480 relations: Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abdul Rahman (convert), Abdullah al-Qasemi, Abu al-Walid al-Baji, Abu Hanifa, Abul A'la Maududi, Afghan National Police, Afghanistan, Ahmad Sani Yerima, Ahmadiyya, Ahmed Harkan, Ahmed Subhy Mansour, Al-Azhar University, Al-Baqara 256, Al-Ghashiyah, Al-Mahdi, Al-Monitor, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Qaeda, Al-Sunan al-Sughra, Al-Suyuti, Albania, Alexander Aan, Algeria, Algerian Family Code, Ali Gomaa, Aliaa Magda Elmahdy, Aliyah Saleem, Allah, Among Nonbelievers, Anatolia, Annulment, Anwar Sadat, Anwar Shaikh (critic of Islam), Apostasy, Apostasy in Christianity, Apostasy in Judaism, Aqidah, Arab Law Quarterly, Armed Islamic Group of Algeria, Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, Armin Navabi, As-Saffah, Asma Afsaruddin, Assyrian genocide, Assyrian International News Agency, Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki, Ateizm Derneği, Atheïstisch manifest, Aurangzeb, ..., Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Avijit Roy, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, İmam Hatip school, Baghdad, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í Faith in Iran, Bangladesh, Barnabas Fund, Battle of Kosovo, Báb, BBC News, BBC OS, BBC Persian Television, BBC World Service, Belgium, Benjamin Zand, Bernard Lewis, Blasphemy law in Egypt, Boko Haram, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Bosnian War, Buddhism, Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani, C-SPAN, Cairo, Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Cairo University, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Capital punishment, Capital punishment in Iran, Capital punishment in Islam, Catholic Church, Central Committee for Ex-Muslims, Central Council of Ex-Muslims, Child custody, China, Christianity, Christianity in Afghanistan, Christianity in Egypt, Christianity in Iran, Christianity in Somalia, Church of Saint Menas (Cairo), Civil law (common law), Coming out, Community standards, Comoros, Confucianism, Constitution of Afghanistan, Constitution of Indonesia, Constitution of Malaysia, Constitution of Nigeria, Constitution of the Maldives, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain, Criminal law, Criticism of Islamism, Crypto-Christianity, Daniel Dennett, Dara Shukoh, David Kerr (religion scholar), Dawah, Decapitation, Deeyah Khan, Deism, Deutsche Welle, Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, Divorce in Islam, Dutch general election, 2003, Edict of Toleration 1844, Edip Yüksel, Egypt, Egyptian Civil Code, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Ehsan Jami, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, European Union, Ex-Muslims of North America, Faith to Faithless, Fall of the Serbian Empire, Family law, Faqīh, Farag Foda, Fatwa, Fazıl Say, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Fiqh, Fiqh Council of North America, Fitna (word), Forced confession, Foreign Policy, Former Muslims United, Freedom House, Freedom of religion, Freedom of thought, Freethought, Fuuse, Gaafar Nimeiry, Ghazni Province, Gjakova, Gjilan, God in Islam, Grand Imam of al-Azhar, Grand Mufti, Greece, Guildford, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Gulf Cooperation Council, Gulf News, Hadith, Hajj, Hamid Karzai, Hamidian massacres, Hamza Kashgari, Hanafi, Hanbali, Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, Hashem Aghajari, Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh, Heresy, Herman Philipse, Heterodoxy, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, High treason, Hijri year, Hinduism, Hirabah, Hisbah, History of Shia Islam, History of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hofstad Network, Holy Roman Empire, Hudud, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Humanistisch Verbond, Humanistische Omroep, Humanists UK, Humayun Azad, Hussein Esmaeel al-Sadr, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Huston Smith, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Warraq, Ibrahim al-Nakhai, Ijma, Imamate, Imbaba, Impartiality, India, Indonesia, Infidel: My Life, Inheritance, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Humanist and Ethical Union, International Institute of Islamic Thought, International League of non-religious and atheists, Iran After the Elections conference, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq, Iraqi Communist Party, Iraqi Kurdistan, Irreligion, Islam, Islam and blasphemy, Islam and other religions, Islam and war, Islam in Bangladesh, Islam in Belgium, Islam in Brunei, Islam in Egypt, Islam in Indonesia, Islam in Jordan, Islam in Malaysia, Islam in the Netherlands, Islam in the United States, Islam's Non-Believers, Islamic attitudes towards science, Islamic philosophy, Islamic schools and branches, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, Islamophobia, Italy, Itmam al-hujjah, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Jizya, John Esposito, Jonathan A.C. 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Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.
