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Index Apprenticeship

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading). [1]

161 relations: Accounting, Achievement gap in the United States, Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601, Apprentices mobility, Apprenticeship Levy, Articled clerk, Associated Builders and Contractors, Baccalauréat, Baker, Bakery, Birth rate, Bureaucracy, Chamber of commerce, Chartered Engineer (UK), City and Guilds of London Institute, Clinical trial, Clipping (morphology), Compulsory trade, Control (management), Cordwainer, Cosmeceutical, Coventry, Creative & Cultural Skills, Criterion-referenced test, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Department for Children, Schools and Families, Department for Education, Dictionary of National Biography, Doctorate, Dominique de Villepin, Dressmaker, Dual education system, Early modern period, East Germany, Education, Education in the United Kingdom, Educational theory of apprenticeship, Electrician, Employment contract, Engine department (ship), Engineer, Engineer in Training, Engineering technician, Engineering technologist, Exit examination, Federated state, First Employment Contract, Food industry, Food technology, Freedom of the City, ..., Freemasonry, Functional Skills Qualification, Fundamentals of Engineering Examination, Further education, German model, Government of the United Kingdom, Guild, Guru–shishya tradition, Gymnasium (Germany), Higher National Certificate, Higher National Diploma, Human resources, Imperial College London, Indenture, Indentured servitude, Independent Electrical Contractors, Industrial Revolution, Industrial unionism, Information technology, Institute of technology, International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers, International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, Internship, Interprovincial Standards, Jacques Chirac, Jean-Louis Borloo, Job shadow, Johnny Cash, Joiner, Journeyman, Journeyman years, Justice of the peace, Knowledge worker, Late Middle Ages, License, Logistics, Management consulting, Master craftsman, Mechanic, Mechanical engineering, Medical science liaison, Mentorship, Middle Ages, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, National Apprenticeship Act, National Apprenticeship Service, National Center on Education and the Economy, National Electrical Contractors Association, National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee, National Vocational Qualification, No Child Left Behind Act, Nonuniversal theory, Nutraceutical, Optician, Ordinary National Certificate, Parish, Pharmaceutical industry, Physician assistant, Postdoctoral researcher, Postgraduate education, Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination, Procurement, Production planning, Profession, Professional certification, Professional development, Professor, Provinces and territories of Canada, Quality assurance, Quality control, Realschule, Regulation, Regulation and licensure in engineering, Regulatory affairs, Scholarly method, School-to-work transition, Sector Skills Councils, Seljuk Empire, Sheet Metal Workers' International Association, Skilled worker, Skills Funding Agency, Smith–Hughes Act, Solicitor, Standards-based education reform in the United States, Stationery, Statute of Artificers 1563, Stuff (cloth), Supervisor, Tailor, Tata Chemicals Europe, Terms of trade, Tertiary sector of the economy, Thesis, Tracking (education), Trade union, Tradesman, Training, Turkish language, Turkish people, United Kingdom, University, Vocational education, Vocational school, Voluntary sector, White-collar worker, Workshop, 2005 French riots, 2006 youth protests in France. Expand index (111 more) »


Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.

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Achievement gap in the United States

The achievement gap in the United States is the observed, persistent disparity in measures of educational performance among subgroups of U.S. students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity and gender.

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Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601

The Poor Relief Act 1601 (43 Eliz 1 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England.

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Apprentices mobility

Apprentices mobility is the movement of students and teachers in vocational education or training (VET) to another institution inside or outside their own country to study or teach for a limited time.

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Apprenticeship Levy

The Apprenticeship Levy is a UK business levy which is used to fund apprenticeship training.

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Articled clerk

An articled clerk is someone who is studying to either be an accountant or lawyer.

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Associated Builders and Contractors

Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC) is a national U.S. trade association representing the non-union construction industry.

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The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high school.

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A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source.

