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Index Aquarium

An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed. [1]

214 relations: Acid, Acrylate polymer, Activated carbon, Aeration, Airstone, Algae scrubber, Alkali, Amazon River, Ammonia, Ammonium, Amphibian, Anabantoidei, Anna Thynne, Approximation, Aquarium fish clubs, Aquascaping, Aquatic animal, Aquatic plant, Artificial seawater, Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Bacteria, Barb (fish), Barbel (fish), Beluga whale, Bicycle pump, Biofilter, Biomass, Biotope, Birdcage, Bog-wood, Brackish water, Brackish-water aquarium, Buried treasure, Chemical oxygen demand, Chemical Society, Chloramine, Chlorine, Cichlid, Clam, Coldwater fish, Colony (biology), Community aquarium, Computer, Computer program, Concrete, Coral, Coral reef, Cuboid, Dechlorinator, Decomposition, ..., Detritus, Disease, Dolphinarium, Dorling Kindersley, Download, Ecosystem, Edward Edwards (zoologist), Electric eel, Electricity, Ernest Ingersoll, Estuary, Félix Dujardin, Feces, Fiberglass, Filter (aquarium), Filtration, Fish, Fishkeeping, Fishless cycling, Foam, Fresh water, Freshwater aquarium, Fungus, Georgia Aquarium, Glass, Goldfish, Gravel, Great Barrier Reef, Gyroscope, Hard water, Heater (aquarium), Herbert R. Axelrod, Hexagonal prism, Hongwu Emperor, Interior design, Invertebrate, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, Jellyfish, Kelp forest, Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika, Laminated glass, Latin, Leonhard Baldner, Limiting factor, Liquid crystal thermometer, List of aquarium diseases, List of aquarium fish by scientific name, List of brackish aquarium fish species, List of brackish aquarium plant species, List of freshwater aquarium amphibian species, List of freshwater aquarium fish species, List of freshwater aquarium invertebrate species, List of freshwater aquarium plant species, List of marine aquarium fish species, List of marine aquarium invertebrate species, List of marine aquarium plant species, Living Art Marine Center, London Zoo, Macintosh, Macmillan Publishers, Macquarium, Mangrove, Marine aquarium, Marine mammal park, Marine park, Metabolism, Micro landschaft, Microorganism, Misgurnus, Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, New York City, Newt, Nitrate, Nitrification, Nitrite, Nitrobacter, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Nutrient cycle, Oceanarium, Otter, Oxygen, Oxygen saturation, Penguin, Personal computer, PH, Philip Henry Gosse, Phosphate, Pitch (resin), Plane (geometry), Plankton, Plant, Plastic, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polystyrene, Porcelain, Pressure, Public aquarium, Purified water, Real-time computer graphics, Red Sea, Reef aquarium, Rendering (computer graphics), Reverse osmosis, Rift lake, Rio Negro (Amazon), Robert Warington, Roman Empire, Rule of thumb, Salinity, Scientific journal, Scleractinia, Screensaver, Scuba diving, Sea turtle, Seahorse, Seawater, Seaweed, Shadow, Shark, Silicone, Slate, Snail, Solution, Stamp collecting, Starfish, Steel, Substrate (aquarium), Surface area, Systemic shock, Takashi Amano, Tannin, Tap water, Tar, Temperature, Tetra, The Great Exhibition, Thermometer, Thermostat, Tierpark Hagenbeck, Top, Total dissolved solids, Toxin, Trial and error, Tropical fish, Tropics, Turtle, UV degradation, Vallisneria, Victorian era, Vivarium, Wardian case, Waste, Water filter, Water supply network, Weight, William Alford Lloyd, Window, World War I, Zeolite, 3D computer graphics. Expand index (164 more) »


An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acrylate polymer

Acrylate polymers belong to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Aeration (also called aerification) is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.

