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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms. [1]

155 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Adenoviridae, Agar, Ancient Greek, Andrew Wyllie, Anoikis, APAF1, Apo2.7, Apoptosis-inducing factor, Apoptosome, Apoptotic DNA fragmentation, Arbovirus, Atromentin, Atrophy, Autoimmune disease, Autolysis (biology), Autophagy, Bcl-2, Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2-associated X protein, Bcl-xL, BH3 interacting-domain death agonist, Biochemistry, Bleb (cell biology), British Journal of Cancer, Bunyaviridae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calcium, Calpain, Cancer, Canine distemper, Caspase, Caspase-9, CD4, CED9 (gene), Cell culture, Cell cycle, Cell wall, Chromosome, Cisplatin, Consonant cluster, Culicoides paraensis, Cysteine protease, Cytochrome c, Cytokine, Cytosol, Cytotoxicity, Death-inducing signaling complex, ..., DNA, DNA laddering, DU145, Efferocytosis, Electrophoresis, Embryo, Endonuclease, Entosis, Epstein–Barr virus, Etoposide, FADD, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, Flow cytometry, Fly, Galen, Garland Science, Gel electrophoresis, Gene expression, Gene knockout, Glucocorticoid, H. Robert Horvitz, HeLa, Helicopter, Hepatitis B virus, Hippocrates, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hypoxia (medical), Immune system, Immunology, Inflammation, Inhibitor of apoptosis, Interferon, Intrinsic apoptosis, Ischemia, John Sulston, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Karl Vogt, Karyorrhexis, Lepidoptera, Leukemia, Ligand, Lymphoma, Macrophage, Membrane potential, Messenger RNA, Mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel, Mitochondrion, Molecular Biology of the Cell (textbook), Morphology (biology), Multicellular organism, Nature Cell Biology, Necrobiosis, Necrosis, Necrotaxis, Nitric oxide, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear membrane, Oncolytic virus, Oropouche virus, P53, Paraptosis, Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize, Phagocyte, Phagocytosis, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipid scramblase, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Poly ADP ribose polymerase, Precipitation (chemistry), Programmed cell death, Protein dimer, Protein kinase R, Proteolysis, Pseudo amino acid composition, Pseudoapoptosis, Pterodactylus, Ptolemy, Pyknosis, Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy, Science Signaling, Signal transducing adaptor protein, Sydney Brenner, T helper cell, The Proteolysis Map, Time-lapse microscopy, TRADD, Transcription factor, Transmembrane protein, Transmission electron microscopy, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, Tumor necrosis factors, U937 cell, University of Aberdeen, Vacuole, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Virus, Walther Flemming, Western blot, XIAP, Zoonosis, 1,000,000,000. Expand index (105 more) »

Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.

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Agar (pronounced,, "") or agar-agar ("") is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrew Wyllie

Andrew H. Wyllie FMedSci is a Scottish pathologist.

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Anoikis is a form of programmed cell death that is induced by anchorage-dependent cells detaching from the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).

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Apoptotic protease activating factor 1, also known as APAF1, is a human homolog of C. elegans CED-4 gene.

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Apo2.7 is a protein confined to the mitochondrial membrane.

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Apoptosis-inducing factor

Apoptosis inducing factor is a flavoprotein.

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The apoptosome is a large quaternary protein structure formed in the process of apoptosis.

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Apoptotic DNA fragmentation

Apoptotic DNA fragmentation is a key feature of apoptosis, a type of programmed cell death.

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Arbovirus is a term used to refer to a group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.

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Atromentin is a natural chemical compound found in Agaricomycetes fungi in the orders Agaricales and Thelephorales.

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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

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Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity).

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Autolysis (biology)

In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes.

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Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Greek auto-, "self" and phagein, "to eat"), is the natural, destructive mechanism that disassembles, through a regulated process, unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components.

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Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.

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Bcl-2 family

Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.

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Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer

Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6.

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Bcl-2-associated death promoter

The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 gene family which is involved in initiating apoptosis.

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Bcl-2-associated X protein

Apoptosis regulator BAX, also known as bcl-2-like protein 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAX gene.

