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Index Apostrophe

The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. [1]

371 relations: A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Abbreviation, Acronym, Acute accent, Advertising, Affix, Afrikaans, Al Gore, Albanian language, Aleph, Algis Budrys, ALM (company), Alt code, Ancient Greek, Andorra, Anglicism, Apologetic apostrophe, Apostrophe (figure of speech), Apostrophe Protection Society, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Archaism, Article (grammar), ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Association football, Austronesian languages, Ayin, Bacillus, Baeolophus, Barclays, Barons Court tube station, BBC, Belarusian language, BGN/PCGN romanization, Bill Bryson, Bishop's Castle, Bishop's Stortford, Brazil, Breton language, Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words, Burkina Faso, C (programming language), C Sharp (programming language), C++, C++14, Cadwalader's Ice Cream, Caron, Catalan language, Celtic onomastics, ..., Chamorro language, Character (computing), Character encoding, Character literal, Charles Hamilton (writer), Charter of the French Language, Classic Mac OS, Clitic, Collectable, Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia, Compose key, Compound (linguistics), Consonant, Consonant gradation, Contraction (grammar), Copula (linguistics), Country Women's Association, Coup d'état, Currys, Cyrillic alphabets, Czech language, Daily Mail, Danish language, Decimal separator, Declension, Denglisch, Dexys Midnight Runners, Diacritic, Dice, Digraphs and trigraphs, Diminutive, Dormouse, Dunglish, Dutch language, Earl's Court, Earl's Court tube station, Early modern period, East Timor, Eats, Shoots & Leaves, ECMAScript, Elision, Elision (French), Emphasis (typography), English Journal, English plurals, English-language spelling reform, Escape character, Esperanto, Estonian language, Etymology, Exclamation mark, Exeter City F.C., Eye dialect, ʻOkina, Fantasy literature, FC Rànger's, Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union, Fictional language, Finnish language, Finno-Ugric languages, Fox hunting, French language, Fundamento de Esperanto, Galician cuisine, Galician language, Garner's Modern English Usage, Gemination, Genitive case, Geoffroy Tory, George Bernard Shaw, Geresh, Gershayim, Ghayn, Glottal stop, Grammatical number, Grand Admiral Thrawn, Grave accent, Greek diacritics, Greek language, Greengrocer, Guarani language, H, Halfwidth and fullwidth forms, Hamza, Hard sign, Harrods, Hart's Rules, Hawaiian language, Hear'Say, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hebrew numerals, Hiatus (linguistics), Hiragana, His 'n' Hers, HTML, HTML5, Hubert Selby Jr., Hypercorrection, Hyperforeignism, Hyphen, ICANN, Ig Nobel Prize, Illative case, Inflection, Internationalized domain name, Iotation, IP address, Irish name, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Istanbul, Italian language, Italic type, Java (programming language), JavaScript, Jèrriais, Jin'an District, Lu'an, Jinan, John C. Wells, Kaaba, Karelian language, Kidderminster, Kievan Rus', King Solomon's Mines, King's Lynn, Kingsley Amis, Klingon language, L'Aquila, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Lamedh, Languages of Switzerland, Lapel pin, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lewis Carroll, Ligurian (Romance language), Linux, Lisp (programming language), List of C-family programming languages, List of XML and HTML character entity references, Liverpool, Loanword, Lojban, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Luganda, Lynne Truss, Lytham St Annes, Maître d'hôtel, Mac OS Roman, Macedonian language, Macintosh, Magistrates' Court of Victoria, Mandalorian, Manuscript, Martha's Vineyard, Mayan languages, McDonald's, Mem, Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word, Middle Ages, Minute and second of arc, MLA Style Manual, Modifier letter double apostrophe, Modifier letter left half ring, Mora (linguistics), Moses, Mossi language, Mus'haf, Myst (series), Na'vi language, Neal Stephenson, Neanderthal, Nenets languages, Newcastle United F.C., Newcastle upon Tyne, Non-breaking space, Norwegian language, Noun, Numeric character reference, Object lifetime, Occitan language, Odyssey, Old English, Orthography, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations, P. G. Wodehouse, Palatalization (phonetics), Pascal (programming language), Penny, Perl, PHP, Pietro Bembo, Pince-nez, Pinyin, Plural, Polish language, Pop punk, Portuguese language, Possession (linguistics), Possessive, Possessive determiner, Postscript, Prime (symbol), Professor, Punctuation, Python (programming language), Quebec, Quebec French, Quotation mark, Quran, Rangers F.C., Reamde, Romanization, Root (linguistics), Rough breathing, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Rust (programming language), Sainsbury's, Saltillo (linguistics), Samoan language, Sans-serif, Scala (programming language), Schwa, Scottish Gaelic name, Scouse, Selfridges, Semitic languages, She: A History of Adventure, Shilling, Shin'ichi, Short U (Cyrillic), Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Sibilant, Slovak language, Smooth breathing, Society for Technical Communication, Soft sign, Spatial anti-aliasing, St Albans, St Andrews, St Helens, Merseyside, St James Park (Exeter), St James' Park, St James's Church, Piccadilly, St James's Park, Standard & Poor's, Standard Chinese, Star Wars, Steven Pinker, String literal, Suffix, Super Monkey's, Supreme Court of the United States, Swahili language, Swedish language, Switzerland, Syllable, Tahitian language, Tesco, Tetum language, TeX, The 69'ers, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Beaux' Stratagem, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, The Chicago Manual of Style, The Dark Side of the Moon, The Economist, The Elements of Style, The Guardian, The La's, The Language Instinct, The New York Times, The Norton Anthology of English Literature, The Times, Tim Hortons, Tongan language, Transliteration, Tupi language, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Typesetting, Typewriter, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Unicode, United States Board on Geographic Names, University College London, Us and Them (song), Uzbek alphabet, Vandalism, Vanderbilt University, Võro language, Verreaux's eagle, Visual Basic, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless glottal fricative, Vowel, Vowel length, Wade–Giles, Welsh language, Westward Ho!, Windows code page, Windows-1252, Wolverhampton, Word processor, X Window System, XHTML, Xi'an, XML, Ya'an, Yahoo!, Yer, Yiddish, Yorkshire dialect, You Am I. Expand index (321 more) »