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An airstone, also called an aquarium bubbler, is a piece of aquarium furniture, traditionally a piece of limewood or porous stone, whose purpose is to gradually diffuse air into the tank, eliminating the noise and large bubbles of conventional air filtration systems, and providing other benefits to the health of the fish.

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Algae scrubber

An algae scrubber is a water filtering device (not to be confused with a scrubber pad used to clean glass) which uses light to grow algae; in this process, undesirable chemicals are removed from the water.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Amazon River

The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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The Anabantoidei are a suborder of anabantiform ray-finned freshwater fish distinguished by their possession of a lung-like labyrinth organ, which enables them to breathe air.

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Anna Thynne

Anna Thynne (née Beresford 1806–1866) was a British marine zoologist.

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An approximation is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else.

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Aquarium fish clubs

Aquarium fish clubs or aquarium societies are social rather than academic associations for fishkeepers.

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Aquascaping is the craft of arranging aquatic plants, as well as rocks, stones, cavework, or driftwood, in an aesthetically pleasing manner within an aquarium—in effect, gardening under water.

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).

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Artificial seawater

Artificial seawater (abbreviated ASW) is a mixture of dissolved mineral salts (and sometimes vitamins) that simulates seawater.

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Association of Zoos and Aquariums

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), previously the American Zoo and Aquarium Association and originally the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums), is a nonprofit organization founded in 1924 dedicated to the advancement of North American zoos and public aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. The AZA is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barb (fish)

A barb is one of various ray-finned fish species in a non-phylogenetic group, with members in the family Cyprinidae, and especially the genera Barbus and Puntius, but many others also.

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Barbel (fish)

Barbels are group of small carp-like freshwater fish, almost all of the genus Barbus.

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Beluga whale

The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.

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Bicycle pump

A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement air pump specifically designed for inflating bicycle tires.

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Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using a bioreactor containing living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.

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A birdcage (or bird cage) is a cage designed to house birds as pets.

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Bog-wood, also known as abonos and morta, especially amongst pipe smokers, is a material from trees that have been buried in peat bogs and preserved from decay by the acidic and anaerobic bog conditions, sometimes for hundreds or even thousands of years.

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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Brackish-water aquarium

A brackish-water aquarium is an aquarium where the water is brackish (semi-salty).

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Buried treasure

A buried treasure is an important part of the popular beliefs surrounding pirates and Old West outlaws.

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Chemical oxygen demand

In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution.

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Chemical Society

The Chemical Society was formed in 1841 (then named the Chemical Society of London) by 77 scientists as a result of increased interest in scientific matters.

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Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Cichlids are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Coldwater fish

Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer colder water temperatures than average tropical fish, typically below.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Community aquarium

Community aquaria are tanks that are designed to contain more than one species of fish.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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In geometry, a cuboid is a convex polyhedron bounded by six quadrilateral faces, whose polyhedral graph is the same as that of a cube.

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A dechlorinator is a chemical additive that removes chlorine or chloramine from water.

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Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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A dolphinarium is an aquarium for dolphins.

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Dorling Kindersley

Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.

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In computer networks, to download (abbreviation DL) is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edward Edwards (zoologist)

Edward Edwards (23 November 1803 – 13 August 1879) was a marine zoologist, born in Wales.

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Electric eel

The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a South American electric fish, and the only species in its genus.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Ernest Ingersoll

Ernest Ingersoll (March 13, 1852 – November 13, 1946) was an American naturalist, writer and explorer.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Félix Dujardin

Félix Dujardin (5 April 1801 – 8 April 1860) was a French biologist born in Tours.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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Filter (aquarium)

Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria.

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Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fishkeeping is a popular hobby, practiced by aquarists, concerned with keeping fish in a home aquarium or garden pond.

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Fishless cycling

Fishless cycling is a form of "maturing" an aquarium.

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Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Freshwater aquarium

A freshwater aquarium is a receptacle that holds one or more freshwater aquatic organisms for decorative, pet-keeping, or research purposes.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Georgia Aquarium

The Georgia Aquarium is a public aquarium in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

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A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.