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B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl, or BCL2-like 1 isoform 1) is a transmembrane molecule in the mitochondria.

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BH3 interacting-domain death agonist

The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist, or BID, gene is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bleb (cell biology)

In cell biology, a bleb is a protrusion, or bulge, of the plasma membrane of a cell, caused by localized decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane.

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British Journal of Cancer

The British Journal of Cancer a twice-monthly professional medical journal of Cancer Research UK (a registered charity in the United Kingdom), published on their behalf by the Nature Publishing Group (a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd).

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Bunyaviridae is a family of negative-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Canine distemper

Canine distemper (sometimes termed hardpad disease in canine) is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.

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Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of cysteine proteases that play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis, and inflammation.

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Caspase-9 is an initiator caspase, encoded by the CASP9 gene.

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In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

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CED9 (gene)

Ced9 is the gene in the C. elegans genome that codes for a protein that inhibits/represses apoptosis.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside of their natural environment.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.

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Cell wall

The cell wall is a tough, flexible and sometimes rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.

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A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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Cisplatin, cisplatinum, platamin, neoplatin, cismaplat or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a chemotherapy drug.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster or consonant sequence is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Culicoides paraensis

Culicoides paraensis is a species of midge found from the northern United States to Argentina, which acts as the vector of the Oropouche fever virus.

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Cysteine protease

Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.

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Cytochrome c

The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

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Cytokines (Greek:Cyto from Greek "κύτταρο" kyttaro "cell" + Kines from Greek "κίνηση" kinisi "movement") are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Death-inducing signaling complex

The death-inducing signaling complex or DISC is a multi-protein complex formed by members of the "death receptor" family of apoptosis-inducing cellular receptors.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA laddering

DNA laddering is a feature that can be observed when DNA fragments, resulting from apoptotic DNA fragmentation, are visualised after separation by gel electrophoresis.

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DU145 (DU-145) and PC3 human prostate cancer cell lines are the "classical" cell lines of prostatic cancer.

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In cell biology, efferocytosis (from efferre, Latin for 'to take to the grave', 'to bury') is the process by which dying/dead cells (e.g. apoptotic or necrotic) are removed by phagocytic cells.

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Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.

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Entosis (from Greek ἐντός entos, "within" and -ωσις -osis, "disease") is the invasion of a living cell into another cell's cytoplasm.

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Epstein–Barr virus

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight viruses in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.

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Etoposide, etoposide phosphate or VP-16 (current brand name: Etopophos, according to FDA Orange Book) is a cytotoxic anticancer drug which belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor drug class.

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Fas-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD), also called MORT1, is encoded by the FADD gene on the 11q13.3 region of chromosome 11 in humans.

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Fas ligand

Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) is a type-II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family.

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Fas receptor

The FAS receptor (FasR), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF6 gene.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; AD 129 – /), better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire.

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Garland Science

Garland Science is a publishing group that specializes in developing textbooks in a wide range of life sciences subjects, including cell and molecular biology, immunology, protein chemistry, genetics, and bioinformatics.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene knockout

A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).

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Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones which bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell.

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H. Robert Horvitz

Howard Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans.

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A HeLa cell, also Hela or hela cell, is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; 460 – 370 BC) was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia (also known as hypoxiation or anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.

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Immune system

The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.

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Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.

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Inhibitor of apoptosis

The Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that serve as endogenous inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis).

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Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

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Intrinsic apoptosis

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine proteases called caspases.

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Ischemia, also spelled as ischaemia or ischæmia, is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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John Sulston

Sir John Edward Sulston FRS (born 27 March 1942) is a British biologist.

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Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

The Journal of Cellular Biochemistry publishes descriptions of original research in which complex cellular, pathogenic, clinical, or animal model systems are studied by biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, or quantitative ultrastructural approaches.

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Karl Vogt

Carl Christoph Vogt (5 July 1817 in Gießen, Grand Duchy of Hesse – 5 May 1895 in Geneva, Switzerland) was a German scientist who emigrated to Switzerland.

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Karyorrhexis (from Greek κάρυον karyon, "kernel, seed or nucleus", and ῥῆξις rhexis, "bursting") is the destructive fragmentation of the nucleus of a dying cell whereby its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm.