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A bakery (a.k.a. baker's shop or bake shop) is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Chamber of commerce

A chamber of commerce (or board of trade) is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses.

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Chartered Engineer (UK)

In the United Kingdom, a Chartered Engineer is an Engineer registered with the Engineering Council (the British regulatory body for engineers).

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City and Guilds of London Institute

The City and Guilds of London Institute is an educational organisation in the United Kingdom.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Clipping (morphology)

In linguistics, clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (Marchand: 1969).

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Compulsory trade

In Canada, a compulsory trade is a skilled trade that requires government certification of those engaged in the trade.

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Control (management)

Control, or controlling, is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing.

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A cordwainer is a shoemaker who makes new shoes from new leather.

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Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits.

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Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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Creative & Cultural Skills

Creative & Cultural Skills is one of the Sector Skills Councils established by the UK Government in 2005 to foster the development of a skilled workforce.

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Criterion-referenced test

A criterion-referenced test is a style of test which uses test scores to generate a statement about the behavior that can be expected of a person with that score.

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Department for Business, Innovation and Skills

The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) was a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR).

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Department for Children, Schools and Families

Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF; stylised as all lowercase) was a department of the UK government, between 2007 and 2010, responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education.

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Department for Education

The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education (compulsory, further and higher education), apprenticeships and wider skills in England.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Dominique de Villepin

Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953) is a French retired diplomat and politician who served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.

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A dressmaker is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and evening gowns.

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Dual education system

A dual education system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Education in the United Kingdom

Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.

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Educational theory of apprenticeship

The apprentice perspective is an educational theory of apprenticeship concerning the process of learning through physical integration into the practices associated with the subject, such as workplace training.

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An electrician is a tradesman specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment.

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Employment contract

An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain.

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Engine department (ship)

In maritime transportation, the engine department or engineering department is an organizational unit aboard a ship that is responsible for the operation, maintenance, and repair of the propulsion systems and the support systems for crew, passengers, and cargo.

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Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

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Engineer in Training

Engineer in Training, or EIT, is a professional designation from the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) used in the United States to designate a person certified by the state as having completed two requirements.

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Engineering technician

An engineering technician is primarily trained in the skills and techniques related to a specific branch of engineering, with a practical understanding of the relevant engineering concepts.

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Engineering technologist

An engineering technologist is a professional trained in certain aspects of development and implementation of a respective area of technology.

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Exit examination

An exit examination is a test that students in the United States of America must pass to receive a diploma and graduate from school.

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Federated state

A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.

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First Employment Contract

The contrat première embauche (CPE; first employment contract) was a new form of employment contract pushed in spring 2006 in France by Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin.

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Food industry

The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.

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Food technology

Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.

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Freedom of the City

The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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Functional Skills Qualification

Functional Skills are qualifications that have been developed by the UK Government as part of an initiative to improve England’s literacy, numeracy and ICT skills.

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Fundamentals of Engineering Examination

The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam, also referred to as the Engineer in Training (EIT) exam, and formerly in some states as the Engineering Intern (EI) exam, is the first of two examinations that engineers must pass in order to be licensed as a Professional Engineer in the United States.

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Further education

Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.

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German model

The term German model is most often used in economics to describe post-World War II West Germany's means of using (according to University College London Professor Wendy Carlin) innovative industrial relations, vocational training, and closer relationships between the financial and industrial sectors to cultivate economic prosperity.

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Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Guru–shishya tradition

The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara ("lineage"), denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism (Tibetan and Zen tradition).

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Gymnasium (Germany)

Gymnasium (German plural: Gymnasien), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule. Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States.

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Higher National Certificate

A Higher National Certificate (HNC) is a higher education/further education qualification in the United Kingdom.

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Higher National Diploma

A Higher National Diploma (HND) is a higher education qualification of the United Kingdom.

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Human resources

Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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An indenture is a legal contract that reflects or covers a debt or purchase obligation.

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Indentured servitude

An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.