Abdul Rahman (Persian: عبدالرحمن; born 1965) is an Afghan citizen who was arrested in February 2006 and threatened with the death penalty for converting to Christianity.
Abdullah al-Qasemi (1907 – 9 January 1996) (عبدالله القصيمي) was a Saudi Arabian 20th-century writer and intellectual.
Abu al-Walid al-Baji (or Sulayman ibn Khalaf ibn Sa`d or Sa`dun ibn Ayyub, al-Qadi Abu al-Walid al-Tujaybi al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Baji al-Tamimi al-Dhahabi al-Maliki) (1013–1081) was a famous Maliki scholar and poet from Beja, Al-Andalus.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.
The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahmed Rufai Sani Yerima (born 22 July 1960) was Governor of Zamfara State, Nigeria from May 1999 to May 2007, and is now Senator for Zamfara West and Deputy Minority Leader in the Senate.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahmed Hussein Harkan (أحمد حسين حرقان) (born 10 December 1982) is an Egyptian atheist human rights activist.
Ahmed Subhy Mansour (أحمد صبحي منصور; born March 1, 1949) is an Egyptian American activist, whose website describes him as an Islamic scholar with expertise in Islamic history, culture, theology, and politics.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Verse (ayah) 256 of Al-Baqara is a well-known verse in the Islamic scripture, the Qur'an.
Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah (الغاشية, “The Overwhelming”, “The Pall”) is the eighty-eighth sura of the Qur'an with 26 ayat.
Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Abdallah al-Mansur (أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله المنصور; 744 or 745 – 785), better known by his regnal name al-Mahdi (المهدي, "He who is guided by God"), was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 775 to his death in 785.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid (أبو الفضل جعفر بن أحمد المعتضد) (895 – 31 October 932 CE), better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh (المقتدر بالله, "Mighty in God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932 CE (295–320 AH), with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
As-Sunan as-Sughra (السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i (سنن النسائي), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasa'i.
Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alexander Aan (born 1981) is an Indonesian atheist and ex-Muslim of Minang descent.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Algerian Family Code (Code de Famille, قانون الأسرة), enacted on June 9, 1984, specifies the laws relating to familial relations in Algeria.
Ali Gomaa (علي جمعة, Egyptian Arabic) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar, jurist, and public figure.
Aliaa Magda Elmahdy (علياء ماجدة المهدى,; born 16 November 1991) is an Egyptian internet activist and women's rights advocate.
Aliyah Saleem (born August 1989), is a British secular education campaigner, writer and market researcher.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Among Nonbelievers (Dutch title: Onder Ongelovigen) is a 2015 bilingual English–Dutch documentary on the situation of endangered nonbelievers, especially ex-Muslims, around the world.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Mohammad Anwar Shaikh (1 June 1928 – 25 November 2006; popularly known as Anwar Shaikh) was a Pakistani-born British author, who spent much of his adult life in the United Kingdom, dying in Cardiff, Wales.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apostasy in Christianity is the rejection of Christianity by someone who formerly was a Christian.
In Judaism, apostasy refers to the rejection of Judaism and possible defection to another religion by a Jew.
Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.
The Arab Law Quarterly is an English language quarterly devoted to Arab law.
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from Groupe Islamique Armé; الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة) was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army in the Algerian Civil War.
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire (or Ottoman Armenians) mostly belonged to either the Armenian Apostolic Church or the Armenian Catholic Church.
Armin Navabi (born 25 December 1983) is an Iranian-born ex-Muslim atheist and secular activist, author, podcaster and vlogger, currently living in Vancouver, Canada.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Asma Afsaruddin is a Professor in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures at Indiana University in Bloomington.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
The Assyrian International News Agency is a privately funded, independent news agency which provides news and analysis on Assyrian and Assyrian-related issues.
Dato' Dr. Asyraf Wajdi bin Dato' Dusuki (born 1976) is a Malaysian politician.
Ateizm Derneği (English: Association of Atheism) is a Turkish non-profit organisation founded on 16 April 2014 for the promotion of the concept of atheism, and serves to support irreligious people and freethinkers in Turkey who are discriminated against based on their views.
