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Index Apple

An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila). [1]

256 relations: Acidulated water, Adam, Adam's apple, Adverse effect, Agriculture, Alexander the Great, Ambrosia (apple), Amygdalin, An apple a day keeps the doctor away, Anaphylaxis, Anatolia, Ancestor, Anthocyanin, Apfelwein, Aphid, Aphrodite, Apple butter, Apple cake, Apple chip, Apple cider, Apple crisp, Apple juice, Apple maggot, Apple of Discord, Apple pie, Apple sauce, Apple scab, Apple seed oil, Applecrab, Applejack (drink), Arctic Apples, Aristotle, Asia, Atalanta, Athena, Azadirachta indica, Bacteria, Baking, Belle de Boskoop, BiblioBazaar, Birch, Blossom, Book of Genesis, Boston, Botryotinia, Braeburn, Bumblebee, Caesarean section, Calorie, Calvados, ..., Candy apple, Caramel, Caramel apple, Carbon dioxide, Case report, Catechin, Central Asia, Champion (apple), Chiloé Archipelago, Christianity in Europe, Cider, Cider apple, Ciderkin, Codling moth, Common Era, Controlled atmosphere, Cooking apple, Cox's Orange Pippin, Cripps Pink, Crop yield, Crumble, Cultivar, Cyanide, Deciduous, Deity, Dietary fiber, Diplocarpon rosae, Discovery (apple), Distillation, DNA sequencing, East Malling Research Station, Eastern Washington, Egremont Russet, Epicuticular wax, Eris (mythology), Eternal youth, Ethylene, Europe, European colonization of the Americas, Eve, Fermentation in food processing, Fertility, Fire blight, Flavan-3-ol, Flavonoid, Fluoride, Folklore, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Forbidden fruit, Freyr, Frigg, Fruit, Fruit tree, Fuji (apple), Fungus, Gala (apple), Garden of Eden, Genetic engineering, Genome, Genus, Gerðr, Germanic paganism, Germanic peoples, Golden apple, Golden Delicious, Grafting, Granny Smith, Gravenstein, Greek hero cult, Greek mythology, Gymnosporangium, Haralson (apple), Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Hel (location), Helen of Troy, Hera, Heracles, Hilda Ellis Davidson, Hippomenes, Hives, Honey bee, Honeycrisp, Hydrolysis, Hypoallergenic, Iðunn, Idared, Ideain, Indian subcontinent, Inflorescence, Introgression, Iran, John Lloyd (producer), John Mitchinson (researcher), Johnny Appleseed, Jonagold, Kaolinite, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Labours of Hercules, Larynx, Latin, Leaf, List of apple cultivars, List of apple dishes, London Borough of Merton, Lyceum, Malus, Malus sieversii, Malus sylvestris, McIntosh (apple), Melanin, Mildew, Minnesota, Morphology (biology), Mountains of Central Asia, Mythology, Near East, Nehalennia, Norse mythology, Northern Spy, Nutrient, Old Norse religion, Oral allergy syndrome, Organic farming, Oseberg Ship, Osmia lignaria, Oxygen, Paris (mythology), Pectin, Peleus, Penguin Books, Petal, Philip Miller, Phlorizin, Phyllotaxis, Phytochemical, Plato, Pollen, Pollination, Pollinator, Polyphenol, Polyploid, Procyanidin, Prose Edda, Proverb, Pyrethrum, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Queen bee, Quercetin, Red Delicious, Reinette, Renaissance, Rerir, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, Roman Empire, Root cellar, Rootstock, Rosh Hashanah, Routledge, Russet apple, Russeting, Seduction, Skald, Skáldskaparmál, Skírnir, Skírnismál, Snorri Sturluson, Sparta, Sport (botany), Stew, Subtropics, SugarBee, Swazie (apple), Sweet Bough, Synanthedon myopaeformis, Table apple, Tajikistan, Temperate climate, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thetis, Tian Shan, Toffee, Tonne, Trojan War, Troy, True-breeding organism, Tumulus, Turkey, United States National Library of Medicine, University of Georgia, University of Minnesota, Vanir, Völsung, Völsunga saga, Washington State University, Wealthy (apple), Welsh Apples, William Blaxton, Wisconsin, World religions, Xinjiang, Zygosity, 1-Methylcyclopropene, 16th century, 17th century. Expand index (206 more) »

Acidulated water

Acidulated water is water where some sort of acid is added—often lemon juice, lime juice, or vinegar—to prevent cut or skinned fruits or vegetables from browning so as to maintain their appearance.

