave', 'to bury') is the process by which dying/dead cells (e.g. apoptotic or necrotic) are removed by phagocytic cells.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.

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Entosis (from Greek ἐντός entos, "within" and -ωσις -osis, "disease") is the invasion of a living cell into another cell's cytoplasm.

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Epstein–Barr virus

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.

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Etoposide, sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer.

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Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), also called MORT1, is encoded by the FADD gene on the 11q13.3 region of chromosome 11 in humans.

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Fas ligand

Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) is a type-II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family.

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Fas receptor

The first apoptosis signal receptor (Fas or FasR), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAS gene.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".

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Fragmentation (cell biology)

In cell biology, ways in which fragmentation is useful for a cell: DNA cloning and apoptosis.

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Garland Science

Garland Science is a publishing group that specializes in developing textbooks in a wide range of life sciences subjects, including cell and molecular biology, immunology, protein chemistry, genetics, and bioinformatics.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene knockout

A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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H. Robert Horvitz

Howard Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston.

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HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Henrietta Lacks

Henrietta Lacks (born Loretta Pleasant; August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951) Note: Some sources report her birthday as August 2, 1920, vs.

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Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Immortalised cell line

An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Inhibitor of apoptosis

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a highly regulated process used by many multicellular organisms.

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Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

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Intrinsic apoptosis

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine proteases called caspases.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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John Kerr (pathologist)

John Foxton Ross Kerr (born January 24, 1934 in Sydney) is an Australian pathologist.

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John Sulston

Sir John Edward Sulston (27 March 1942 – 6 March 2018) was a British biologist and academic who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the cell lineage and genome of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans in 2002 with his colleagues Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz.

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Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

The Journal of Cellular Biochemistry publishes descriptions of original research in which complex cellular, pathogenic, clinical, or animal model systems are studied by biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, or quantitative ultrastructural approaches.

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Karl Vogt

Karl Christoph Vogt (originally Carl; 5 July 1817 – 5 May 1895) was a German scientist, philosopher and politician who emigrated to Switzerland.

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Karyorrhexis (from Greek κάρυον karyon, "kernel, seed or nucleus", and ῥῆξις rhexis, "bursting") is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a dying cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm.

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The lamellipodium (plural lamellipodia) (from Latin lamina, "thin sheet"; pod, "foot") is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell.

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Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDM2 gene.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel

The mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (or MAC), is an early marker of the onset of apoptosis.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular Biology of the Cell (textbook)

Molecular Biology of the Cell is a cellular and molecular biology textbook published by Garland Science and currently authored by Bruce Alberts, Alexander D. Johnson, Julian Lewis (deceased), David Morgan, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walter.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Nature Cell Biology

Nature Cell Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in cell biology published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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The NCI-60 cancer cell line panel is a group of 60 human cancer cell lines used by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for the screening of compounds to detect potential anticancer activity.

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Necrobiosis is the physiological death of a cell, and can be caused by conditions such as basophilia, erythema, or a tumor.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Necrotaxis embodies a special type of chemotaxis when the chemoattractant molecules are released from necrotic or apoptotic cells.

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NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Oncolytic virus

An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.

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Oropouche virus

The Oropouche virus (OROV) is one of the most common orthobunyaviruses.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Pannexin 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the PANX1 gene.

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Paraptosis (from the Greek παρά para, "related to" and apoptosis) is a type of programmed cell death, morphologically distinct from apoptosis and necrosis.

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Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize

The Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize is an annual award bestowed by the Paul Ehrlich Foundation since 1952 for investigations in medicine.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.

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Phospholipid scramblase

Scramblase is a protein responsible for the translocation of phospholipids between the two monolayers of a lipid bilayer of a cell membrane.

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PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.

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Plasmolysis is the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution.

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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

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Protein dimer

In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.

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Protein kinase B

Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.

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Protein kinase R

Protein kinase RNA-activated also known as protein kinase R (PKR), interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene.

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Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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Pseudo amino acid composition

Pseudo amino acid composition, or PseAAC, was originally introduced by Kuo-Chen Chou (周国城) in 2001 to represent protein samples for improving protein subcellular localization prediction and membrane protein type prediction.

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Pseudoapoptosis can be defined from multiple viewpoints, with an underlying premise of the differences in cellular processes and states relating to apoptosis.

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Pterodactylus (from the πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning "winged finger") is an extinct flying reptile genus of pterosaurs, whose members are popularly known as pterodactyls. It is currently thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, the first pterosaur species to be named and identified as a flying reptile.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

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Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy

Quantitative phase contrast microscopy is the collective name for a group of microscopy methods that quantify the phase shift that occurs when light waves pass through a more optically dense object.

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ROCK1 is a protein serine/threonine kinase also known as rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1.

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Science Signaling

Science Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published weekly by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

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Signal transducing adaptor protein

Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway.

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Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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The Journal of Pathology

The Journal of Pathology is a peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1892 as The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology by German Sims Woodhead.

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The Proteolysis Map

The Proteolysis MAP (PMAP) is an integrated web resource focused on proteases.

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Time-lapse microscopy

Time-lapse microscopy is time-lapse photography applied to microscopy.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRADD gene.

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TNF receptor-associated factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRAF2 gene.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) and CD120a, is a ubiquitous membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) and CD120b, is a membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.

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U937 (cell line)

U937 cells are a model cell line used in biomedical research.

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University of Aberdeen

The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Walther Flemming

Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), also known as inhibitor of apoptosis protein 3 (IAP3) and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 4 (BIRC4), is a protein that stops apoptotic cell death.

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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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14-3-3 protein

14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells.

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Apoptopodia, Apoptose, Apoptosis (Cell death), Apoptosis process, Apoptosis regulatory proteins, Apoptotic, Apoptotic cell death, Apoptotic pathway, Beaded apoptopodia, Caspase-mediated cell death, Cell apoptosis, Cell suicide, Cellular apoptosis, Cellular suicide, Fas apoptosis signaling pathway, Induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines, Pro-apoptotic, Proapoptotic, Shrinkage necrosis, Viral induction of apoptosis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis

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