Atheïstisch manifest: drie wijsgerige opstellen over godsdienst en moraal ("Atheist Manifesto: Three Philosophical Essays on Religion and Morality") is an essay bundle by the Dutch philosopher Herman Philipse.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
Avijit Roy (অভিজিৎ রায়; 12 September 1972 – 26 February 2015) was a Bangladeshi-American online activist, writer and blogger known for creating and administrating the Mukto-Mona, an Internet community for freethinkers, rationalists, skeptics, atheists and humanists of mainly Bengali and other South Asian descent.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.
In Turkey, an İmam Hatip school (imam hatip lisesi, 'hatip' coming from Arabic khatib) is a secondary education institution.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bahá'í Faith in Iran is the country's second-largest religion after Islam and the birthplace of the three central figures of the religion – The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Barnabas Fund is an international, interdenominational Christian aid agency based in Coventry, in the West Midlands of England that supports Christians who face discrimination or persecution as a consequence of their faith.
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC OS (formerly Outside Source) is a news programme produced by the BBC; it utilizes social media in the presentation of its stories.
BBC Persian Television (تلویزیون فارسی بیبیسی) is the BBC's Persian language news channel that was launched on 14 January 2009.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benjamin "Ben" Zand (born 2 February 1991) is an Iranian-British journalist and filmmaker for the BBC from Liverpool, England.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
The blasphemy law in Egypt penalizes: "whoever exploits and uses the religion in advocating and propagating by talk or in writing, or by any other method, extremist thoughts with the aim of instigating sedition and division or disdaining and contempting any of the heavenly religions or the sects belonging thereto, or prejudicing national unity or social peace." In 1981, during the El Zawya El Hamra religious strife, the Egyptian penal code was amended to prohibit the "insulting of religions." The law was supposedly enacted to protect religious minorities.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burhān al-Dīn Abu’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī bin Abī Bakr bin ‘Abd al-Jalīl al-Farghānī al-Marghīnānī (برهان الدين المرغيناني) was an Islamic scholar of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic sharia as its sole source.
Cairo University (جامعة القاهرة, known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952) is Egypt's premier public university.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Iran.
Capital punishment in Islam was traditionally regulated by Sharia, the religious law in Islam.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Committee for Ex-Muslims (Centraal Comité voor Ex-moslims) was a Dutch committee that aimed to aid Muslims who wish to leave Islam through the constitutional right of freedom of religion.
The Central Council of Ex-Muslims (German: Zentralrat der Ex-Muslime, ZdE) is a German association (Verein) of non-religious, secular persons who were Muslim or originate from an Islamic country.
Child custody and legal guardianship are legal terms which are used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent or guardian and a child in that person's care, such as the right to make decisions on behalf of a child and the duty to care for and support the child.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan does not recognize any Afghan citizen as being Christian, nor are Afghan citizens legally permitted to convert to Christianity.
Christianity is second biggest religion in Egypt.
Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith, and pre-dating Islam.
Christianity is a minority religion in Muslim-majority Somalia, with an estimated 10,000 practitioners in a population of over eight million inhabitants.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Saint Menas (كنيسة مارمينا) is a Coptic Orthodox church near Coptic Cairo and is one of the oldest Coptic churches in Egypt, dating back to the sixth century.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Coming out of the closet, or simply coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity.
Community standards are local norms bounding acceptable conduct, possibly going beyond legal minimum requirements in relation to either limits on acceptable conduct itself or the manner in which the community will enforce acceptable conduct.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens.
The Constitution of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of Indonesia.
The Federal Constitution of Malaya, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaya.
The Constitution of Nigeria is the supreme law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The Constitution of the Maldives is the supreme law of the country of Maldives.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
The Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain is the British branch of the Central Council of Ex-Muslims.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The ideas and practices of the leaders, preachers, and movements of the Islamic revival movement known as Islamism (also known as Political Islam), have been criticized by Muslims (often Islamic modernists and liberals) and non-Muslims.
Crypto-Christianity is the secret practice of Christianity, usually while attempting to camouflage it as another faith or observing the rituals of another religion publicly.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
David A. Kerr (16 May 1945 – 14 April 2008) was a British scholar of Christian-Muslim relations and world Christianity.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Deeyah Khan (دیا خان,, born 7 August 1977) is a Norwegian British film director and human rights defender of Punjabi/Pashtun descent.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Dhabihu'llah Mahrami (1946 – 15 December 2005) (also Zabihullah Mahrami) was an Iranian Bahá'í who was charged with apostasy from Islam and jailed in Iran.