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Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".

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Adam's apple

The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ambrosia (apple)

Ambrosia is a cultivar of apple originating in British Columbia in the early 1990s.

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Amygdalin (from Ancient Greek: ἀμυγδαλή amygdálē "almond") is a naturally occurring chemical compound, famous for falsely being promoted as a cancer cure.

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An apple a day keeps the doctor away

"An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is a common English-language proverb of Welsh origin.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).

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Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.

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Apfelwein (Germany, apple wine), or Viez (Moselfranken, Saarland, Trier, vice) or Most (Austria, Switzerland, South Germany, must) are German words for cider.

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Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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Apple butter

Apple butter is a highly concentrated form of apple sauce produced by long, slow cooking of apples with cider or water to a point where the sugar in the apples caramelizes, turning the apple butter a deep brown.

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Apple cake

Apple cake is a popular dessert produced with the main ingredient of apples.

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Apple chip

Apple chips are chips or crisps that are prepared using apple.

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Apple cider

Apple cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples.

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Apple crisp

Apple crisp (name used in the United States) or apple crumble (name preferred in the United Kingdom, Canada Australia and New Zealand) is a dessert consisting of baked chopped apples, topped with a crisp streusel crust.

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Apple juice

Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple.

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Apple maggot

The apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella), also known as a "railroad worm" (not to be confused with the ''Phrixothrix'' beetle larvae also called that), is a pest of several fruits, mainly apples.

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Apple of Discord

An apple of discord is a reference to the Golden Apple of Discord (μῆλον τῆς Ἔριδος) which, according to Greek mythology, the goddess Eris (Gr. Ἔρις, "Strife") tossed in the midst of the feast of the gods at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis as a prize of beauty, thus sparking a vanity-fueled dispute among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite that eventually led to the Trojan War (for the complete story, see The Judgement of Paris).

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Apple pie

An apple pie is a pie or a tart, in which the principal filling ingredient is apple.

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Apple sauce

Apple sauce or applesauce is a sauce made of apples.

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Apple scab

Apple scab is a disease of Malus trees, such as apple trees, caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis.

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Apple seed oil

Apple seed oil is a fixed oil found in apple seeds.

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Applecrabs are various hybrids between crabapples and apples.

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Applejack (drink)

Applejack is a strong apple-flavored alcoholic drink produced from apples, popular in the American colonial period.

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Arctic Apples

Arctic apples are a group of trademarked apples that contain a nonbrowning trait (when the apples are subjected to mechanical damage, such as slicing or bruising, the apple flesh remains as its original color) introduced through biotechnology.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atalanta (Ἀταλάντη Atalantē) is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.

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Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Azadirachta indica

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.

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Belle de Boskoop

Belle de Boskoop is an apple cultivar which, as its name suggests, originated in Boskoop, the Netherlands, where it began as a chance seedling in 1856.

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BiblioBazaar is, with Nabu Press, an imprint of the historical reprints publisher BiblioLife, which is based in Charleston, South Carolina and owned by BiblioLabs LLC.

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A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.

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In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit trees (genus Prunus) and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely for a period of time in spring.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Botryotinia is a genus of ascomycete fungi causing several plant diseases.

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The 'Braeburn' is a cultivar of apple that is firm to the touch with a red/orange vertical streaky appearance on a yellow/green background.

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A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France.

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Candy apple

Toffee apples, also known as candy apples in North America, are whole apples covered in a hard toffee or sugar candy coating, with a stick inserted as a handle.

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Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.

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Caramel apple

Caramel apples or taffy apples are created by dipping or rolling apples-on-a-stick in hot caramel, sometimes then rolling them in nuts or other small savories or confections, and allowing them to cool.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Case report

In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.

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Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Champion (apple)

Champion, shampion or sampion is a hybrid cultivar of domesticated apple developed c. 1960 in Czech republic from crossing a Golden Delicious and a Cox Orange Pippin.

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Chiloé Archipelago

The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

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Christianity in Europe

Christianity is the largest religion in Europe.

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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Cider apple

Cider apples are a group of apple cultivars grown for their use in the production of cider (referred to as "hard cider" in the United States).

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Ciderkin, sometimes referred to as water-cider, is a kind of weak alcoholic cider traditionally drunk by children, and made by steeping the refuse apple pomace in water.