A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language

A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language is a descriptive grammar of English written by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik.

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An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

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In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.

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Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.

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Algis Budrys

Algirdas Jonas "Algis" Budrys (January 9, 1931 – June 9, 2008) was a Lithuanian-American science fiction author, editor, and critic.

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ALM (company)

ALM (formerly American Lawyer Media) is a media company located in New York City, and is a provider of specialized business news and information, focused primarily on the legal, insurance, and commercial real estate sectors.

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Alt code

On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

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An Anglicism is a word or construction borrowed from English into another language.

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Apologetic apostrophe

The 'apologetic'Graham W. (1977) The Scots Word Book, The Ramsay Head Press, Edinburgh, p.11 or parochial apostrophe is the distinctive use of apostrophes in Modern Scots orthography.

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Apostrophe (figure of speech)

Apostrophe (Greek ἀποστροφή, apostrophé, "turning away"; the final e being sounded) is an exclamatory figure of speech.

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Apostrophe Protection Society

The Apostrophe Protection Society is a UK society that has "the specific aim of preserving the correct use of this currently much abused punctuation mark".

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).

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Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.

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Baeolophus is a genus of birds in the family Paridae.

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Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.

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Barons Court tube station

Barons Court is a London Underground station in West Kensington of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Greater London.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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BGN/PCGN romanization

BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).

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Bill Bryson

William McGuire Bryson (born 8 December 1951) is an Anglo-American author of books on travel, the English language, science, and other non-fiction topics.

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Bishop's Castle

Bishop's Castle is a small market town in the southwest of Shropshire, England, and formerly its smallest borough.

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Bishop's Stortford

Bishop's Stortford is a historic market town and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words

Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words is a book by Bill Bryson, published under several titles since 1984, that catalogues some of the English language's most commonly misused words and phrases in order to demonstrate preferable usage.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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C Sharp (programming language)

C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.

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C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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C++14 is a version of the ISO/IEC 14882 standard for the programming language C++.

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Cadwalader's Ice Cream

Cadwaladers is a family run chain of cafes that originated in Gwynedd, Wales.

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A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Celtic onomastics

Onomastics is an important source of information on the early Celts, as Greco-Roman historiography recorded Celtic names before substantial written information becomes available in any Celtic language.