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Independent Electrical Contractors

The Independent Electrical Contractors, Inc.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrial unionism

Industrial unionism is a labour union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union—regardless of skill or trade—thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Institute of technology

An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.

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International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers

The International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers is a union in the United States and Canada, which represents, trains and protects primarily construction workers, as well as shipbuilding and metal fabrication employees.

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International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) is a labor union that represents nearly 750,000 workers and retirees in the electrical industry in the United States, Canada, Panama, Guam, and several Caribbean island nations; particularly electricians, or inside wiremen, in the construction industry and linemen and other employees of public utilities.

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International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers

The International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers (BAC) is a labor union in the United States and Canada which represents bricklayers, restoration specialists, pointers/cleaners/caulkers, stonemasons, marble masons, cement masons, plasterers, tilesetters, terrazzo mechanics, and tile, marble and terrazzo finishers.

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International Union of Painters and Allied Trades

The International Union of Painters and Allied Trades (IUPAT) is a union representing about 100,000 painters, glaziers, wall coverers, flooring installers, convention and trade show decorators, glassworkers, sign and display workers, asbestos worker/hazmat technician and drywall finishers in the United States and Canada.

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An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organisation for a limited period of time.

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Interprovincial Standards

The Red Seal Interprovincial Standards Program, also known as Red Seal or simply IP, is a set of trade qualifications in Canada, jointly administered by the Federal, Provincial and Territorial governments.

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Jacques Chirac

Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.

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Jean-Louis Borloo

Jean-Louis Borloo (born 7 April 1951 in Paris) is a French politician and was the leader of the Union of Democrats and Independents, and French Minister for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Town and Country Planning (Regional Development) between 2007 and 2010.

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Job shadow

Job shadowing (or work shadowing) is a popular on-the-job learning, career development, and leadership development program.

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Johnny Cash

John R. Cash (born J. R. Cash; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author.

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A joiner is an artisan who builds things by joining pieces of wood, particularly lighter and more ornamental work than that done by a carpenter, including furniture and the "fittings" of a house, ship, etc.

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A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft.

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Journeyman years

The journeyman years (Wanderjahre) refer to the tradition of setting out on travel for several years after completing apprenticeship as a craftsman.

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Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

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Knowledge worker

Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).

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Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.

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Management consulting

Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of plans for improvement.

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Master craftsman

A master craftsman or master tradesman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild.

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A mechanic is a tradesman, craftsman, or technician who uses tools to build or repair machinery.

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Mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.

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Medical science liaison

A medical science liaison (MSL) is a healthcare consulting professional who is employed by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, and managed care companies.

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Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is a Ministry of Government of India set up on 9 November 2014 to coordinate all skill development efforts across the country.

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National Apprenticeship Act

The National Apprenticeship Act (also known as the Fitzgerald Act), is a federal law in the United States which regulates apprenticeship and on-the-job training programs.

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National Apprenticeship Service

The National Apprenticeship Service, part of the Skills Funding Agency, is a government agency that coordinates apprenticeships in England, enabling young people to enter the skilled trades.

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National Center on Education and the Economy

The National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) is a not-for-profit, policy analysis and development organization based in Washington, DC.

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National Electrical Contractors Association

The National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) is a trade association in the United States that represents the $130 billion/year electrical contracting industry.

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National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933

The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) was a US labor law and consumer law passed by the US Congress to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would stimulate economic recovery.

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National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee

The National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (NJATC) is the former name for the Electrical Training Alliance, a nonprofit organization created in 1941 by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) and the National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA).

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National Vocational Qualification

National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) were work based awards in England, Wales and Northern Ireland that are achieved through assessment and training.

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No Child Left Behind Act

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students.

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Nonuniversal theory

Nonuniversal theory is a theory of cognitive development first created by David Henry Feldman, a professor at the Eliot-Pearson School of Child Development at Tufts University.

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A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.