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Codling moth

The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a member of the Lepidopteran family Tortricidae.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Controlled atmosphere

A controlled atmosphere is an agricultural storage method in which the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, as well as the temperature and humidity of a storage room are regulated.

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Cooking apple

A cooking apple is an apple that is used primarily for cooking, as opposed to a dessert apple, which is eaten raw.

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Cox's Orange Pippin

Cox's Orange Pippin, in Britain often referred to simply as Cox, is an apple cultivar first grown in 1830, at Colnbrook in Buckinghamshire, England, by the retired brewer and horticulturist Richard Cox.

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Cripps Pink

Cripps Pink is a cultivar of apple.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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A crumble is a dish of British origin that can be made in a sweet or savoury version, although the sweet version is much more common.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Diplocarpon rosae

Diplocarpon rosae is a fungus that creates the rose black spot disease.

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Discovery (apple)

'Discovery' is an early season dessert apple cultivar.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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East Malling Research Station

NIAB EMR is a horticultural and agricultural research institute at East Malling, Kent in England, with a specialism in fruit and clonally propagated crop production.

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Eastern Washington

Eastern Washington is the portion of the US state of Washington east of the Cascade Range.

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Egremont Russet

The Egremont Russet is a cultivar of dessert apple, of the russet type.

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Epicuticular wax

Epicuticular wax is a coating of wax covering the outer surface of the plant cuticle in land plants.

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Eris (mythology)

Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.

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Eternal youth

Eternal youth is the concept of human physical immortality free of ageing.

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Eve (Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

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Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Fire blight

Fire blight, also written fireblight, is a contagious disease affecting apples, pears, and some other members of the family Rosaceae.

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Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton.

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Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

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Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database

The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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Forbidden fruit

Forbidden fruit is a phrase that originates from the Book of Genesis concerning Adam and Eve in Genesis 2:16–17.

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Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.

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In Germanic mythology, Frigg (Old Norse), Frija (Old High German), Frea (Langobardic), and Frige (Old English) is a goddess.

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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Fruit tree

A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.

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Fuji (apple)

The Fuji apple is an apple hybrid developed by growers at Tohoku Research Station (農林省園芸試験場東北支場) in Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, in the late 1930s, and brought to market in 1962.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gala (apple)

Gala is a clonally propagated apple cultivar with a mild and sweet flavor.

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Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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In Norse mythology, Gerðr (Old Norse "fenced-in"Orchard (1997:54).) is a jötunn, goddess, and the wife of the god Freyr.

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Germanic paganism

Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Golden apple

The golden apple is an element that appears in various national and ethnic folk legends or fairy tales.

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Golden Delicious

The Golden Delicious is a cultivar of apple with a yellow color, not closely related to the Red Delicious apple.

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Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together.

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Granny Smith

The Granny Smith is a tip-bearing apple cultivar, which originated in Australia in 1868.

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Gravenstein (Danish: Gråsten, meaning "graystone", after Gråsten Palacehttp://www.sonneruplund.dk/0%20html/Graasten.html) is a triploid apple cultivar that originated in the 17th century or earlier.

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Greek hero cult

Hero cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Gymnosporangium is a genus of heteroecious plant-pathogenic fungi which alternately infect members of the family Cupressaceae, primarily species in the genus Juniperus (junipers), and members of the family Rosaceae in the subfamily Maloideae (apples, pears, quinces, shadbush, hawthorns, rowans and their relatives).

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Haralson (apple)

The Haralson is a cultivar of apple that is medium-sized and has a round-conic shape.

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Hazardous Substances Data Bank

The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a toxicology database on the U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET).

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Hel (location)

In Norse mythology, Hel, the location, shares a name with Hel, a being who rules over the location.

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Helen of Troy

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.

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Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.

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Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.

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Hilda Ellis Davidson

Hilda Roderick Ellis Davidson (born Hilda Roderick Ellis, 1 October 1914 – January 2006) was an English antiquarian and academic, writing in particular on Germanic paganism and Celtic paganism.

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In Greek mythology, Hippomenes (Ἱππομένης), also known as Melanion (Μελανίων or Μειλανίων), was a son of the Arcadian AmphidamasPseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.

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Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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Honeycrisp (Malus pumila 'Honeycrisp') is an apple cultivar (cultivated variety) developed at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station's Horticultural Research Center at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953.

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In Norse mythology, Iðunn is a goddess associated with apples and youth.

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Idared is a type of apple cultivar from Moscow, Idaho, United States.