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Chamorro language

Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).

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Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Character literal

A character literal is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a single character's value within the source code of a computer program.

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Charles Hamilton (writer)

Charles Harold St.

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Charter of the French Language

The Charter of the French Language (La charte de la langue française), also known as Bill 101 (Law 101 or Loi 101), is a 1977 law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government.

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Classic Mac OS

Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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A collectable (collectible or collector's item) is any object regarded as being of value or interest to a collector (not necessarily monetarily valuable or antique).

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Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia

The Committee for Geographical Names in Australia (CGNA) was formed in Perth, Western Australia in 1984 following the International Cartographic Association Conference.

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Compose key

A compose key (sometimes called multi key) is a key on a computer keyboard that indicates that the following (usually 2 or more) keystrokes trigger the insertion of an alternate character, typically a precomposed character or a symbol.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant gradation

Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation in which consonants alternate between various "grades".

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Contraction (grammar)

A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Country Women's Association

The Country Women’s Association of Australia (CWA or CWAA) is the largest women's organisation in Australia.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Currys is a British electrical retailer operating in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, owned by Dixons Carphone.

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Cyrillic alphabets

Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Decimal separator

A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.

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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Denglisch (German spelling) or Denglish (English spelling) is a portmanteau of the German words Deutsch and Englisch (English), and can also be used to refer to a portmanteau of English and Dutch.

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Dexys Midnight Runners

Dexys Midnight Runners (currently officially Dexys, their former nickname, styled without an apostrophe) are an English pop band with soul influences, who achieved their major success in the early to mid-1980s.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.

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Digraphs and trigraphs

In computer programming, digraphs and trigraphs are sequences of two and three characters, respectively, that appear in source code and, according to a programming language's specification, should be treated as if they were single characters.

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A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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A dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae (this family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists).

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Dunglish (portmanteau of Dutch and English; in Dutch steenkolenengels, literally: "coal-English") is a popular term for mistakes native Dutch speakers make when trying to speak English.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Earl's Court

Earl's Court is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in central London, bordering the sub-districts of South Kensington to the east, West Kensington to the west, Chelsea to the south and Kensington to the north.

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Earl's Court tube station

Earl's Court is a London Underground station on the District and Piccadilly lines.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Eats, Shoots & Leaves

Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a non-fiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of BBC Radio 4's Cutting a Dash programme.

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ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.

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In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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Elision (French)

In French, elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel (usually) immediately before another word beginning with a vowel.

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Emphasis (typography)

In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.

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English Journal

English Journal (previously The English Journal) is the official publication of the Secondary Education section of the American National Council of Teachers of English.

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English plurals

English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

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English-language spelling reform

For centuries, there has been a movement to reform the spelling of English.

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Escape character

In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.

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Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Exclamation mark

The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.

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Exeter City F.C.

Exeter City Football Club is a professional association football club based in Exeter, Devon, England.

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Eye dialect

Eye dialect is the use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to pronunciation.

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The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

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Fantasy literature

Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world.

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FC Rànger's

FC Rànger's is an Andorran football club based in Andorra la Vella.

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Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union

The Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union (FSPDU) was an Australian trade union which existed between 1900 and 1993.

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Fictional language

Fictional languages are constructed languages created as part of a fictional setting, for example in books, movies, television shows, and video games.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finno-Ugric languages

Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.

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Fox hunting

Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fundamento de Esperanto

Fundamento de Esperanto (English: Foundation of Esperanto) is a 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author explains the basic grammar rules and vocabulary that constitute the basis of the constructed language Esperanto.

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Galician cuisine

Galician cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Garner's Modern English Usage

Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU), written by Bryan A. Garner and published by Oxford University Press, is a usage dictionary and style guide (or 'prescriptive dictionary') for contemporary Modern English.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Geoffroy Tory

Geoffroy Tory (also Geofroy, Latin "Godofredus Torinus") was born in Bourges around 1480 and died in Paris before 14 October 1533.

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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Geresh (׳ in גֶּרֶשׁ‎ or ‎, or medieval) is a sign in Hebrew writing.

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Gershayim (גֵּרְשַׁיִם, without niqqud), also occasionally grashayim.