Divorce in Islam can take a variety of forms, some initiated by the husband and some initiated by the wife.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 January 2003.
The Edict of Toleration took place during the process referred to as the Eastern Question in relations between European powers, Britain in particular, and the Ottoman Empire in its development at a time referred to as Tanzimat internally which included other initiatives like ending the Ottoman slave trade a few years later but overall as part of the Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire – a process that continued into the 1920s.
Edip Yuksel (born December 20, 1957 in Norşîn, Turkey) is a Kurdish American intellectual and professor of philosophy.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Civil Code is the primary source of civil law for Egypt.
The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي المصري) (EIJ), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist terrorist group active since the late 1970s.
Ehsan Jami (born April 20, 1985) is an Iranian-born Iranian-Dutch politician.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Ex-Muslims of North America (EXMNA) is a 501(c)(3) registered non-profit organization which describes itself as advocating for acceptance of religious dissent, promoting secular values, and aiming to reduce discrimination faced by those who leave Islam.
Faith to Faithless is a non-profit organisation in the United Kingdom dedicated to confronting discrimination against non-religious people, in particular discrimination towards individuals who have left minority religions.
The fall of the Serbian Empire was a decades-long period in the late 14th century that marked the end of the once-powerful Serbian Empire.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
Farag Foda (also Farag Fouda, فرج فوده, or; 1946 – 9 June 1992), was a prominent professor, writer, columnist, and human rights activist.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fazıl Say (born 14 January 1970) is a Turkish pianist and composer who was born in Ankara, described recently as "not merely a pianist of genius; but undoubtedly he will be one of the great artists of the twenty-first century".
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The Fiqh Council of North America (originally known as ISNA Fiqh Committee) is an association of Muslims who interpret Islamic law on the North American continent.
Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress.
A forced confession is a confession obtained by a suspect or a prisoner under means of torture (including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of duress.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Former Muslims United (sometimes abbreviated as FMU) is a group formed in October 2009 in the United States which seeks to protect former Muslims from persecution by those Muslims who believe that Sharia (Muslim religious law) requires such persecution.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.
Fuuse is an independent music, arts and film production company founded by Norwegian artist, (film and music maker) Deeyah Khan.
Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Ga'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 193030 May 2009) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.
Ghazni (غزنی; غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.
Gjakova (Gjakovë) or Đakovica (Ђаковица) is a city and municipality located in the Gjakova District of western Kosovo.
Gjilan (Gjilani) or Gnjilane (Serbian Cyrillic: Гњилане), is a city and municipality located in the Gjilan District in eastern Kosovo.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.
The Grand Mufti (مفتي عام, "general expounder" or كبير المفتين, "the great of expounders") is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country.
Guildford is a large town in Surrey, England, United Kingdom located southwest of central London on the A3 trunk road midway between the capital and Portsmouth.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.
Hamza Kashgari Mohamad Najeeb (often Hamza Kashgari, حمزة كاشغري; born 1989) is a Saudi poet and a former columnist for the Saudi daily newspaper Al-Bilad.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari (حسن یوسفی اشکوری, born 1950) is an Iranian cleric, researcher, journalist, reformist and former political prisoner.
Hashem Aghajari (هاشم آقاجری) also Seyyed Hashem Aghajari (born 1957) is an Iranian historian, university professor and a critic of the Islamic Republic's government who was sentenced to death in 2002 for apostasy for a speech he gave on Islam urging Iranians to "not blindly follow" Islamic clerics.
Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh (হেফাজতে ইসলাম বাংলাদেশ) or Hifazat-e-Islam Bangladesh is an Islamist pressure group of madrassah teachers and students.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Herman Philipse (born 13 May 1951) is a professor of philosophy at Utrecht University in the Netherlands.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (abbreviated HR or HR/VP, the latter reflecting the vice presidency of the Commission) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU).
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Ḥirābah (حرابة) is an Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”.
Hisbah (حسبة ḥisbah) is an Islamic doctrine which means "accountability".
Shi‘a Islam, also known as Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam.
One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The Hofstad Network (Dutch: Hofstadnetwerk or Hofstadgroep, or) was the name given to a group of mostly young Dutch persons, mainly North African ancestry, which Interpol had described as a terrorist organization.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Humanistisch Verbond (HV, sometimes translated as Humanistic Association Netherlands, Dutch Humanist Association or Dutch Humanist League) is a Dutch association based on secular humanist principles.