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Ideain, the cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, is an anthocyanin, a type of plant pigment.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

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Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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John Lloyd (producer)

John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd (born 30 September 1951) is an English television producer and writer best known for his work on such comedy television programmes as Not the Nine O'Clock News, Spitting Image, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Blackadder and QI.

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John Mitchinson (researcher)

John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and is also the managing director of Quite Interesting Limited.

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Johnny Appleseed

John Chapman (September 26, 1774 – March 18, 1845), better known as Johnny Appleseed, was an American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of Pennsylvania, Ontario, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, as well as the northern counties of present-day West Virginia.

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Jonagold is a cultivar of apple which was developed in 1953 in New York State Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a cross between the crisp Golden Delicious and the blush-crimson Jonathan.

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Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Labours of Hercules

--> The Twelve Labours of Heracles or of Hercules (ἆθλοι, hoi Hērakleous athloi) are a series of episodes concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes, whose name was later Romanised as Hercules.

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The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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List of apple cultivars

Over 7,500 cultivars of the culinary or eating apple (Malus pumila) are known.

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List of apple dishes

This is a list of apple dishes, that use apple as a primary ingredient.

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London Borough of Merton

The London Borough of Merton is a borough in south-west London, England.

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The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.

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Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple (M. pumila syn. M. domestica) – also known as the eating apple, cooking apple, or culinary apple.

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Malus sieversii

Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan.

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Malus sylvestris

Malus sylvestris, the European crab apple, is a species of the genus Malus, native to Europe.

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McIntosh (apple)

The McIntosh, McIntosh Red, or colloquially the Mac, is an apple cultivar, the national apple of Canada.

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Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Mildew is a form of fungus.

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Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mountains of Central Asia

South of the northern low lands is a great belt of mountains and plateaus.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Nehalennia (spelled variously) is a goddess of unclear origin, perhaps Germanic or Celtic, Nehalennia is attested on and depicted upon numerous votive altars discovered around what is now the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands, where the Rhine River flowed into the North Sea.

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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Northern Spy

The 'Northern Spy' apple, also called 'Spy' and 'King', is a cultivar of domesticated apple that originated in East Bloomfield, New York in about 1800.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Old Norse religion

Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.

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Oral allergy syndrome

Oral allergy syndrome (OAS), now known as Pollen-Food Allergy) is an allergic reaction in the mouth following eating food. It is a type of food allergy classified by a cluster of allergic reactions in the mouth in response to eating certain (usually fresh) fruits, nuts, and vegetables that typically develops in adults with hay fever. OAS is not a separate food allergy, but rather represents cross-reactivity between distant remnants of tree or weed pollen still found in certain fruits and vegetables. Therefore, OAS is only seen in people with seasonal pollen allergies, and mostly people who are allergic to tree pollen. It is usually limited to ingestion of only uncooked fruits or vegetables. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy. In adults up to 60% of all food allergic reactions are due to cross-reactions between foods and inhalative allergens. OAS is a Type 1 or IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, which is sometimes called a "true allergy". The body's immune system produces IgE antibodies against pollen; in OAS, these antibodies also bind to (or cross-react with) other structurally similar proteins found in botanically related plants. OAS can occur any time of the year but is most prevalent during the pollen season. Individuals with OAS usually develop symptoms within a few minutes after eating the food.

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Organic farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.

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Oseberg Ship

The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway.

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Osmia lignaria

Osmia lignaria, commonly known as the orchard mason bee or blue orchard bee, is a megachilid bee that makes nests in reeds and natural holes, creating individual cells for its brood that are separated by mud dividers.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paris (mythology)

Paris (Πάρις), also known as Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros), the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends.

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Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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In Greek mythology, Peleus (Πηλεύς, Pēleus) was a hero whose myth was already known to the hearers of Homer in the late 8th century BC.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.

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Philip Miller

Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.

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Phlorizin (also referred to as phloridzin; chemical name phloretin-2'-β-D-glucopyranoside) is a glucoside of phloretin, a dihydrochalcone, a family of bicyclic flavonoids, which in turn is a subgroup in the diverse phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway in plants.

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In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").

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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Procyanidins are members of the proanthocyanidin (or condensed tannins) class of flavonoids.

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Prose Edda

The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century.

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A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.

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Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum (e.g., C. coccineum) which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads.

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Quadram Institute Bioscience

The Institute of Food Research (IFR) transitioned into the Quadram Institute Bioscience in April 2017.

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Queen bee

The term "queen bee" is typically used to refer to an adult, mated female that lives in a honey bee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of most, if not all, of the bees in the beehive.