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The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grand Admiral Thrawn

Grand Admiral Thrawn is a fictional character in the ''Star Wars'' franchise.

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Grave accent

The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.

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Greek diacritics

Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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A greengrocer, also called a produce market or fruiterer, is a retail trader in fruit and vegetables; that is, in green groceries.

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Guarani language

Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.

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H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.

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Halfwidth and fullwidth forms

In CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 全形; in CJK: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 半形; in CJK: 半角) characters.

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Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.

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Hard sign

The letter Ъ (italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак tvjórdyj znak) in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet, and as debelo jer (дебело їер, "fat yer") in pre-reform Serbian orthography.

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Harrods is a luxury department store located on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, London.

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Hart's Rules

Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford – today published under the short title New Hart's Rules – is an authoritative reference book and style guide published in England by Oxford University Press (OUP).

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Hawaiian language

The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.

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Hear'Say were a British pop group.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hebrew numerals

The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).

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His 'n' Hers

His 'n' Hers is the fourth studio album by Pulp and is commonly cited as the band's breakthrough album, reaching number 9 in the UK charts.

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.

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HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.

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Hubert Selby Jr.

Hubert "Cubby" Selby Jr. (July 23, 1928 – April 26, 2004) was an American writer.

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In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.

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A hyperforeignism is a type of qualitative hypercorrection that involves speakers misidentifying the distribution of a pattern found in loanwords and extending it to other environments, including words and phrases not borrowed from the language that the pattern derives from.

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The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numericalspaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

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Ig Nobel Prize

The Ig Nobel Prize is a parody of the Nobel Prize, which is awarded every autumn to celebrate ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research.

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Illative case

Illative (abbreviated; from Latin illatus "brought in") is, in the Finnish language, the Estonian language, the Lithuanian language, and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "into (the inside of)".

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Internationalized domain name

An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French.

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In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.

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IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

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Irish name

A formal Irish-language personal name consists of a given name and a surname.

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ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italic type

In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.

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Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

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JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language.

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Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.

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Jin'an District, Lu'an

Jin'an District is a district of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Lu'an City.

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Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.

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John C. Wells

John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.

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The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Karelian language

Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.

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Kidderminster is a large town and civil parish in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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King Solomon's Mines

King Solomon's Mines (1885) is a popular novel by the English Victorian adventure writer and fabulist Sir H. Rider Haggard.

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King's Lynn

King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is a seaport and market town in Norfolk, England, about north of London, north-east of Peterborough, north north-east of Cambridge and west of Norwich.

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Kingsley Amis

Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher.

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Klingon language

The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol,, in pIqaD), sometimes called Klingonese, is the constructed language spoken by the fictional Klingons in the Star Trek universe.

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L'Aquila (meaning "The Eagle") is a city and comune in Southern Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila.

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L'Hospitalet de Llobregat

L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (or; Hospitalet de Llobregat), often shortened to L'Hospitalet, is a municipality to the immediate southwest of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.

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Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.

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Languages of Switzerland

The four national languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian and Romansh.

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Lapel pin

A lapel pin is a small pin worn on clothing, often worn on the lapel of a jacket.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Lewis Carroll

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.

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Ligurian (Romance language)

Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.

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List of C-family programming languages

Due to the success of the C programming language and some of its derivatives, C-family programming languages span a large variety of programming paradigms, conceptual models, and run-time environments.

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List of XML and HTML character entity references

In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.

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Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.

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Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports

The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom.

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Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.

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Lynne Truss

Lynne Truss (born 31 May 1955) is an English author, journalist, novelist, and radio broadcaster and dramatist.

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Lytham St Annes

Lytham St Annes is a seaside resort on the Fylde coast of Lancashire, England, south of Blackpool on the Ribble Estuary.

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Maître d'hôtel

The maître d'hôtel (French 'master of the house'), head waiter, host, waiter captain or maître d manages the public part, or "front of the house", of a formal restaurant.

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Mac OS Roman

Mac OS Roman is a character encoding primarily used by the classic Mac OS to represent text.

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Macedonian language

Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Magistrates' Court of Victoria

The Magistrates' Court of Victoria is the lowest court in the Victorian court system, with the County Court of Victoria and the Supreme Court of Victoria respectively judicially higher.