Humanistische Omroep (abbr. HUMAN, earlier HOS: English: Humanist Broadcaster) is a special broadcaster on the Netherlands Public Broadcasting system, which is allowed to broadcast on radio and television because of their spiritual background.
Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.
Humayun Azad (28 April 194712 August 2004) was a Bangladeshi author, poet, scholar and linguist.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Hussein Esmaeel al-Sadr (Arabic: السيد حسين إسماعيل الصدر) (born 1952) is an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Huston Cummings Smith (May 31, 1919 – December 30, 2016) was a religious studies scholar in the United States.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an anonymous author critical of Islam.
Abu Imran, Ibrahim ibn Yazid ibn al-Aswad ibn Amr ibn Rabia’ ibn Haritha ibn Sa’d ibn Malik ibn an-Nakha, also known as Ibrahim al-Nakha'i (670–71 Ce / ~50-96H), was a well-known theologian, jurist and scholar of Islam who was born in 670.
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.
Imamate (إمامة imāmah) is a word derived from imam and meaning "leadership".
Imbaba (إمبابه) is a neighbourhood in northern Giza, Egypt, located west of the Nile and northwest of and near Gezira Island and downtown Cairo, within the Giza Governorate.
Impartiality (also called evenhandedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infidel (2006/published in English 2007) is the autobiography of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-Dutch activist and politician.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is an umbrella organisation of humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, freethought and Ethical Culture organisations worldwide.
The International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) is a privately held non-profit organization.
The International League of Non-religious and Atheists (German: Internationaler Bund der Konfessionslosen und Atheisten, IBKA) is an international association founded in Berlin in 1976 as "International League of Non-religious" (IBDK).
The "Iran After the Elections" Conference was a three-day social and cultural conference on reform in Iran organized by the Heinrich Böll Foundation and held in Berlin on April 7 and 8, 2000.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi Communist Party (الحزب الشيوعي العراقي; حزبی شیوعی عێراق) is a communist party and the oldest active party in Iraq.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Blasphemy in Islam is impious utterance or action concerning God, Muhammad or anything considered sacred in Islam.
Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions.
From the time of the Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare.
Bangladesh is a Muslim majority nation.
Islam in Belgium is a minority religion and the second largest religion in the country after Christianity.
Islam is Brunei's official religion, 67 percent of the population is Muslim, mostly Sunnis of Malay origin who follow the Shafi school of Islamic law.
Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 90% of the population.
Islam is the most adhered to religion in Indonesia, with 87.2% of Indonesian population identifying themselves as Muslim in 2010 estimate.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a majority Muslim country with 95% of the population following Sunni Islam while a small minority follow Salafi and Shiite branches.
Malaysia is a multiconfessional country whose most professed religion is Islam.
Islam is the second largest religion in the Netherlands, practiced by 4% of the population according to 2010-11 estimates.
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.
Islam’s Non-Believers is a 2016 documentary produced by Fuuse Films, and filmed and directed by Emmy-winning and Bafta-nominated filmmaker Deeyah Khan.
Muslim scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on science within the context of Islam.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims generally, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itmām al-hujjah (اتمام الحجة "completion of proof", from "completion, realization" and "pretext, proof") is an Islamic concept denoting that religious truth has been completely clarified by a Messenger of Allah and made available to a people, who are considered to have no excuse to deny it.
Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (جاوید احمد غامدی) (born 1952) is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.
Jonathan Andrew Cleveland Brown (born 1977) is an American scholar of Islamic studies.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Julia Duin is an American journalist and author with an interest in religious topics.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
A Kalashnikov rifle is any one of a series of automatic rifles based on the original design of Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Abdul Kareem Nabeel Suleiman Amer (عبد الكريم نبيل سليمان عامر) (born c. 1984) is an Egyptian blogger and former law student.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kedah (Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
Khaled Abou el Fadl (خالد أبو الفضل) (born 1963 in Kuwait) is the Omar and Azmeralda Alfi Distinguished Professor of Law at the UCLA School of Law where he has taught courses on International Human Rights, Islamic jurisprudence, National Security Law, Law and Terrorism, Islam and Human Rights, Political Asylum, and Political Crimes and Legal Systems.
Khaleej Times (KT) is a daily English language newspaper published in United Arab Emirates. Launched on April 16, 1978, KT is the UAE's oldest and remains the country's longest running English daily.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
The Kutub al-Sittah (lit) are six (originally five) books containing collections of hadith (sayings or acts of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) compiled by six Sunni Muslim scholars in the ninth century CE.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.
