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Approximation error

The approximation error in some data is the discrepancy between an exact value and some approximation to it. [1]

Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

Accepted and experimental value

In science, and most specifically chemistry, the accepted value denotes a value of a substance accepted by almost all scientists and the experimental value denotes the value of a substance's properties found in a localized lab.

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

Data

Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

Errors and residuals

In statistics and optimization, errors and residuals are two closely related and easily confused measures of the deviation of an observed value of an element of a statistical sample from its "theoretical value".

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

Experimental uncertainty analysis

Experimental uncertainty analysis is a technique that analyses a derived quantity, based on the uncertainties in the experimentally measured quantities that are used in some form of mathematical relationship ("model") to calculate that derived quantity.

Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

Machine epsilon

Machine epsilon gives an upper bound on the relative error due to rounding in floating point arithmetic.

Magnitude (mathematics)

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

Measurement uncertainty

In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.

Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

Numerical stability

In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, numerical stability is a generally desirable property of numerical algorithms.

Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

Propagation of uncertainty

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them.

Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

Relative change and difference

In any quantitative science, the terms relative change and relative difference are used to compare two quantities while taking into account the "sizes" of the things being compared.

Round-off error

A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

Uncertainty

Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

References

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