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Mandalorians are a fictional people from the planet Mandalore in the Star Wars science fiction franchise created by George Lucas.

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A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.

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Martha's Vineyard

Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.

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Mayan languages

The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.

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McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.

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Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.

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Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage

Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is a usage dictionary published by Merriam-Webster, Inc., of Springfield, Massachusetts.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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MLA Style Manual

The MLA Style Manual, titled the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing in its second (1998) and third edition (2008), is an academic style guide by the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) first published in 1985.

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Modifier letter double apostrophe

The modifier letter double apostrophe (ˮ) is a spacing glyph.

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Modifier letter left half ring

The modifier letter left half ring (ʿ) is a character of the Unicode Spacing Modifier Letters range, used to transliterate the letter ayin, representing the sound.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Mossi language

The Mossi language (known in the language as Mooré; also Mòoré, Mõõré, Moré, Moshi, Moore, More) is a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language spoken just across the border in the northern half of Ghana and less-closely to Dagbani and Mampruli further south.

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A mus'haf (مصحف, with the ṣ and ḥ as two separate consonants, not, plural "suhuf") is a is an arabic word for a codex or collection of sheets, but also refers to a physical bound volume of the Quran.

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Myst (series)

Myst is a franchise centered on a series of adventure video games.

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Na'vi language

The Naʼvi language (Naʼvi: Lìʼfya leNaʼvi) is the constructed language of the Naʼvi, the sapient humanoid indigenous inhabitants of the fictional moon Pandora in the 2009 film ''Avatar''.

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Neal Stephenson

Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer and game designer known for his works of speculative fiction.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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Nenets languages

Nenets (in former work also Yurak) is a pair of closely related languages spoken in northern Russia by the Nenets people.

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Newcastle United F.C.

Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football.

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Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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Non-breaking space

In word processing and digital typesetting, a non-breaking space (" "), also called no-break space, non-breakable space (NBSP), hard space, or fixed space, is a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Numeric character reference

A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.

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Object lifetime

In object-oriented programming (OOP), the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object is the time between an object's creation and its destruction.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations

OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations) is an examination board that sets examinations and awards qualifications (including GCSEs and A-levels).

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P. G. Wodehouse

Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse (15 October 188114 February 1975) was an English author and one of the most widely read humourists of the 20th century.

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.

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Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

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PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.

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Pietro Bembo

Pietro Bembo, (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal.

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Pince-nez is a style of glasses, popular in the 19th century, that are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Pop punk

Pop punk (also known as punk-pop) is a music genre that fuses elements of pop music with punk rock.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Possession (linguistics)

Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).

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A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Possessive determiner

Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.

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A postscript (P.S.) is an afterthought, thought of occurring after the letter has been written and signed.

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Prime (symbol)

The prime symbol (′), double prime symbol (&Prime), triple prime symbol (&#x2034), quadruple prime symbol (&#x2057) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Python (programming language)

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quebec French

Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.

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Quotation mark

Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Rangers F.C.

Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League.

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Reamde is a technothriller novel by Neal Stephenson, published in 2011.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Rough breathing

In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.

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Royal Tunbridge Wells

Royal Tunbridge Wells is a large affluent town in western Kent, England, around south-east of central London by road and by rail.

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Rust (programming language)

Rust is a systems programming language sponsored by Mozilla which describes it as a "safe, concurrent, practical language," supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms.

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Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector in the United Kingdom.

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Saltillo (linguistics)

In Mexican linguistics, saltillo (Spanish, meaning "little skip") refers to a glottal stop consonant,.

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Samoan language

Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.

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In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.

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Scala (programming language)

Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scottish Gaelic name

A formal Gaelic language name consists of a given name and a surname.

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Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.

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Selfridges, also known as Selfridges & Co., is a chain of high end department stores in the United Kingdom, operated by Selfridges Retail Limited.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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She: A History of Adventure

She, subtitled A History of Adventure, is a novel by English writer H. Rider Haggard, first serialised in The Graphic magazine from October 1886 to January 1887.

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The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Shin'ichi or Shinichi is a very common masculine Japanese given name.

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Short U (Cyrillic)

Short U (Ў ў; italics: Ў ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press.

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Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Smooth breathing

The smooth breathing (psilòn pneûma; ψιλή psilí; spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography.