L’Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Laramans (laramanë) was an ethnic Albanian crypto-Catholic community in Ottoman-era southern Kosovo, inhabiting the historical parish of Letnica, centered in Stublla (Vitina municipality).
Lateef Adegbite (20 March 1933 – 28 September 2012) was a lawyer who became Attorney General of the Western Region of Nigeria, and who later became Secretary-General of the Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs.
The Law Library of Congress is the law library of the United States Congress.
The legal system of Afghanistan consists of Islamic, statutory and customary rules.
Law of Indonesia is based on a civil law system, intermixed with customary law and the Roman Dutch law.
The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system.
Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out is a 2003 book, authored and edited by ex-Muslim and secularist Ibn Warraq, that researches and documents cases of apostasy in Islam.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The legal system of Saudi Arabia is based on Sharia, Islamic law derived from the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the traditions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
LGBT in Islam is influenced by the religious, legal, social, and cultural history of the nations with a sizable Muslim population, along with specific passages in the Quran and hadith, statements attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lina Joy is a Malay convert from Islam to Christianity.
Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.
This is a list of organisations that aim to support individuals that have renounced Islam sorted by date of founding.
Former Muslims are people who have been Muslims for some part of their lives, but left Islam for another religion or a nonreligious philosophy.
Lounès Matoub (or ⵎⵄⵟⵓⴱ ⵍⵓⵏⵉⵙ; معطوب لونّاس (January 24, 1956 – June 25, 1998)) was a famous Algerian Berber singer, poet, thinker and mandole player who was a prominent advocate of the Berber cause, human rights and secularism in Algeria throughout his life.
Maarten Boudry (born 15 August 1984) is a Flemish philosopher and skeptic.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Mahmoud Mohammed Taha, (1909 – 18 January 1985; Arabic: محمود محمد طه) also known as Ustaz Mahmoud Mohammed Taha, was a Sudanese religious thinker, leader, and trained engineer.
Mahmoud Yacine (محمود ياسين) (born 2 June 1941 in Port Said) is an Egyptian actor.
Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltut (محمود شلتوت) (23 April 1893 - 13 December 1963) was a prominent Egyptian Sunni religious scholar and Islamic theologian best known for his work in Islamic reform.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Malay Mail is a newspaper in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, first published on 1 December 1896 when Kuala Lumpur was the capital of the then new Federated Malay States, making it the first daily to appear in the FMS.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (Abbreviation: MCMC; Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia, (SKMM)) is a regulatory body and its key role is the regulation of the communications and multimedia industry based on the powers provided for in the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission Act 1998, the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998, and the Strategic Trade Act 2010.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mansur al-Hallaj (ابو المغيث الحسين بن منصور الحلاج; منصور حلاج) (26 March 922) (Hijri 309 AH) was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism.
Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag or Maryam Yaḥyā Ibrahīm Isḥaq (مريم يحيى إبراهيم إسحق, born 3 November 1987 in Al Qadarif state, Sudan),, Agence France Presse, 25 June 2014 is a Sudanese Religious Freedom activist and public speaker.
In Islam, marriage is a legal contract between a man and a woman.
Maryam Namazie (مریم نمازی; born 1966) is a British-Iranian secularist and human rights activist, commentator, and broadcaster.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Messianic Judaism is a modern syncretic religious movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the belief that Jesus is the Messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition, its current form emerging in the 1960s and 1970s.
Minivan Daily is a local newspaper of Maldives published in the Dhivehi language.
Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
Mirza Tahir Ahmad (مرزا طاہر احمد) (18 December 1928 – 19 April 2003) was Khalifatul Masih IV (خليفة المسيح الرابع, khalīfatul masīh al-rābi) and the head of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Mohamed Cheikh Ould Mkhaitir (Arabic: محمد الشيخ ولد امخيطير) is a Mauritanian blogger and political prisoner.
Sheikh Mohammed al-Ghazali al-Saqqa (1917–1996) (الشيخ محمد الغزالي السقا), was an Islamic cleric and scholar whose writings "have influenced generations of Egyptians".
Mohammed Bouyeri (محمد بويري; born 8 March 1978) is a Moroccan-Dutch Islamic terrorist and convicted murderer serving a life sentence without parole in Vught for the assassination of Dutch film director Theo van Gogh.
Mohammed Hegazy (محمد حجازى) (born 1982) was the first Egyptian Muslim convert to Christianity to seek official recognition of his conversion from the Egyptian government.