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The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (both called lepidopterans).

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Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Lymphoma is any of a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. MΦ) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.

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Membrane potential

Membrane potential (also transmembrane potential or membrane voltage) is the difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel

The Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Induced Channel (or MAC), is an early marker of the onset of apoptosis.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Molecular Biology of the Cell (textbook)

Molecular Biology of the Cell is a cellular and molecular biology textbook published by Garland Science and currently authored by Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis (deceased), David Morgan, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walter.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Nature Cell Biology

Nature Cell Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in cell biology published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Necrobiosis is the physiological death of a cell, and can be caused by conditions such as basophilia, erythema, or a tumor.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Necrotaxis embodies a special type of chemotaxis when the chemoattractant molecules are released from necrotic or apoptotic cells.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide) is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical formula of NO that is a colorless gas under standard conditions.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nuclear membrane

A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.

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Oncolytic virus

An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.

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Oropouche virus

The Oropouche virus (OROV) is one of the most common orthobunyaviruses.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Paraptosis (from the Greek παρά para, "related to" and apoptosis) is a type of programmed cell death, morphologically distinct from apoptosis and necrosis.

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Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize

The Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize is given every year since 1952 for investigations in medicine.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is an important phospholipid membrane component (i.e. component of the cell membrane) which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis.

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Phospholipid scramblase

Scramblase is a protein responsible for the translocation of phospholipids between the two monolayers of a lipid bilayer of a cell membrane.

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PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

The PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.

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Poly ADP ribose polymerase

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes involving mainly DNA repair and programmed cell death.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell-death (or PCD) is death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Protein dimer

In biochemistry, a dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids.

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Protein kinase R

Protein kinase RNA-activated also known as protein kinase R (PKR), interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene.

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Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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Pseudo amino acid composition

Pseudo amino acid composition, or PseAA composition, or Chou's PseAAC, was originally introduced by Kuo-Chen Chou in 2001 to represent protein samples for improving protein subcellular localization prediction and membrane protein type prediction.

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Pseudoapoptosis can be defined from multiple viewpoints, with an underlying premise of the differences in cellular processes and states relating to apoptosis.

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Pterodactylus (from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning "winged finger") is a genus of pterosaurs, whose members are popularly known as pterodactyls. It is currently thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, the first pterosaur species to be named and identified as a flying reptile.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

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Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy

Quantitative phase contrast microscopy is the collective name for a group of microscopy methods that quantify the phase shift that occurs when light waves pass through a more optically dense object.

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Science Signaling

Science Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published weekly by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

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Signal transducing adaptor protein

Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway.

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Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner, CH FRS FMedSci (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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The Proteolysis Map

The Proteolysis MAP (PMAP) is an integrated web resource focused on proteases.

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Time-lapse microscopy

Time-lapse microscopy is time-lapse photography applied to microscopy.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRADD gene.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of membrane protein spanning the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) and CD120a, is a ubiquitous membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) and CD120b, is a membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factors

Tumor necrosis factors (or the TNF family) refer to a group of cytokines that can cause cell death (apoptosis).

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U937 cell

U937 cells are a model cell line used in biomedical research.

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University of Aberdeen

The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.

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A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer membrane.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Walther Flemming

Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), also known as inhibitor of apoptosis protein 3 (IAP3) and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 4 (BIRC), is a protein that stops apoptotic cell death.

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Zoonoses (plural -, also spelled zoönoses; singular zoonosis (or zoönosis); from Greek: ζῷον zoon "animal" and νόσος nosos "ailment") are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates), that can naturally be transmitted to humans.

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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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Apoptose, Apoptosis (Cell death), Apoptosis process, Apoptosis regulatory proteins, Apoptotic, Apoptotic cell death, Apoptotic pathway, Caspase-mediated cell death, Cell apoptosis, Cell suicide, Cellular apoptosis, Cellular suicide, Fas apoptosis signaling pathway, Induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines, Pro-apoptotic, Proapoptotic, Shrinkage necrosis, Viral induction of apoptosis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis

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