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Society for Technical Communication

The Society for Technical Communication (STC) is a professional association dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of technical communication.

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Soft sign

The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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Spatial anti-aliasing

In digital signal processing, spatial anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution image at a lower resolution.

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St Albans

St Albans is a city in Hertfordshire, England, and the major urban area in the City and District of St Albans.

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St Andrews

St Andrews (S.; Saunt Aundraes; Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh.

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St Helens, Merseyside

St Helens is a large town in Merseyside, England.

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St James Park (Exeter)

St James Park is a football stadium in Exeter and is the home of Exeter City F.C. The stadium is served by the St James Park railway station which is right next to the ground (the line runs behind the Grandstand).

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St James' Park

St James' Park is a football stadium in Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

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St James's Church, Piccadilly

St James's Church, Piccadilly, also known as St James's Church, Westminster, and St James-in-the-Fields, is an Anglican church on Piccadilly in the centre of London, United Kingdom.

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St James's Park

St James's Park is a park in the City of Westminster, central London.

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Standard & Poor's

Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Star Wars

Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.

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String literal

A string literal or anonymous string is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a string value within the source code of a computer program.

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Super Monkey's

was a Japanese pop-singing and dancing group that spawned the careers of Namie Amuro and some members of the girl group, MAX.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Tahitian language

Tahitian (autonym Reo Tahiti, part of Reo Mā'ohi, languages of French Polynesia)Reo Mā'ohi correspond to “languages of natives from French Polynesia”, and may in principle designate any of the seven indigenous languages spoken in French Polynesia.

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Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.

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Tetum language

Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.

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TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.

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The 69'ers

The 69'ers were an Australian rock, pop, jug and country band formed in 1969.

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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.

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The Beaux' Stratagem

The Beaux' Stratagem is a comedy by George Farquhar, first produced at the Theatre Royal, now the site of Her Majesty's Theatre, in the Haymarket, London, on March 8, 1707.

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The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, often abbreviated CGEL by its adherents, is a comprehensive reference book on English language grammar.

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The Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMOS or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.

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The Dark Side of the Moon

The Dark Side of the Moon is the eighth studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released on 1 March 1973 by Harvest Records.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Elements of Style

The Elements of Style is a prescriptive American English writing style guide in numerous editions.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The La's

The La's were an English rock band from Liverpool, originally active from 1983 until 1992.

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The Language Instinct

The Language Instinct is a 1994 book by Steven Pinker, written for a general audience.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Norton Anthology of English Literature

The Norton Anthology of English Literature is an anthology of English literature published by the W. W. Norton & Company.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Tim Hortons

Tim Hortons Inc. (known internationally as Tim Hortons Cafe and Bake Shop, colloquially and corporately known as Timmys, Timmies, Timmy, or Tims) is a Canadian-based multinational fast food restaurant known for its coffee and donuts.

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Tongan language

Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Tupi language

Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.

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A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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Ukrainian alphabet

The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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United States Board on Geographic Names

The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Us and Them (song)

"Us and Them" is a song by the English progressive rock band Pink Floyd, from their 1973 album The Dark Side of the Moon.

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Uzbek alphabet

The Uzbek language has been written in various scripts: Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.

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Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".

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Vanderbilt University

Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Võro language

Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.

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Verreaux's eagle

Verreaux's eagle (Aquila verreauxii) is a large African bird of prey.

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Visual Basic

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.

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Voiced pharyngeal fricative

The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Westward Ho!

Westward Ho! is a seaside village near Bideford in Devon, England.

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Windows code page

Windows code pages are sets of characters or code pages (known as character encodings in other operating systems) used in Microsoft Windows from the 1980s and 1990s.

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Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).

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Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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Word processor

A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.

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X Window System

The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.

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Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.

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Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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Ya'an (Tibetan: Yak-Nga) is a prefecture-level city in the western part of Sichuan province, China, located just below the Tibetan Plateau.

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Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yorkshire dialect

The Yorkshire dialect (also Broad Yorkshire, Tyke, Yorkie, or Yorkshire English) is an English dialect of Northern England spoken in England's historic county of Yorkshire.

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You Am I

You Am I are an Australian alternative rock band, fronted by lead singer-songwriter-guitarist, Tim Rogers.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apostrophe

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