Ayatollah Sheikh Mohsen Araki (محسن اراکی; محسن الأراكي) is an Iranian scholar, cleric, university lecturer, and politician.
Mohamed Moncef Marzouki (محمد المنصف المرزوقي; Muhammad al-Munṣif al-Marzūqī, born 7 July 1945) is a Tunisian politician who was President of Tunisia from 2011 to 2014.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (محمد بن عبد الوهاب; 1703 – 22 June 1792) was a religious leader, theologian and reformer from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism.
Muhammad Shahrour (born 1938) is a thinker and author.
Muhammad Syed is an American writer, speaker, and political activist.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mustafa Akyol (born 1972) is a Turkish writer and journalist.
The Muwaṭṭaʾ (الموطأ) of Imam Malik is the earliest written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Islamic law, compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.
Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ,; December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.
Nahla Mahmoud (born 1986/7) is a Sudanese-born British writer, ex-Muslim, secularist, environmentalist, and human rights activist, and spokesperson for the Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain.
Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (نصر حامد أبو زيد,; also Abu Zaid or Abu Zeid; July 10, 1943 – July 5, 2010) was an Egyptian Qur'anic thinker, author, academic and one of the leading liberal theologians in Islam.
The National Secular Society (NSS) is a British campaigning organisation that promotes secularism and the separation of church and state.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations (first published May 18, 2010) is a memoir by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a sequel to her ''New York Times'' bestseller Infidel.
In law, a non liquet is a situation where there is no applicable law.
Non-believers: Freethinkers on the Run (original Dutch title: Ongelovig – Vrijdenkers op de vlucht) is a 2016 Dutch documentary on the situation of atheists, especially Muslim apostates, in Dutch refugee camps (AZCs).
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Operation Mersad (عملیات مرصاد, meaning "ambush") was the last major military operation of the Iran–Iraq War, ending in a decisive victory for Iran.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Imperial Reform Edict (اصلاحات خط همايونى, Islâhat Hatt-ı Hümâyûnu; Modern Islâhat Fermânı) was a February 18, 1856 edict of the Ottoman government and part of the Tanzimat reforms.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pahang (Jawi: ڤهڠ), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur (Jawi: دار المعمور, "The Abode of Tranquility") is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Peć (Пећ) or Peja (Pejë), is a city and municipality located in the Peć District of Kosovo.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.
Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country of which they are not a citizen.
Ahmadiyya, like all religious groups, have been subject to various forms of religious persecution and discrimination since the movement's inception in 1889.
Persecution of Muslims is the religious persecution inflicted upon followers of Islamic faith.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Policy Exchange is a British centre-right think tank, created in 2002 and based in London.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Prizren (Prizreni; Призрен) is a city and municipality located in the Prizren District of Kosovo.
Protective custody is a type of imprisonment (or care) to protect a person from harm, either from outside sources or other prisoners.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
Rafida Bonya Ahmed (also Bonya Ahmed and Rafida Ahmed; born 1969) is a Bangladeshi-American author, humanist activist and blogger.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Umdat as-Salik wa 'Uddat an-Nasik (Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper, also commonly known by its shorter title Reliance of the Traveller) is a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reza Aslan (رضا اصلان,; born May 3, 1972) is an Iranian-American author, public intellectual, religious studies scholar, producer, and television host.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
The Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة), also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Dr. Sheikh Abdur Rehman (Urdu) (June 4, 1903 – July 25, 1990) was a Chief Justice of Pakistan.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
Sadakat Kadri (born 1964 in London) is a lawyer, author, travel writer and journalist.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Sarah Haider is a Pakistani-American writer, speaker, and political activist.
Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abi Sahl Abu Bakr al-Sarakhsi (محمد بن احمد بن ابي سهل ابو بكر السرخسي) was a Persian jurist, or Islamic scholar of the Hanafi school.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
Scoop.co.nz is a New Zealand internet news site run by Scoop Media Limited, part of the Scoop Media Cartel.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Secularism in Egypt has had a very important role to play in both the history of Egypt and that of the Middle East.
Secularist of the Year (also known as the Irwin Prize) is an award presented annually by the UK's National Secular Society to the individual or organisation considered to have made the greatest contribution to secularism in the previous year.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
"Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardī (شهابالدین سهروردی, also known as Sohrevardi) (1154-1191) was a PersianC.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Dato' Seri Dr. Shahidan bin Kassim (born 17 June 1951) is a Malaysian politician.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands.