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Hard water

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").

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Heater (aquarium)

An aquarium heater is a device used in the fishkeeping hobby to warm the temperature of water in aquariums.

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Herbert R. Axelrod

Herbert Richard Axelrod (June 7, 1927 – May 15, 2017) was a tropical fish expert, a publisher of pet books, and an entrepreneur.

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Hexagonal prism

In geometry, the hexagonal prism is a prism with hexagonal base.

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Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.

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Interior design

Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Jeanne Villepreux-Power

Jeanne Villepreux-Power née Jeanne Villepreux (24 September 1794 – 25 January 1871) was a pioneering French marine biologist who in 1832 was the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Kelp forest

Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.

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Lake Malawi

Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania.

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Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.

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Laminated glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leonhard Baldner

Leonhard Baldner (1612 – 1 February 1694) was a Strasbourg fisherman and naturalist who wrote an illustrated book on the fishes, birds, and mammals in 1666 titled Vogel-, Fisch- und Thierbuch of which only five manuscript copies are now known to exist.

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Limiting factor

A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.

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Liquid crystal thermometer

A liquid crystal thermometer, temperature strip or plastic strip thermometer is a type of thermometer that contains heat-sensitive (thermochromic) liquid crystals in a plastic strip that change colour to indicate different temperatures.

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List of aquarium diseases

The following is a list of aquarium diseases.

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List of aquarium fish by scientific name

This page lists all fish commonly kept in aquariums and ponds.

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List of brackish aquarium fish species

This is a list of commonly seen fish that can be kept in a brackish water aquarium.

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List of brackish aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrates.

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List of freshwater aquarium amphibian species

There are a wide range of frogs, salamanders and newts that can be kept in an aquarium.

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List of freshwater aquarium fish species

A vast number of aquatic species have successfully adapted to live in the freshwater aquarium.

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List of freshwater aquarium invertebrate species

This is a list of invertebrates, animals without a backbone, that are commonly kept in freshwater aquaria by hobby aquarists.

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List of freshwater aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the freshwater aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, absorb ammonia, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrates.

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List of marine aquarium fish species

The following list of marine aquarium fish species commonly available in the aquarium trade is not a completely comprehensive list; certain rare specimens may available commercially yet not be listed here.

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List of marine aquarium invertebrate species

This is a list of various species of marine invertebrates, animals without a backbone, that are commonly found in aquariums kept by hobby aquarists.

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List of marine aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrates.

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Living Art Marine Center

The Living Art Marine Center is a Marine Science Education Center in the city and county of Honolulu in the state of Hawaii.

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London Zoo

London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo.

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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A Macquarium is an aquarium made to sit within the shell of an Apple Macintosh computer.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Marine aquarium

A marine aquarium is an aquarium that keeps marine plants and animals in a contained environment.

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Marine mammal park

A marine mammal park (also known as marine animal park and sometimes oceanarium) is a commercial theme park or aquarium where marine mammals such as dolphins, beluga whales and sea lions are kept within water tanks and displayed to the public in special shows.

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Marine park

A marine park is a park consisting of an area of sea (or lake) sometimes protected for recreational use, but more often set aside to preserve a specific habitat and ensure the ecosystem is sustained for the organisms that exist there.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Micro landschaft

A micro schaft, also microschaft, is an Anglicized loanword portmanteau of micro(scopic) (Greek mikrós, small) and landschaft (German for landscape), lit.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Misgurnus is a genus of loaches from Europe and Asia.

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Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward

Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward (1791 – 4 June 1868 in St Leonard's, Sussex) was an English doctor who popularised a case for growing and transporting plants which was called the Wardian case.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.

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Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.

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The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nitrobacter is a genus comprising rod-shaped, gram-negative, and chemoautotrophic bacteria.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.