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Quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains; red onions and kale are common foods containing appreciable content of quercetin.

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Red Delicious

The Red Delicious is a clone of apple cultigen, now comprising more than 50 cultivars, recognized in Madison County, Iowa, in 1880.

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Reinette (French for Little Queen), often Rennet in English, and popular in Italian cuisine as Renetta, is the name of a number of apple cultivars.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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In Völsunga saga, Rerir, the son of Sigi, succeeds his murdered father and avenges his death.

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Revista Chilena de Historia Natural

The Revista Chilena de Historia Natural is a bilingual open access scientific journal published by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile covering research in many areas of biology.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Root cellar

A root cellar is a structure, usually underground.

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A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced.

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Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russet apple

Russet apples are varieties and cultivars of apples that regularly exhibit russeting, partial or complete coverage with rough patches of greenish-brown to yellowish-brown colour.

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Russeting or russetting is an abnormality of fruit skin which manifests in russet-colored (brownish) patches that are rougher than healthy skin.

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Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like; to corrupt, to persuade or induce to engage in sexual behaviour.

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The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.

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The second part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda the Skáldskaparmál ("language of poetry"; c. 50,000 words) is effectively a dialogue between Ægir, the Norse god of the sea, and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined.

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In Norse mythology, Skírnir (Old Norse "bright one"Orchard (1997:149).) is the god Freyr's messenger and vassal.

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Skírnismál (Sayings of Skírnir) is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda.

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Snorri Sturluson

Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.

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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Sport (botany)

In botany, a sport or bud sport, traditionally called lusus, is a part of a plant that shows morphological differences from the rest of the plant.

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A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.

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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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SugarBee (CN121) is a cultivar of apple grown in the elevated orchards of Washington State.

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Swazie (apple)

The 'Swazie' apple, also called 'Pomme Grise d'Or', possibly the same as 'Golden Gray', is a high-quality small to medium-sized apple that keeps well through the winter.

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Sweet Bough

'Sweet Bough' is an early ripening cultivar of domesticated apple also known by various other names including 'August Sweeting', 'Early Yellow Bough', and 'White Sugar'.

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Synanthedon myopaeformis

Synanthedon myopaeformis is a moth of the family Sesiidae and the order Lepidoptera.

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Table apple

Table apples or dessert apples are a group of apple cultivars grown for eating raw as opposed to cooking or cidermaking.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Toffee is a confection made by caramelizing sugar or molasses (creating inverted sugar) along with butter, and occasionally flour.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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True-breeding organism

A true-breeding organism, sometimes also called a purebred, is an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic traits (i.e. physically expressed traits) to its offspring of many generations.

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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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University of Georgia

The University of Georgia, also referred to as UGA or simply Georgia, is an American public comprehensive research university.

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University of Minnesota

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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In Norse mythology, the Vanir (singular Vanr) are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, and the ability to see the future.

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In Norse mythology, Völsung (Vǫlsungr) was the son of Rerir and the eponymous ancestor of the ill-fortuned Völsung clan (Vǫlsungar), which includes the well known Norse hero Sigurð.

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Völsunga saga

The Völsunga saga (often referred to in English as the Volsunga Saga or Saga of the Völsungs) is a legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Völsung clan (including the story of Sigurd and Brynhild and destruction of the Burgundians).

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Washington State University

Washington State University (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Everett and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.

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Wealthy (apple)

The Wealthy was the earliest apple variety to thrive in the Minnesota climate.

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Welsh Apples

The Cambrian Journal (Vol. 111, 1858) contains a list of names for about 200 Welsh Apples, the majority of which were from the Monmouth area.

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William Blaxton

Reverend William Blaxton (also spelled William Blackstone) (1595– 26 May 1675) was an early English settler in New England and the first European settler of Boston and Rhode Island.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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World religions

World religions is a category used in the study of religion to demarcate the five—and in some cases six—largest and most internationally widespread religious movements.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a cyclopropene derivative used as a synthetic plant growth regulator.

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16th century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).

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17th century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar.

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Aplle, Apple (Fruit), Apple (fruit), Apple (tree), Apple Popularity, Apple blossom, Apple blossoms, Apple core, Apple peel, Apple production, Apple tree, Apple trees, Apple-tree, Apple/Nutritional information, Apples, Culture of apple, Dried apple, Malus communis, Malus domestica, Malus domesticus, Malus pumila, Nutritional information about the apple, Pyrus malus, 🍎, 🍏.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple

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