Submission is a 2004 English-language Dutch short drama film produced and directed by Theo van Gogh, and written by Ayaan Hirsi Ali (a former member of the Dutch House of Representatives for the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy); it was shown on the Dutch public broadcasting network (VPRO) on 29 August 2004.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufyan ath-Thawri ibn Said (سفيان بن سعيد الثوري) (716–778) was a Tābi‘ al-Tābi‘īn Islamic scholar and jurist, founder of the Thawri madhhab.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taha Jabir Al-Alwani (طه جابر علواني), Ph.D. (1935 – March 4, 2016), was the President of Cordoba University in Ashburn, Virginia, United States.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Takfir or takfeer (تكفير) is a controversial concept in Islamist discourse, denoting excommunication, as one Muslim declaring another Muslim as a non-believer (kafir).
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
In Islam, Taqiya or taqiyya (تقیة, literally "prudence, fear")R.
Tariq Ramadan (طارق رمضان; born 26 August 1962) is a Swiss Muslim academic, philosopher, and writer.
In Islamic Law, tazir (or ta'zir, Arabic تعزير) refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge (Qadi) or ruler of the state.
Terengganu (Jawi:ترڠڬانو, Terengganu Malay: Tranung, Ganu, Teganu, Ganung, Teganung), formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Feed is an Australian news, current affairs, and satire television series that began airing on SBS Viceland on 20 May 2013 and plays Monday to Thursday evenings at 7.30pm.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Lutterworth Press, one of the oldest independent British publishing houses, has traded since the late eighteenth century - initially as the Religious Tract Society (RTS).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Satanic Verses controversy, also known as the Rushdie Affair, was the heated and frequently violent reaction of Muslims to the publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses, which was first published in the United Kingdom in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of the prophet Muhammad.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Theodoor "Theo" van Gogh (23 July 1957 – 2 November 2004) was a Dutch film director, film producer, television director, television producer, television presenter, screenwriter, actor, critic and author.
Time 100 (often written in all-caps as TIME 100) is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time.
TODAY is a Singapore English-language digital news provider under MediaCorp Press.
Ghazi Beji and Jabeur Mejri are Tunisian citizens sentenced on 28 March 2012 to 7.5 years' imprisonment for "transgressing morality, defamation and disrupting public order" after posting naked caricatures of Muhammad to Facebook.
Trouw (fidelity) is a Dutch daily newspaper appearing in compact size.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Velana International Airport (ވެލާނާ ބައިނަލްއަޤުވާމީ ވައިގެ ބަނދަރު), also known as Malé International Airport, previously known as Ibrahim Nasir International Airport, is the main international airport in the Maldives.
Vice News (stylized as VICE News) is Vice Media, Inc.'s current affairs channel, producing daily documentary essays and video through its website and YouTube channel.
Vitina (Serbian Cyrillic: Витина) or Vitia (Vitisë) is a town and municipality located in the Gjilan District of Kosovo.
Wael B. Hallaq is a scholar of Islamic law and Islamic intellectual history.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Waleed Al-Husseini or Walid Husayin (وليد الحسيني) is a Palestinian, essayist, writer and blogger.
Walnut Creek is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States, located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, about east of the city of Oakland.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
Why I Am Not a Muslim, a book written by Ibn Warraq, is a critique of Islam and the Qur'an.
The experiences of Muslim women (Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies.
World Christian Encyclopedia is a reference work published by Oxford University Press, known for providing membership statistics for major and minor world religions in every country of the world, including historical data and projections of future populations.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (translit; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.
Zakir Abdul Karim Naik (born 18 October 1965) is an Indian Islamic preacher,Hope, Christopher.
Zamfara is a state in northwestern Nigeria.
Zindīq is a medieval Islamic term applied by Muslims to individuals who are considered to hold views or follow practices that are contrary to central Islamic dogmas.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners was a series of state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting for approximately five months.
Apostacy in Islam, Apostastes in Islam, Apostastes of Islam, Apostasy from Islam, Apostasy in islam, Apostasy of Islam, Apostate of Islam, Apostates from Islam, Apostates of Islam, Conversion from Islam, Conversions from Islam, Conversions out of Islam, Converts from Islam, Ex-Muslim, Ex-Muslims, Ilhad, Irtidad, Irtidād, Islam and apostasy, Murtad, Murtadd, Murtaddin, Religious conversion from Islam, Ridda, Riddah, ارتداد.