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Nitrosomonas is a genus of Gram-negative rod-shaped chemoautotrophic bacteria.

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Nitrospira (from Latin: nitro, meaning "nitrate" and Greek: spira, meaning "spiral") translate into “a nitrate spiral” is a genus of bacteria within the monophyletic clade of Nitrospirae phylum.

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Nutrient cycle

A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.

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An oceanarium can be either a marine mammal park, such as MarineLand, or a large-scale aquarium, such as the Lisbon Oceanarium, presenting an ocean habitat with marine animals, especially large ocean dwellers such as sharks.

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Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen saturation

Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.

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Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Philip Henry Gosse

Philip Henry Gosse FRS (6 April 1810 – 23 August 1888), known to his friends as Henry, was an English naturalist and popularizer of natural science, virtually the inventor of the seawater aquarium, and a painstaking innovator in the study of marine biology.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Pitch (resin)

Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.

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Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Public aquarium

A public aquarium (plural: public aquaria or public aquariums) is the aquatic counterpart of a zoo, which houses living aquatic animal and plant specimens for public viewing.

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Purified water

Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.

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Real-time computer graphics

Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real time.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Reef aquarium

A reef aquarium or reef tank is a marine aquarium that prominently displays live corals and other marine invertebrates as well as fish that play a role in maintaining the tropical coral reef environment.

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Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.

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Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.

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Rift lake

A rift lake is a lake formed as a result of subsidence related to movement on faults within a rift zone, an area of extensional tectonics in the continental crust.

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Rio Negro (Amazon)

The Rio Negro (br; Río Negro "Black River") is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the largest blackwater river in the world (accounting for about 14% of the water in the Amazon basin), and one of the world's ten largest rivers by average discharge.

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Robert Warington

Robert Warington FRS (7 September 1807 – 17 November 1867) was an English chemist considered the driving force behind the creation of the world's first enduring chemistry society, The Chemical Society of London, which later became the Royal Society of Chemistry.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rule of thumb

The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Scientific journal

In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

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Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.

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A screensaver (or screen saver) is a computer program that blanks the screen or fills it with moving images or patterns when the computer is not in use.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.

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Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

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Stamp collecting

Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects.

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Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Substrate (aquarium)

The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom.

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Surface area

The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.

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Systemic shock

A systemic shock is a shock to any system that perturbs a system enough to drive it out of equilibrium.

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Takashi Amano

was a professional track cyclist, photographer, designer, and aquarist.

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Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

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Tap water

Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).

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Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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A tetra is one of several species of small freshwater fish from Africa, Central America, and South America belonging to the biological family Characidae and to its former subfamilies Alestidae (the "African tetras") and Lebiasinidae.

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The Great Exhibition

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

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Tierpark Hagenbeck

The Tierpark Hagenbeck is a zoo in Stellingen, a quarter in Hamburg, Germany.

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A spinning top is a toy designed to spin rapidly on the ground, the motion of which causes it to remain precisely balanced on its tip because of its rotational inertia.

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Total dissolved solids

Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Trial and error

Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.

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Tropical fish

Tropical fish are generally those fish found in aquatic tropical environments around the world, including both freshwater and saltwater species.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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UV degradation

Many natural and synthetic polymers are attacked by ultraviolet radiation, and products using these materials may crack or disintegrate if they are not UV-stable.

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Vallisneria (named in honor of Antonio Vallisneri) is a genus of freshwater aquatic plant, commonly called eelgrass, tape grass or vallis.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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A vivarium (Latin, literally for "place of life"; plural: vivaria or vivariums) is an area, usually enclosed, for keeping and raising animals or plants for observation or research.

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Wardian case

The Wardian case was an early type of sealed protective container for plants, an early version of the terrarium.

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Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

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Water filter

A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.

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Water supply network

A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.

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In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.

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William Alford Lloyd

William Alfred Lloyd (1826–1880) was an English self-taught zoologist who became the first professional aquarist.

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A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquarium

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