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An optician, or dispensing optician, is a technical practitioner who designs, fits and dispenses corrective lenses for the correction of a person's vision.

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Ordinary National Certificate

An Ordinary National Certificate (ONC) is a further education qualification in the United Kingdom, awarded by BTEC.

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A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Physician assistant

A physician assistant (US/Canada) or physician associate (UK) is a healthcare professional who practices medicine as a part of a healthcare team with collaborating physicians and other providers.

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Postdoctoral researcher

A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).

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Postgraduate education

Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

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Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination

The Principles and Practice of Engineering exam is the examination required for one to become a Professional Engineer (PE) in the United States.

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Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process.

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Production planning

Production planning is the planning of production and manufacturing modules in a company or industry.

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A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.

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Professional certification

Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply certification or qualification, is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task.

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Professional development

Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning opportunities situated in practice.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Quality assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled".

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Quality control

Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.

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Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.

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Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

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Regulation and licensure in engineering

Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to practice engineering and/or provide engineering professional services to the public.

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Regulatory affairs

Regulatory affairs (RA), also called government affairs, is a profession within regulated industries, such as pharmaceuticals, medical devices, agrochemicals (plant protection products and fertilizers), energy, banking, telecom etc.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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School-to-work transition

School-to-work transition is a phrase referring to on-the-job training, apprenticeships, cooperative education agreements or other programs designed to prepare students to enter the job market.

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Sector Skills Councils

Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) are employer-led organisations that cover specific industries in the United Kingdom.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Sheet Metal Workers' International Association

The Sheet Metal Workers' International Association was a trade union of skilled metal workers who perform architectural sheet metal work, fabricate and install heating and air conditioning work, shipbuilding, appliance construction, heater and boiler construction, precision and specialty parts manufacture, and a variety of other jobs involving sheet metal.

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Skilled worker

A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training, knowledge, and (usually acquired) ability in their work.

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Skills Funding Agency

The Skills Funding Agency was one of two successor organisations that emerged from the closure in 2010 of the Learning and Skills Council (England's largest non-departmental public body or quango).

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Smith–Hughes Act

The Smith–Hughes National Vocational Education Act of 1917 was an act of the United States Congress that promoted vocational education in "agriculture, trades and industry, and homemaking", and provided federal funds for this purpose.

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A solicitor is a legal practitioner who traditionally deals with most of the legal matters in some jurisdictions.

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Standards-based education reform in the United States

Education reform in the United States since the 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do.

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Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous form paper, and other office supplies.

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Statute of Artificers 1563

The Statute of Artificers 1563 (5 Eliz. 1 c. 4) was an Act of Parliament of England, under Queen Elizabeth I, which sought to fix prices, impose maximum wages, restrict workers' freedom of movement and regulate training.

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Stuff (cloth)

In the context of materials, stuff can refer to any manufactured material.

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A Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, overseer, cell coach, manager, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace.

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A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.

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Tata Chemicals Europe

Tata Chemicals Europe (formerly Brunner Mond (UK) Limited) is a UK-based chemicals company that is a subsidiary of Tata Chemicals Limited, itself a part of the India-based Tata Group.

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Terms of trade

The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Tracking (education)

Tracking is separating pupils by academic ability into groups for all subjects or certain classes and curriculum within a school.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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A tradesman, tradesperson, tradie or skilled tradesman refers to a worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education, but often not a bachelor's degree.

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Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Vocational education

Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.

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Vocational school

A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.

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Voluntary sector

The voluntary sector or community sector (also non-profit sector or not-for-profit sector) is the duty of social activity undertaken by organizations that are not-for-profit and non-governmental.

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White-collar worker

In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.

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Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods.

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2005 French riots

The 2005 French riots was a three-week period of riots in the suburbs of Paris and other French cities, in October and November 2005, that involved the burning of cars and public buildings at night.

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2006 youth protests in France

The 2006 youth protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprenticeship

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